Reinforced block (options) and design for protection of coastal and hydraulic structures, beaches and coastlines of the seas, rivers, lakes, reservoirs and canals from damage hydrodynamic forces of waves and water currents and form for casting reinforced block

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to hydraulic construction and is designed to protect coastlines and structures from damage by waves and water currents. Reinforced block has a Central elongate member and two outer elongate element connected to the Central element on its opposite sides. Each elongated element of the unit is made with an octagonal cross-section, the area of which decreases from the middle part of the element toward its opposite ends. The longitudinal axis of the outer elongated elements parallel and are at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the Central element. In another embodiment, the constructive execution of a block to the longitudinal axis of the outer elongated elements are co-planar. Of the blocks built a protective structure. Form for casting reinforced unit consists of a hollow elongated elements arranged in accordance with the spatial configuration of the molded block. The execution of an oblong block elements with an octagonal cross-section in conjunction with the General spatial configuration of the unit provides zaklin the front during the construction of protective structures, which increases its reliability, stability and vologases ability. 4 c. and 29 C. p. F.-ly, 1 tab., 11 Il.

The present invention relates to equipped concrete block to protect coastal and hydraulic structures and shorelines. In particular, the invention concerns a module having the form mnogostoronnii design supports a small cross-section, designed for an arbitrary location with the aim of creating a sustainable design team, and in opposition to the influence of waves and water currents, without exceeding the ultimate strength of each module within the above team design.

In General, the modules are on the underlying layer of stone and held in place under the action of gravity and of the adhesion forces acting between adjacent modules.

Connected to the castle of reinforced concrete blocks or erosion control modules are well known in the past as evidenced by the U.S. patents issued by Kaneko etc. N 3614866 and Chevalier N 4347017.

The patent, issued by Kaneko and others, describes multisupport block containing at least three separate element in the form of pillars, collected in a single structure the UPOV connected to the tabs of the other blocks. If you have a large amount of blocks they can be joined to form a tight team design. The main shortcoming of Kaneko and others is that the individual items that comprise multisupport design (block), have a very small surface area of the connection elements. This leads to the formation of a large stress concentration at the area of connection. Due to the excessive stress concentration these units have a high probability of failure that may potentially lead to the complete destruction of the entire design team. Another shortcoming of the unit Kaneko and others is that the projections of the unit does not remain in contact with the protrusions of the other blocks in the already collected construction. This is because a separate block elements have a square cross-section, which reduces the area of frictional engagement elements connected blocks. Another disadvantage of the above-mentioned block occurs due to the linear arrangement of blocks in an assembled structure, when the destruction of even a relatively small number of blocks can cause catastrophic destruction of the entire protective sooruzheniya slight scattering of wave energy, what contributes little to reducing the energy of waves acting on the securable to the leeward side of the protective structure.

Patent Chevalier is the barrier block to protect coastal structures and coastlines. The unit contains the Central part of the cubic shape having upper and lower surfaces, comprising a support in the form of an anvil, and front and rear supports in the form of a quadrangular truncated pyramid. The main disadvantage of the characteristics of the hydraulic resistance unit Chevalier is that support in the form of an anvil does not have a cross-section decreasing from the middle to the end of the prop, resulting in only minimal mutual wedging blocks and decreases their stability by reducing mutual coupling. These blocks are held in place mainly by gravity blocks laid on top to ensure the individual stability of the underlying blocks. Therefore, to ensure the sustainability of these blocks should preferably be laid on steep slopes. However, it is well known that structures built on steep slopes tend to catastrophic destruction, and possess a high degree risked reinforced blocks, that provides only a minor decrease in wave energy in comparison with a number of reinforced blocks, having a cross section decreasing from the middle to the end of the block elements.

In addition, blocks Chevalier require precise styling for greater hydraulic resistance.

In practice, difficulties arise in the manufacture, storage and transportation of reinforced blocks. For example, some reinforced blocks have a configuration that is not easily cast or molded. Some reinforced blocks are not suitable for laying on each other for storage or transport barges and so they are inconvenient to store and transport. Some protective structures not designed to be repaired by additional installation or replacement of reinforced blocks.

Thus, there is a need to create durable modules with locking connection adapted to an arbitrary location from which to create a modular structure consisting of a solid individual modules, providing stability to the entire structure. This module should have support with decreasing cross-section to provide luogo, must be strong enough to prevent the destruction of any individual reinforced block. There is a need to create such a module, which could be used for repair of protective structures on existing slopes. Also there is a need to create a module, which would not be very expensive and would be convenient for storage and transportation at a reasonable cost.

Known reinforced block to protect coastal and hydraulic structures, beaches and coastlines of the seas, rivers, lakes, reservoirs and canals from damage hydrodynamic forces of waves and water currents (application France N 2449164, CL E 0213 3/14, publ. 1982), containing a Central elongated element having a longitudinal axis and with cross-section, the area of which decreases from the middle part of the element toward its opposite ends and connected to the Central elongated member on opposite sides of the first and second exterior elongated elements, each of which has a longitudinal axis and with cross-section, the area of which decreases from the middle part of the element toward its protivopolojnaia a large stress concentration at the area of connection. Due to the excessive stress concentration unit has a high probability of failure that may potentially lead to the complete destruction of the entire design team.

Also known construction to protect coastal and hydraulic structures shores and coastlines of the seas, rivers, lakes, reservoirs and canals from damage hydrodynamic forces of waves and water currents ("Nuclear technology abroad", 1973, N 11, M, Atomizdat, S. 21, Fig.4.5 Bobrowicz Century. N. , "Atlantic NPP") that contains at least one row of stacked from top to protect the surface of the reinforced blocks. However, in this construction is used to create a different type of blocks. Linearly stacked blocks form a series of very small voidness, providing only a small scattering of wave energy that contributes little to reducing the energy of waves acting on the securable to the leeward side of the protective structure. Blocks require precise styling to ensure a large hydraulic resistance. The degree of mutual bonding of the blocks is low.

Also known form for casting reinforced block to protect coastal and hydraulic structures, beaches and coastlines of the seas, d and N 2449164, class. E 02 B 3/14, publ. 1982), which contains a hollow Central elongated element having a longitudinal axis and with cross-section, the area of which decreases from the middle part of the element toward its opposite ends, and United with the hollow Central elongated member on opposite sides of the first and second hollow outer elongated elements, each of which has a longitudinal axis and with cross-section, the area of which decreases from the middle part of the element toward its opposite ends.

Use this form for casting reinforced unit described in the application France N 2449164 publ. 1982, having as noted above, low hydraulic resistance and low scattering of wave energy, a high level of internal stresses.

The basis of the invention is the creation of the reinforced block (its variants) and structures to protect coastal and hydraulic structures, beaches and coastlines of the seas, rivers, lakes, reservoirs and canals from damage hydrodynamic forces of waves and water currents and forms for casting reinforced block, allowing to overcome La, which has a unique configuration that provides a high level of mutual bonding of the blocks that provides stability regardless of the steepness of the slope on which erected a protective structure, greater hydraulic resistance and increased scattering of wave energy compared to systems of protective structures well known in the past, the level of internal stresses are minimized. The present invention is directed to the creation of the reinforced block or erosion module as a main component, designed to protect the shores of oceans, seas, rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and other structures made of reinforced blocks from destruction hydrodynamic forces of waves and water currents.

The problem is solved in that the reinforced block to protect coastal and hydraulic structures, beaches and coastlines of the seas, rivers, lakes, reservoirs and canals from damage hydrodynamic forces of waves and water currents, containing a Central elongated element having a longitudinal axis and with cross-section, the area of which decreases from the middle part of the element toward its opposite ends, and soy is dolgoletie elements, each of which has a longitudinal axis and with cross-section, the area of which decreases from the middle part of the element toward its opposite ends, according to the invention, the longitudinal axis of the first and second exterior elongated elements parallel and are at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the Central elongated element, and each of the said elongated elements are made with an octagonal cross-section.

It is possible that each of the elongated elements in the form is made in the form of two truncated pyramids, United by their bases in the middle part of the element.

It is also possible that the Central elongated element in the form is made in the form of two truncated pyramids, United by their bases in its middle part.

Preferably, the Central elongated member and the outer elongated elements were connected with the help of beveled surfaces.

Also preferably, elongated elements were made of the same length.

Preferably, elongated elements were cast from concrete.

It is also desirable that the valve was posted LASS="ptx2">

Also the problem is solved in that the reinforced block to protect coastal and hydraulic structures, beaches and coastlines of the seas, rivers, lakes, reservoirs and canals from damage hydrodynamic forces of waves and water currents, has a Central elongated element having a longitudinal axis and with cross-section, the area of which decreases from the middle part of the element toward its opposite ends and connected to the Central elongated member on opposite sides of the first and second exterior elongated elements, each of which has a longitudinal axis and with cross-section, the area of which decreases from the middle part of the element toward its opposite ends, according to the invention, the axes of the first and second exterior elongated elements are co-planar, and each of the said elongated elements are made with an octagonal cross-section.

Preferably, each of the elongated elements in the form would be made in the form of two truncated pyramids, United by their bases in the middle part of the element.

Also preferably, the area of th opposite ends.

It is desirable that uniform reduction in cross-sectional area of each elongated element from the middle part to its opposite ends would be linear.

It is also desirable that the oblong elements were made of the same shape.

It is possible that the fiber block according to the General form is made symmetric with respect to the perpendicular surfaces, at least one of which is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the oblong block element.

It is also possible that the outer elongated elements form a vertical projection of the H-shaped, X-shaped, or hyperboloid-shaped profile of the block.

It is advisable that the Central elongated member and the outer elongated elements would be connected with the help of beveled surfaces.

It is also advisable to oblong elements were made of the same length.

Preferably, the reinforced block would be performed with a ratio RDparameters depth:

RD= A/C

where A is the distance from the ends of the outer elongated element to the surface of the Central elongated element,

C - the length of the outer prodolgovataya RDwas in the range of about from 0.32 to 0.27.

Also preferably, the ratio RDwas in the range of about from 0.32 to 0.30.

One of the options when reinforced block is made with a ratio RSthe separation options:

RS= B / C

where B is the maximum distance between vnutriplitnyi surfaces of the outer elongated elements,

C - length of the outer elongated element,

RSis in the range of about from 0.45 to 0.55.

Preferably, the ratio RSwas in the range of about from 0.47 to 0.48.

Preferably, each outer elongated element had narrowing towards its opposite ends, characterized by the angle between the longitudinal axis of the element and its outer surface, while the angle is in the range of from about 10o20o.

It is also desirable that the angle was in the range of about from 12o20o.

Also the problem is solved in that in the construction to protect the coastal and hydraulic structures, beaches and coastlines of the seas, rivers, lakes, reservoirs and canals from the damage of the protected surface of the reinforced blocks, according to the invention, each reinforced unit consists of a Central elongated element having a longitudinal axis, and first and second exterior elongated elements connected to the Central elongated element on its opposite sides and having coplanar to the longitudinal axis, each elongate element of the unit is made with an octagonal cross-section, the area of which decreases from the middle part of the element toward its opposite ends.

Preferably, the protected surface was covered with an underlying layer of stone or blocks, which are stacked reinforced blocks.

Also preferably, the protected surface had clothes from the ground, above which there is an underlying layer of stone or blocks, which are stacked reinforced blocks.

Preferably reinforced blocks were laid randomly so that the minimum distance between the mating elongated elements of the blocks is in the range from about 120% to 140% of the largest diameter of the outer elongated block.

It is also desirable that the minimum distance between the mating elongated S="ptx2">

It is possible that reinforced blocks stacked in piles so that the minimum distance between the mating elongated elements blocks of approximately 100% of the largest diameter of the outer elongated element.

Also the problem is solved in that in the form for casting reinforced block to protect coastal and hydraulic structures, beaches and coastlines of the seas, rivers, lakes, reservoirs and canals from damage hydrodynamic forces of waves and water currents containing hollow Central elongated element having a longitudinal axis and with cross-section, the area of which decreases from the middle part of the element toward its opposite ends, and United with the hollow Central elongated member on opposite sides of the first and second hollow outer elongated elements, each of which has a longitudinal axis and with cross-section, the area of which decreases from the middle part of the element toward its opposite ends, according to the invention the longitudinal axis of the first and second hollow outer elongated elements are co-planar, each of the o what form is made separable by a plane passing through the longitudinal axis of the hollow outer elongated elements, which are located at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the hollow Central elongated member.

It is also possible that the form is completed split along a plane passing through the longitudinal axis of the hollow Central elongated element perpendicular to the plane passing through the longitudinal axis of the hollow outer elongated elements, which are located at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the hollow Central elongated member.

Other objectives and advantages of the present invention is obvious and the following description which is given with reference to the accompanying drawings, on which:

Fig. 1 is a perspective view of one embodiment of the reinforced block, according to the invention;

Fig. 2 is a top view of the reinforced block according to Fig. 1;

Fig. 3 is a front view of the reinforced block according to Fig. 1;

Fig. 4 is a perspective view of another embodiment of the reinforced block;

Fig. 5 is a top view of the reinforced block according to Fig. 4;

Fig. 6 is a view Spa is 7a and 7b are a side view, respectively, of the construction of the breakwater and construction service of the slope in the context;

Fig. 8 represents a graph identify damaged module in percent depending on the magnitude of the coefficient of resistance of various designs known in this technical field installed during two-dimensional tests on physical models, for comparison with corresponding data obtained for construction, according to the invention;

Fig. 9a and 9b are a side projection of fragments of the block with beveled and rounded surfaces of the connecting passages elements;

Fig. 9c represents the connecting transitions of block elements without beveled and curved surfaces;

Fig. 10 illustrates the density of packing reinforced blocks in a stack, according to the invention;

Fig. 11a and 11b are perspective image fragments form of a claw grip for casting reinforced blocks, according to the present invention.

Reinforced block to protect coastal and hydraulic structures, beaches and coastlines of the seas, rivers, lakes, reservoirs and canals from damage hydrodynamic forces of waves and water currents has a Central elongated element 1 having a longitudinal axis 2 and is made with the cross-section area gototraining elongated element 1 on its opposite sides, the first and second exterior elongated elements 3, 4. Each of the elements 3, 4 also has a longitudinal axis 5, and 6 respectively with cross-section, the area of which decreases from the middle part 7 of item 3 or 4 towards its opposite ends. The longitudinal axis 5, 6 of the first and second exterior elongated elements 3, 4 are parallel and are at right angles to the longitudinal axis 2 of the Central elongated element 1. Three elongated element 1, 3, 4 block are identical in shape and size and in the preferred embodiment of the invention have an octagonal cross-section. Each of the elongated elements 3, 4 form is made in the form of two truncated pyramids, United by their bases in the middle part 7 of item 3 or 4, respectively. The Central elongated element 1 in the form made in the form of two truncated pyramids, United by their bases in its middle part 7.

As shown in figure 3, each of the elongated elements 1, 3, 4 unit has a configuration in which the cross-sectional area decreases, starting from the middle part 7 in the direction of the opposite ends 8 and 9 of the elements 3, 4. Decreasing the cross-sectional area of the elements 1, 3, 4 has a generally uniform shape, as POU Foundation in the form of flat sections 10 and 11, having the form of a truncated cone and fixed at opposite ends of the element 3 or 4. Thus, the reinforced blocks have H-shaped when viewed from the side end of the Central element 1 (Fig. C) block. Specialists in the art it is known that reinforced blocks can have different coplanar to the Central axis 5 and 6. For example, in vertical projection of reinforced blocks can be X-shaped. The Central axis 5, 6 elements 3, 4 can also be represented by the curves obtained from the different conic sections, that is, to have a hyperbolic shape. The Central elongated element 1 and the outer elongated elements 3, 4 are connected through beveled surface 12 (Fig. 1), which reduce the voltage in the places of their concentration. As shown in Fig. 9a and Fig.9b, according to the invention, the beveled surface 12 (Fig. 9a) or rounded surface 13 (Fig. 9b) are located in places where the elements 3, 4 unit intersect at a large angle, in order to reduce stress concentration in these locations, which improves the structural integrity of the reinforced unit. For comparison, in the drawing of Fig. 9c shows a block without a beveled surface 12 (Fig. 9a) or the rounded connecting surface is the AI of the greatest stresses in reinforced blocks of various configurations. Blocks with beveled connecting surface 12 is less time-consuming to manufacture compared to blocks with rounded connecting surface 13, but the first gives a slightly lower voltage. The experiments showed that the beveled surface 12 of the compounds in this module provide a reduction of internal stresses by 20-40% compared to the unmodified module having intersect at a greater angle and rounded surface 13 compounds provide a reduction of internal stresses by 40-50% compared to non-modified surfaces of the joints.

In figures 4, 5 shows another variant embodiment of the invention in which the elongated elements 3, 4 have a more pronounced taper, the reduced cross-sectional area and an elongated surface compounds or increased distance between outer elements 3, 4 and the Central element 1. Elongated elements 3, 4 can be made of equal length. Elongated elements 3, 4 made of concrete. It is possible that the valve is placed within the elongated elements 3, 4. It is also possible that the valve consists of a metal rod.

As mentioned above in the reinforced block for halls from damage hydrodynamic forces of waves and water currents, containing a Central elongated element 1 having a longitudinal axis 2 and is made with a cross-section, the area of which decreases from the middle part of the element 1 in the direction of its opposite ends and connected to the Central elongated member 1 on its opposite sides, the first and second exterior elongated elements 3 and 4, each of which has a longitudinal axis 5, and 6 respectively with cross-section, the area of which decreases from the middle part of the 7 element 3, 4 toward its opposite ends it is possible that the longitudinal axis 5, 6 the first and second exterior elongated elements 3, 4 are co-planar. Each of these elongated elements 3, 4 is made with an octagonal cross-section. In this case, each of the elongated elements 3, 4 form is made in the form of two truncated pyramids, United by their bases in the middle part of the 7 element 3, 4. While the cross-sectional area of each elongated element 3, 4 decreases monotonously from the middle part 7 of item 3 or 4 to its opposite ends. A monotonous decrease in the cross-sectional area of each elongated element 3, 4 from the middle part of the 7 houses. Reinforced unit General form is made symmetric with respect to the perpendicular surfaces, at least one of which is parallel to the longitudinal axis 2 of the oblong element 1 block. In the General case, the outer elongated elements 3 and 4 is formed in the vertical projection of the H-shaped or X-shaped, or hyperboloid-shaped profile of the block.

In this case, when the longitudinal axis 5 and 6 elements 3 and 4 respectively coplanar Central elongated element 1 and the outer elongated elements 3 and 4 is also connected through beveled surfaces 12. This elongated elements 3 and 4 are of equal length. Any variant of implementation of the present invention is adapted for installation together with many of the same modules to form a modular design (series of concatenated reinforced modules or fences for the protection of navigational structures, shorelines and other structures from erosion under the influence of hydrodynamic forces. Ideally, the sustainability of such an assembled structure or boom is maintained even if the individual modules have been removed from the bottom under the influence of hydraulic effect. Octagonal elongated elements 1, 3 they 4 obese and beveled surface 12 of the compounds provides excellent resistance modules in modular design. Prefabricated constructions formed from reinforced blocks with elements 1, 3, 4 (Fig. 4, 5, 6) thinner cross-sections are more stable in comparison with composite structures formed from reinforced modules with elements 1, 3, 4 (Fig. 1, 2, 3) over the full cross-section, due to better bonding of the elongated elements 1, 3, 4 modules.

Modules with varying parameters of the elements 1, 3, 4 (degree of thinning or thickening of the elements 1, 3, 4) can be manufactured with such properties that represent a broader range of materials from stone of granulometric composition of the underlying layer and allow the implementation of optimization stresses in modules depending on the stability of the mentioned layer. Correlation of parameters can be defined using different ways to describe the geometric dimensions, for example, erosion module.

Reinforced block is made with a ratio RDparameters depth:

RD= A / C

where A is the distance from the end of the outer elongated element to the surface of the Central elongated element,

C - length of the outer elongated element.

RD- Eno from 0.32 to 0.27. However, most preferably, RDwould be in the range of about from 0.32 to 0.30.

In Fig. 3 presents the dimensions, references to which will be given below. The ratio of the depth parameters RDcan be defined as the ratio of the length A, measured from the end of the 8 element 3 to the surface 13 of the Central element 1, the length C of the element 3. Also reinforced the unit is made with a ratio RDthe separation options:

RS= B / C

where B is the maximum distance between vnutriplitnyi surfaces of the outer elongated elements 3 and 4;

C - length of the outer elongated element 3.

RSwith is in the range of about from 0.45 to 0.55. Preferably, the ratio RDwould be in the range of about from 0.47 to 0.48.

The ratio RSparameter space separating the ends of the elements 3 and 4 of the module is defined as the ratio of maximum distance B between the inner surfaces of the two ends of the 8 neighboring elements 3 and 4 to the length C of item 3, above. The parameters of these two equations can be adjusted in order to obtain the maximum effect of sticking and adhesion between the blocks without destroying n is th opposite ends, characterized by the angle between the longitudinal axis 5 or 6 of the corresponding element 3 or 4 and its outer surface, while the angle is in the range of from about 10o20o. Preferably, the angle was in the range of about from 12o20o. Below are two versions of the invention.

Example I Example II

= 12o- = 20o< / BR>
RS= 0,47 - RS= 20o< / BR>
RD= 0,47 - RD= 0,48

RD= 0,32 - RD= 0,27

Although the cross-sectional view of the elements 3, 4 blocks, according to the invention can be represented by different polygons and conical forms, we believe that the octagonal shape of the elements is the most effective. Round or conical cross-section has insufficient resistance to the swing. Cross-section elements 3, 4 number of angles less than eight, for example, square or hexagonal cross-section has ribs, which are quite high voltage, causing increased spalling of concrete on the outer surfaces of the element. Cross-section elements 3, 4 with the number of corners more than eight significantly more expensive to manufacture because of splitcast panels mold. The improved shape of the element 3, 4 block is also provided to give sufficient taper end parts of the element 3, 4, which allows the wedging and gripping the end portions of the elements 3, 4 for arbitrary placement and orientation of individual reinforced blocks in a single row of modular design. Full symmetry of the ends of the elements 3, 4 contributes to jamming when the connection is reinforced blocks at arbitrary location, which increases their stability.

Although the preferred material for fabrication of elements is concrete, the entire unit may be made of any suitable material or combination of materials, for example, from the composition, stone and/or metal. The above examples of the invention show that the modules have sufficient strength and do not require reinforcement design, although this amplification can be carried out if necessary. In Fig.6 shows the module of the elongated element 3, 4 which included internal reinforcing rods 14, which may be made of metal or fiberglass. In General, the reinforcing rods 14 are parallel to the axes 5 and 6 of the elongated elements 3, 4 of the block. According to the customer m is either shaped reinforcing rods or rods with subsequent voltage.

In Fig. 7a shows a cross section of the dam or breakwater 15, arranged on the seabed 16, exposed to waves and currents 17. The breakwater 15 includes section 18 of the embankment or cores, the upper surface of which is covered with a so-called underlying layer 19 made of stone or blocks, or both, and design 20 to protect coastal and hydraulic structures, beaches and coastlines of the seas, rivers, lakes, reservoirs and canals from damage hydrodynamic forces of waves and water currents that contains at least one row of stacked from top to protect the surface of the reinforced blocks 21. Each reinforced block 21 consists of a Central elongated element 1 having a longitudinal axis 2, and first and second outer elongated elements 3, 4, connected to the Central elongated member 1 on its opposite sides and having coplanar to the longitudinal axis 5, 6, each elongated element 1, 3, 4 block 21 is made with an octagonal cross-section, the area of which decreases from the middle part 7 of the element 1, 3, 4 toward its opposite ends.

Protected surface can have clothes from the ground, the top of which is placed posti shall be laid in a random way, what is the minimum distance between the mating elongated elements 3, 4 block 21 is in the range from about 120% to 140% of the largest diameter of the outer elongated element 3, and 4 of block 21. The minimum distance between the mating elongated elements 3 and 4 blocks 21 preferably is about 140% of the largest diameter of the outer elongated element 3, and 4 of block 21. It is possible that reinforced blocks 21 arranged in stacks so that the minimum distance between the mating elongated elements 3, 4 blocks 21 is approximately 100% of the largest diameter of the outer elongated element 3 or 4 blocks.

In the drawing of Fig. 7b shows a cross-section of service of the slope 22, earthen mounds, the underlying layer 23 and one row of 24 randomly reinforced blocks 21.

Random orientation of reinforced blocks 21 when used in areas where the sea state is characterized by a large wave height is important, as the accuracy required for reliable and uniform installation of reinforced blocks, unattainable deep low coastal waters and in shallow waters in areas with great excitement. From the point of the vision is primarily of randomly placed stones of irregular shape, which is almost always used for this purpose. In addition, more evenly stacked reinforced blocks 21 have only a negligible resistance to the forces caused by the pressure arising from increasing excessive steam pressure in the structure of the underlying layers 19 and the core of the embankment. The series is loaded reinforced blocks 21 with a more complete cross-section often provide only a small scattering of wave energy and therefore provide insufficient protection on the leeward side of the structure compared to the reinforced blocks 21 having a thinner cross-section. Evenly stacked blocks 21 are also rarely have the ability of self, whereas randomly placed blocks 21 have this ability, the description of which follows.

Single-row design of the 20 proposed according to the invention, more economical than the two-row system, created from the other blocks. The volume of concrete and the number of blocks required to create a single-row design, make up half of the volume of concrete and the number of blocks required to create a two-row system.

The combination of symmetry and sufficient taper elements 3,4 BL the th design of reinforced blocks 21, with maximum stability and energy dissipation of waves with minimal levels of stress. For example, tests of hydraulic resistance on a two-dimensional physical model showed that the proposed design is a significant improvement of the systems, known in this technical field.

Two series of tests known systems on two-dimensional physical models were carried out by other organizations in accordance with the usual practice adopted in the implementation of engineering and technical research in the coastal zone. The results of the above tests published in the Gazette AIPCNPIANC 1994, No. 82-2, 82-16. Comparative data show that reinforced blocks 21 proposed according to the invention remain stable and do not have any measurable damage by wave action, the height of which was twice the height of the waves, which caused the loss of stability of most reinforced blocks of different shapes.

KDis a dimensionless number that is used more often as a design criterion in the design wanyonyi structures. KDused in equation Hudson for the given design wave height, the specific weight of the material from which is made the block, the density of the above-mentioned material and slope design.

< / BR>
where W is the average weight of the reinforced block, the value of which is typically in the range from 2 to 40 tons,

- - the value of the specific density of the material from which is made the unit, approximately equal to 143 lbxper cubic ftxxconcrete (xlb = 0,4535 kg;xxft = 0.3048 m).

H is the calculated wave height, the value of which is in the range from 5 feet to 35 feet,

K - coefficient of resistance, that is an empirical parameter used in equation Hudson and usually equal to about 10 for most forms of reinforced blocks, known in this technical field,

S is the specific weight of the material of which is made of reinforced block 21, the value of which is approximately equal to 2.25 for concrete in sea water,

cos - tilt design, that is, the value cot equal to 2 for the ratio of 1V: 2H designs.

In Fig. 8 shows a comparative graph of the size of the data illustrating the relationship between the stability factor KDand the percentage of damage caused by a series of reinforced blocks on the site of modular design, to the ratio shown in the graph curves A, B, C, and D. As shown in the graph of Fig. 8, significant damage may occur when the stability factor is less than 80; some physical models permit the occurrence of significant damage at very low coefficient of resistance equal to 10.

For comparison tests conducted on the single-row plot of modular design, which was used reinforced blocks 21 according to the invention showed that the probability of damage is almost zero when the stability factor 400 (see curve E). Increased stability factor by factor 2 reduces the weight of the structure to the multiplier 2. Thus it becomes apparent that significant savings can be achieved by increasing the stability factor, as shown above.

Specialists in the art it is obvious that tests on two-dimensional (2D) models are widely recognized and preferred methods of characterization, the above-mentioned structures. Tests on three-dimensional models (3D) are more complex and their results give a lower coefficient of resistance, which leads to more accurate design features. However, tests on two-dimensional modelagency characteristics, the present invention is to form the module was able to withstand the laboratory tests with zero measurable damage when using a widely used methodology for conducting research on physical models, challenging waves, the height of which corresponds to the stability coefficients defined by equation Hudson, and equal to at least 70. The present invention was physically modeled by the equation Hudson to obtain stability coefficient equal to 400, in which there was no damage.

Testing the stability of the reinforced block 21 according to the invention on the physical modules also showed that the number of reinforced blocks has the ability of self-talk during small movements, which always occur when the sediment structures. Reinforced blocks 21 are set in motion and pressed to each other during precipitation structures, resulting in maximum grip and jamming under the influence of aspiration blocks 21 to reduce the distance between their centers of gravity of cross-sections. This phenomenon occurs even with large movements of individual reinforced block is 21 will hold the remaining blocks 21 at the time of rearrangement and self-blocks design. Reinforced blocks 21 having a different shape, and uniformly laid on the slope, as a rule, do not possess the property of self. This is because the stability of the uniformly stacked blocks 2 increases the maximum force of friction between the blocks is compared with the clutch all the elements of the blocks. Therefore, if one unit 21 is shifted, it causes a large decrease in the friction force between the blocks 21, which holds the remaining blocks 21 in place.

The table contains various two-dimensional design criteria that can be used to assess the sustainability and efficiency of reinforced blocks according to the invention and to compare them with the blocks 21, known in this technical field.

For comparison reinforced blocks 21 on economic indicators using data from the table obtained from the design wave height H=28 feet and specific density = 143 pounds per cubic foot. In a table row "Economy: the calculation of the volume presents the ratio of the volume V1reinforced blocks according to the invention to the volume V0other reinforced blocks for a given ratio of the slope, which is:

Economy = V0/V1the coefficient of the slope.

Reinforced blocks Dolos have a significant disadvantage in the high probability of failure due to subtle cross-section of the Central part of the block elements. Reinforced unit according to the invention is not refined in the cross section of the Central part of the block elements and therefore the probability of failure is zero. Form reinforced block 2 according to the invention allows using them for repair structures made of reinforced blocks "Golos", as the blocks according to the invention have an octagonal elements with a similar taper and a similar ratio of the width and depth of the space between the ends of the side elements of the block (see Fig. 3, A: B). The actual dimensions of the width and depth of the space between the side panels blocks obhut be used interspersed with blocks "Dolos or for repair of whole sections, collected from blocks "Golos". Repair areas of the blocks "Dolos" with the help of the proposed modules according to the invention requires a smaller number of blocks than would be required for replacement units only plot the blocks of another type. Moreover, the hybrid site, including units "Dolos and reinforced blocks according to the invention provide increased stability of the whole structure of the blocks "Golos".

Single reinforced units 21 according to the invention is convenient for stacking, which significantly reduces the area required for landfill for the manufacture of precast concrete blocks and square on vehicles for the transport blocks. One of the schemes stacking blocks shown in the drawing Fig. 10. Stacking is of great importance to ensure economic efficiency in the transport of reinforced blocks 21 on barges over long distances or in areas with insufficient resources of local building materials.

Due to its unique configuration, reinforced blocks 21 according to the invention can successfully be stored at the landfill. For example, the blocks 21 can be tightly Packed or stacked in a multilayer structure, as shown in the drawing Fig.10. Obtulerunt largest distance between the centers of gravity of the block 21 is minimum when using reinforced block 21 according to the invention and, typically, this distance is approximately equal to 100% of the largest diameter of the outer element 3,4 stacked blocks 21, and is approximately equal to 120-140% for randomly placed blocks 21. These values are lower than the corresponding values of the blocks of the structures known in this technical field.

There is a form 25 for casting reinforced block to protect coastal and hydraulic structures, beaches and coastlines of the seas, rivers, lakes, reservoirs and canals from damage hydrodynamic forces of waves and water currents containing hollow Central elongated element 26 having a longitudinal axis and with cross-section, the area of which decreases from the middle part of the element 26 toward its opposite ends, and United with the hollow Central elongated element 25 on opposite sides of the first and second hollow outer elongated elements 27, 28, each of which has a longitudinal axis and with cross-section, the area of which decreases from the middle part of the element 27, 28 toward its opposite ends. Thus the longitudinal axis of the first and second hollow outer elongated elements 27, 28 are co-planar, Priam. The form is made separable by a plane passing through the longitudinal axis of the hollow outer elongated elements 27, 28, which are located at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the hollow Central elongated element 26.

The form can be made separable by a plane passing through the longitudinal axis of the hollow Central elongated element 26 is perpendicular to the plane passing through the longitudinal axis of the hollow outer elongated elements 27,28, which are located at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the hollow Central elongated element 26.

In Fig. 11a presents a promising image fragments chetyrehmagnitnoy form 25 in the form of a claw grip for casting reinforced unit 21 according to the invention. Form 25 contains four symmetric quadrants 29, 30, 31 and 32, collected in the form of pivotally connected elongated semi-molds 33 and 34 and detachable center section 35, the corresponding Central elongated element 1 (Fig. 1) block. Transverse bracing 36 attached adjacent the mold halves 33 and 34. Bearing support 37 of the Central elongated section 35. The hinges 38 and 39 hold the quadrants 29, 30 and 31, 32 respectively, in zamknutoe, and top and bottom end of the transverse element of the block is open for the reception of concrete. Specialists in the art should be obvious that the form 25 is installed on the earth's surface and contains concrete. The hole 41 is used to release involved with concrete air and excess water. In accordance with another variant of the invention, the form for casting the blocks shown in the drawing Fig. 11a may be made of two semi-molds 42 and 43 are fastened together. The lower proforma 43 is supported by struts 44.

Form 25 for casting blocks can be made of any material, although usually this is done using metal, wood, fiberglass or plastic. Form 25 large size can usually be welded from sheet steel. Manufacturing forms 25 must be profitable in order to achieve minimal material consumption and maximum stiffness, persisting even after repeated use.

Although preferred embodiments of the present invention have been described in detail with reference to the drawings, specialists in the art it should be clear from the above description that the invention may be changes and additions without derogating from su is rehniceskij structures, shores and coastlines of the seas, rivers, lakes, reservoirs and canals from damage hydrodynamic forces of waves and water currents, containing a Central elongated element having a longitudinal axis and with cross-section, the area of which decreases from the middle part of the element toward its opposite ends and connected to the Central elongated member on opposite sides of the first and second exterior elongated elements, each of which has a longitudinal axis and with cross-section, the area of which decreases from the middle part of the element toward its opposite ends, characterized in that that the longitudinal axis of the first and second exterior elongated elements parallel and are at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the Central elongated element, and each of the said elongated elements are made with an octagonal cross-section.

2. Reinforced block under item 1, characterized in that each of the elongated elements in the form is made in the form of two truncated pyramids, United by their bases in the middle part of the element.

3. Reinforced block under item 1, wherein the grounds in its middle part.

4. Reinforced block under item 1, characterized in that the Central elongated member and the outer elongated elements are connected through beveled surfaces.

5. Reinforced block under item 4, wherein the elongated elements are made of the same length.

6. Reinforced block under item 5, characterized in that the elongated elements made of concrete.

7. Reinforced block under item 1, characterized in that the reinforcement is placed within the elongated elements.

8. Reinforced block under item 7, characterized in that the valve consists of a metal rod.

9. Reinforced block to protect coastal and hydraulic structures, beaches and coastlines of the seas, rivers, lakes, reservoirs and canals from damage hydrodynamic forces of waves and water currents, containing a Central elongated element having a longitudinal axis and with cross-section, the area of which decreases from the middle part of the element toward its opposite ends and connected to the Central elongated member on opposite sides of the first and second exterior elongated elements, each of which has a longitudinal to its opposite ends, characterized in that the longitudinal axis of the first and second exterior elongated elements are co-planar, and each of the said elongated elements are made with an octagonal cross-section.

10. Reinforced block under item 9, wherein each of the elongated elements in the form is made in the form of two truncated pyramids, the United bases in the middle part of the element.

11. Reinforced block under item 9, characterized in that the cross-sectional area of each elongated element decreases monotonously from the middle part of the element to its opposite ends.

12. Reinforced block on p. 11, characterized in that monotonous decreasing cross-sectional area of each elongated element from the middle part to its opposite ends is linear.

13. Reinforced block under item 9, wherein the elongated elements are made of the same shape.

14. Reinforced block under item 9, characterized in that it is the General form is made symmetric with respect to the perpendicular surfaces, at least one of which is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the oblong block element.

15. Reinforced Bliley act X-shaped, or hyperboloid-shaped profile of the block.

16. Reinforced block under item 9, characterized in that the Central elongated member and the outer elongated elements are connected through beveled surfaces.

17. Reinforced block under item 16, wherein the elongated elements are made of the same length.

18. Reinforced block under item 9, characterized in that it is made with a ratio RDparameters depth:

RD= A/C

where a is the distance from the end of the outer elongated element to the surface of the Central elongated element;

With the length of the outer elongated element,

which is in the range of from about 0.35 to 0.25 in.

19. Reinforced block under item 18, characterized in that the ratio RDpreferably is in the range of about from 0.32 to 0.27.

20. Reinforced block under item 18, characterized in that the ratio RDmost preferably is in the range of about from 0.32 to 0.30.

21. Reinforced block under item 9, characterized in that it is made with a ratio RSthe separation options

RS= B/C

where is the greatest distance between vnutriplitnyi of poverhnostya in the range of about from 0.45 to 0.55.

22. Reinforced block on p. 21, characterized in that the ratio RSpreferably is in the range of about from 0.47 to 0.48.

23. Reinforced block under item 9, characterized in that each outer elongated element has a tapering at its opposite ends, characterized by the angle between the longitudinal axis of the element and its outer surface, while the angle is in the range of from about 10 to 20o.

24. Reinforced block p. 23, characterized in that the angle is preferably in the range of from about 12 to 20o.

25. Design for protection of coastal and hydraulic structures, beaches and coastlines of the seas, rivers, lakes, reservoirs and canals from damage hydrodynamic forces of waves and water currents that contains at least one row of stacked from top to protect the surface of the reinforced blocks, wherein each reinforced unit consists of a Central elongated element having a longitudinal axis, and first and second exterior elongated elements connected to the Central elongated element on its opposite sides and having coplanar longitudinal axis which is taken from the middle part of the element toward its opposite ends.

26. Design by p. 25, characterized in that protected the underlying surface is covered with a layer of stone or block on which the stacked reinforced blocks.

27. Design by p. 25, wherein the protected surface has clothes from the ground, above which there is an underlying layer of stone or blocks, which are stacked reinforced blocks.

28. Design by p. 25, characterized in that the reinforced blocks stacked in an arbitrary manner so that the minimum distance between the mating elongated elements of the blocks is in the range of about 120 to 140% of the largest diameter of the outer elongated element.

29. Design by p. 28, characterized in that the minimum distance between the mating elongated elements of the blocks is preferably about 140% of the largest diameter of the outer elongated element.

30. Design by p. 25, characterized in that the reinforced blocks stacked in piles so that the minimum distance between the mating elongated elements blocks of approximately 100% of the largest diameter of the outer elongated element.

31. Form for casting Amirov is vodohranilishe and channels from damage hydrodynamic forces of waves and water currents, containing hollow Central elongated element having a longitudinal axis and with cross-section, the area of which decreases from the middle part of the element toward its opposite ends, and United with the hollow Central elongated member on opposite sides of the first and second hollow outer elongated elements, each of which has a longitudinal axis and with cross-section, the area of which decreases from the middle part of the element toward its opposite ends, wherein the longitudinal axis of the first and second hollow outer elongated elements are co-planar, moreover, each of the said hollow elongated elements are made with an octagonal cross-section.

32. Form on p. 31, characterized in that it is made separable by a plane passing through the longitudinal axis of the hollow outer elongated elements, which are located at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the hollow Central elongated member.

33. Form on p. 31, characterized in that it is made separable by a plane passing through the longitudinal axis of the hollow centralnyj elongated elements, which are located at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the hollow Central elongated member.

 

Same patents:

The invention relates to hydraulic construction and is designed to protect the banks of water bodies from the effects of waves

The invention relates to hydraulic construction and can be used in hydropower plants

The invention relates to industrial and civil construction and can be used in the construction of roads, airfields, foundations for various structures, as well as in the construction of any structures on soft soils

Block // 2105839

Block // 2059033

The invention relates to the construction, namely the construction of roads, airfields, foundations for various structures power transmission line supports, and other structures, working directly with the ground, mostly weak

The invention relates to hydraulic construction and can be used to protect reservoirs, rivers, lakes and seas, slopes of canals and dams from damaging effects of waves and currents, in particular for the construction of embankment piers and breakwaters, as well as elements of sketches with overlapping riverbeds and on seitokai

The invention relates to hydraulic construction and can be used in the manufacture of blasting dredging and formation of slopes

The invention relates to hydraulic construction and can be used for hydraulic structures, moored vessels or other floating objects as a protective device against extreme impacts of solid ice fields

Hydraulic structure // 2094565
The invention relates to protective structures economic interest in the coastal zone and can be used to reduce the impact of waves during storms on the coastline

The invention relates to hydraulic construction, in particular to the spurs, and is designed to protect the banks of water bodies from erosion

The invention relates to hydraulic structures and can be used to protect economic objects from natural disasters such as Typhoon, floods, tsunami

The invention relates to a device for protecting the bottom of the reservoir from erosion and method of installation

FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly to consolidate slopes or inclinations to be eroded by ground waters.

SUBSTANCE: method for slope protection against landslide by diverting ground water with the use of drainage mine tunnel, through filters and upward dewatering wells involves excavating mine tunnel beginning from lower point of original ground under water-bearing horizons with tunnel elevation for water gravity flow, wherein mine tunnel extends parallel to direction of water flow from water-bearing horizons; excavating mine tunnel in different directions perpendicular to above flow direction; performing drilling vertical venting wells at tunnel ends beginning from original ground; drilling upward dewatering wells in water-bearing horizons; drilling vertical wells from original ground used as through filters crossing all water-bearing horizons; connecting thereof with cross-headings excavated from mine tunnel; installing valves at through filter ends; providing filtering members at place of intersection between upward dewatering wells and vertical wells with water-bearing horizons; forming water removal channel in mine tunnel and connecting thereof with original ground; drilling hydraulic observing wells beginning from original ground along line of through filters to control water level in water-bearing horizons.

EFFECT: increased reliability; possibility of diverting 85-90% of water contained in water-bearing horizons.

3 dwg

FIELD: agriculture, in particular, gully erosion preventing equipment, which may be used as hydraulic structure for suppressing energy of falling water.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus has overhanging overfall formed as converging chute with branch pipe formed as crank and fixed at rear converged end of chute. Round opening of branch pipe is directed downward. Energy suppressor positioned under round opening in water splitting pit is formed as floating sphere connected with anchor post fixed in water splitting pit bottom by means of rope and adapted for self-centering under the action of stream flow. Guiding posts-tree cuttings are planted around sphere at distance making 0.5 of its diameter. Diameter of sphere exceeds that of outlet opening of branch pipe by more than three times. Sphere and overhanging overfall are of black color. Sphere may have conical lower part.

EFFECT: increased efficiency in controlling of gully erosion and wider operating capabilities.

5 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: hydraulic strictures, particularly river and marine engineering structures adapted to control floods.

SUBSTANCE: structure comprises continuous row of protective barriers pivotally connected by the first end to plates arranged along upper base of protective dam or bank slope to provide rotation and fixing thereof in working position, underwater mechanisms arranged along protective barriers and cooperating with them. Underwater mechanisms are spaced apart and transmitting translational movement of pistons with rods into protective barrier rotation. Underwater mechanisms are formed as cylinders and pistons with rods installed in each cylinder. Each piston rod is provided with sealing members and has through longitudinal orifice formed along vertical axis of piston and rod thereof. Cylinders are communicated with water area through drainage pipes adapted for water runoff and provided with check valve for water entry from water area. Outlet orifice of each drainage pipe is located above average water level of water area, inlet drainage pipe orifice for water inlet is located 100-150 mm above upper base of protective dam or bank slope. Piston rods are connected to protective barriers through rotary cables which pass over pulleys supported by brackets or through rotary pull bars. The structure has spaced apart supports installed transversely to protective barrier row and secured to plates. The supports have edge inclined towards offshore water area surface.

EFFECT: increased reliability of flood protection and improved hydraulic structure reliability, enhanced automaticity of the structure.

10 dwg

FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly flood control engineering structures.

SUBSTANCE: structure comprises body and sliding barrier walls displaceable in vertical direction and installed in the body. The barrier walls are connected to drive rods freely arranged on rotary pulleys and linked with guiding fixers. Guiding fixers are rigidly connected to sliding barrier walls. Supply and drainage tubes are built in the body. The body is installed along waterside or in flood-hazardous territory and is secured to developed and reinforced surface thereof or is embedded in upper part of bank slope or in flood control dam. The body includes box. Installed in box are protective barrier walls, which are arranged closely one to another in two continuous rows. The barrier walls have profiled side ends. Structure also has pool in which water tanks are arranged. Water tanks may be displaced in vertical direction by drive rods and have orifices in lids and bottoms thereof. Drainage tubes are provided with one-way check valve. Forks are connected to the first sides of barrier walls and may be secured so that the forks are displaced together with them in vertical direction. Cover plates secured along upper ends of protective barrier walls are used to cover the box from top thereof when barrier walls are arranged inside the box. Upper box walls have slots with T-shaped cross-sections in which sliders are arranged. The sliders are connected to forks through straps. The grooves mate in configuration with straps and cover plates.

EFFECT: increased reliability and automaticity.

2 cl, 1 dwg

Up!