The method of producing tiles and ridge tiles

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention is applicable in the manufacture of shingles. The method of producing tile includes fractionation of sand from the selection of the fraction with a particle size up to 3 mm and heating it to 250-450oC for 15-30 min, the fractionation of waste polyolefins with sampling fractions with particle size up to 10 mm, mixing the introduction of sand waste polyolefins and auxiliary substances in the following content of components in a mixture, by weight. %: sand - 70-79,9; waste polyolefins - 20-30; office of substance 0,1-10,0, further forming at 130-200oC and a pressure of 20-60 kg/cm2and subsequent cooling for 3-18 h ridge Tiles made from a molding composition based on a mixture of sand waste polyolefins in the form of a hollow semicylinder with crests and hole for fastening to the crate, and with one hand half after this there are two holes perpendicular to the cylinder axis of the ridge, and on the other hand half - convex hollow semi-circle with the dimensions of the internal cavity, providing a touch crests of the inner walls of the ring when applying it on the combs. Achieves the improvement of physico-mechanical and operational characteristics of the skull is it to manufacture roofing materials, namely tiles.

Currently, shingles, mostly made from clay mass by pressing and subsequent annealing at 1000 - 1100oC. In the range are, as a rule, these kinds of tiles, as interlocking stamped, flat ribbon, tape slot and ridge (Shepelev A. M. How to build a farmhouse. - M., 1986, S. 57).

The disadvantages of clay tiles is the fragility and heavy weight (1 m2cover it weighs 50 to 60 kg).

Along with clay produce a cement-sand tiles obtained by pressing, obtained by mixing the components, the cement-sand mixture (cement content of 20 to 35 wt.%) with subsequent curing in praprotnik cameras.

Mainly produce such variants tiles as grooved and ridged.

Interlocking tiles are in the form of a flat plate having grooves (folds), in which when laying includes projections (ridges) of the neighboring tiles.

Ridge tiles, which is the prototype of one of the claimed invention, has the shape of a hollow semicylinder and is also provided with folds and ridges.

When high strength and durability of the tiles are typical, although to a lesser grade is a and shingles. - M.: stroiizdat, 1954, S. 32 - 140).

The prototype of the proposed method of producing tile is getting shingles from a mixture containing 20 to 30% crushed waste polyethylene, 70 - 80% quartz sand (grain size of up to 3.0 mm) and pigment by mixing the components at elevated temperature (U.S. Pat. RF N 2056286, class B 28 C 9/00, 1996).

The disadvantage of this method is the relative fragility of products, applicable to interlocking tile with a large surface of the clutch elements.

The task of the author was to create a more universal technology for tile that combines high performance with great durability and a lighter weight, and new types of tiles based on it.

This problem was solved by the creation of the production technology is more lightweight and durable tiles, which allowed to reduce the thickness of the tile and to improve the design provide both the slot and the ridge tiles, abandoning fastow that for new construction led because of the lesser thickness of the product to the drop in strength characteristics.

The proposed method for tile includes a pre-grinding and fractionarea ESCA up to 250 450oC introduction to it with vigorous stirring at 200 - 220oC for 15 - 30 minutes remaining components, the molding at 130 to 200oC and a pressure of 20 to 60 kg/cm2within 10 - 20 C, followed by cooling of the parts to cool down for 3 to 18 hours

In the application of the above mode, it is possible to achieve simultaneously the processes of degradation of polymers with simultaneous sorption products of their half-lives on the surface of the sand and processes of conglomerate individual particles of the molding material. The process is fixed at the time of extrusion products. Further, the cooling mode is selected in such a way as to exclude the mass of the formation of microcracks.

You can use fractions of components with a large particle size, however, this decreases the strength characteristics of the product. When heated sand less than 250oC is not removed from its mass of harmful volatile components and the maximum disclosure of its surface structure of sand, higher temperature uneconomic.

Carrying out mixing at lower temperatures does not allow for the necessary degree deonandan on the surface of the sand grains. The conditions of extrusion are very soft for the product. Carrying out molding in a more hard mode is possible, but requires more expensive equipment.

Get shingles has increased strength with relative ease. The tests have shown that depending on the composition of the molding material, the product is characterized by the following indicators:

Compressive strength, MPa - 25 - 30

Strength in bending, MPa - 20 - 25

Frost, F - 200

Abrasion g/cm2- 0,15 - 0,20

Water absorption, Wm- 0,2 - 0,5%

Water resistant, W - 6

Density, kg/m3- 1400 - 1800

More complete information about the properties of the tile shown in the specific examples of execution.

On the above technologies can be obtained tile traditional forms, various protective plate for facing the floor, walls, buildings and various structures, livestock complexes.

The unique properties of the material obtained has allowed us to develop new designs of tiles which has simple production technology and high reliability during operation.

General view of new varieties of tiles, in particular, h is s, in Fig. 2 is a rear view of the ridge tiles of Fig. 3 is a fragment of a tile roof, a top view showing the fixing of tiles on the roof.

Ridge tiles (Fig. 1 and 2) is in the form of a hollow semicylinder 1, the outer part which is provided on one side of the hole 2 for mounting and positioned perpendicular to the axis of the cylinder ridges 3 and 4, and on the other side convex semicircle 5, the diameter of the inner cavity of which is filled in a manner to place it crests 3 and 4 external parties related to the interior cavity surface of the ring.

When assembling the ridge tile fix nail through the hole 2. After that, the ridges 3 and 4 are placed semicircle 5 next tile so that the crests 2 and 3 of the previous hit in the cavity of the ring 5, resting on its inner wall. The side flange half to get in the grooves of the grooved tiles.

The advantages of the above construction are reliable fixation plates and increased protection of the roof from precipitation through the application of design paired ridges, forming a more secure lock on the joints and prevent the stagnation of water in fastah.

Updat the ski problem, associated with the disposal of plastic waste.

The practical applicability of the invention is illustrated by examples.

Example 1. 20 kg of a mixture of waste polyethylene and polypropylene were crushed to obtain the fraction of particles with a size up to 10 mm (70% of the fraction with a particle size up to 5 mm). At the same time separarely sand in order to obtain the fraction of particles up to 0.8 mm

75 kg of selected fractions of sand was heated to 400oC and was kept in the range of 350 - 450oC for 0.5 hours.

Then in the hot sand under intensive stirring for 15 - 20 minutes was introduced 20 kg of milled waste and 5 kg minium so that the temperature of the mixture during mixing was 200 - 220oC. the resulting mixture was placed in molds and subjected to pressing at a temperature of 130 - 150oC and a pressure of 50 kg/cm2for 20 to 30 seconds when the circulating cold water through the mold, after which the product was left to cool for 4 hours. The resulting molding tile testing meets the following parameters:

Compressive strength, MPa - 30

The tensile strength in bending, MPa - 25

Frost, F - 200

Abrasion, g/- 1650

Example 2. In the conditions of example 1 were obtained tile in the variation of the molding compound and process parameters. Received interlocking tiles were subjected to tensile tests and density. The results are given in the table.

Example 3. 20 kg of a mixture of waste polypropylene were crushed to obtain the fraction of particles with sizes up to 3 mm at the same time separarely sand in order to obtain the fraction of particles up to 3mm

70 kg of selected fractions of sand was heated to 450oC and kept in the temperature interval 400 - 450oC within 2 hours.

Then in the hot sand under intensive stirring for 20 - 25 minutes was introduced 20 kg of milled waste and 10 kg of carbon black, so that the temperature of the mixture during mixing was 200 - 220oC. the resulting mixture was placed in the forms to get the wall plates of the tile material and was subjected to pressing at 180 - 200oC and a pressure of 60 kg/cm2for 6 to 8 hours.

The obtained plate was a square with a side of 400 mm and a thickness of 15 mm

When testing the parameters of the slab meets the following criteria:

Compressive strength, MPa - 25

P Water absorption, Wma 1.5%

Water resistant, W - 2

Density, kg/m3- 1800

The above results indicate the possibility of obtaining tile products with a high physical-mechanical and operational characteristics. The production according to this invention arranged in LLP "NORD" , S.-Petersburg.

1. The method of producing tiles, including fractionation of sand from the selection of the fraction with a particle size up to 3 mm and heating it, mixing the introduction in the sand when heated waste polyolefins and auxiliary substances in the following content of components in the mixture, wt.%:

Sand - 70-79,9

Waste polyolefins - 20-30

Service matter - 0,10-10,0

molding, characterized in that before mixing the waste polyolefins fractionary with the selection of the fraction with a particle size up to 10 mm, the heat of the sand before mixing is carried out until 250-450oC for 15-30 min, the molding is carried out at 130-200oC and a pressure of 20-60 kg/cm2, followed by cooling for 3-18 h

2. Tile ridge, made of silicacontaining material in the form of a hollow semicylinder with ridges and a hole for attaching it to the crate, utlilizing with one hand after the holes for fastening the shingles to the sheathing of a roof equipped with two perpendicular to the axis of the cylinder crests, but on the other hand half - convex hollow semi-circle, the size of the internal cavity of which is chosen so that when applying it on the crests of the latter would cover the inner walls of the ring.

 

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