Thermoplastic construction elements, the method of their manufacture and the structure of them
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the field of construction for the building. Elongate construction element, made by extrusion from a thermoplastic having passing along it and separated from each other a certain amount of funds mutual engagement to communicate with the paired element of thermoplastic and at least one longitudinal bulkhead that supports the connecting means at the specified position and having slotted holes in it, placed in the inner position in relation to the means of mutual engagement along them. In General, the element is made by extrusion with a core of reinforced thermoplastic and is equipped with a smooth coat, applied in the process of co-extrusion and covering the open surface in the form of a profile with a rectangular planar walls separated from each other by a certain gap and held in this position by means of spaced bridges, passing along it and is provided with at least one of the longitudinal edges separated from each other by a certain interval by means of mutual engagement in the form of inward means ot the ore one jumper has a number of round holes, cut along its length, the perimeters of which are in the interval between the specified directed inward by means of mutual engagement. The invention will reduce the heat transfer between the outer and inner surfaces of the walls. 2 c. and 20 C.p. f-crystals, 16 ill. The invention relates to reducing the cost of new thermoplastic building systems, building elements and buildings, erected from them without compromising their integrity, disclosed together in my pending application, Canada N 2070079, registered on may 29, 1992, without impacting adversely on their integrity.System construction disclosed in this application, includes new thermoplastic construction elements, which can be produced in mass quantities at low cost and quickly and conveniently introduced into engagement with each other during the construction of various structures which do not require significant maintenance, protected from termites, corrosion, rust or rot and is extremely resistant to weather conditions.The present invention aims to dramatically reduce the cost of such items and constructed of these buildings without compromising their celest and built of these buildings, which is not accompanied by an increase in production costs of these items and not difficult for them to build.In addition, this invention is directed to the creation of such building elements that facilitate the transformation of the built of these walls in permanent buildings, improve air circulation in mounted from their roofs and to reduce the heat transfer between the outer and inner surfaces of walls and roofs.Although already known proposals for the use of plastic in the wall panels, etc. are products that are intended for construction of buildings, such panels do not have the necessary bearing capacity and do not respond to other construction requirements, so they can be practical designs that could be produced in mass quantities with low cost and quickly and easily assembled at the construction of durable, low-cost buildings and in particular affordable housing.For example, U.S. patent N 3992839 describes the plastic panel made of separate parts, preferably made of polyvinyl chloride made with the possibility of mutual connection on the latches to form a thin wall panel. In his blenny in this way the panels inherent low resistance, and their strength and load-carrying capacity is insufficient, which prevents the implementation of these construction elements suitable, for example, for walls and roof are practical and durable buildings.Know the use of matched individually fabricated panels, made mostly of plastic, which concatenate or glued together and used in particular in the construction of walls of the pedestal. Such panels do not allow to organize mass production and do not give the possibility to quickly and easily connect them together with the erection of a house or other structure.Known hollow panel, the width of which is about one and a half inches (38 mm), with a complex internal structure made by a method comprising extruding a long glass fibers and plastic binder material through the matrix when heated, causing the glass fibers formed layer, in which the threads are glued together with a plastic binder. This process is too slow and expensive, and the panels themselves do not provide the possibility of obtaining an acceptable or practical cheap designs for walls and roofs of buildings considered in this invention.In accordance with the present invention, the construction elements contain elongated profiles obtained by extrusion from a thermoplastic made from placed at a certain distance from each other by means of joints made preferably in the form jutting inside means of mutual engagement along profile for the moving of entering into engagement with the mating means of mutual engagement adjacent the mating structural elements, and having at least one longitudinal crosspiece supporting means for mutual engagement at some distance from each other and having slotted holes in it, placed in the inner position in relation to the means of mutual engagement along them.In accordance with the preferred implementation of the invention, these holes are made round and have Odie is edstam, but less than this distance.The proposed construction elements made of chloride, preferably of polyvinyl chloride containing a reinforcing and limiting the extension component, including at least one of the components, such as mineral wool, glass short fibers and calcium carbonate.If we consider the construction element, produced by extrusion, in more detail, it contains the core of polyvinyl chloride, mixed with the above-mentioned reinforcing and limiting the expansion of a substance, obtained by co-extrusion thermoplasty membrane covering the surface that remain open after Assembly with the formation of the building structure.In addition, in accordance with this invention the holes in at least one crosspiece building element drilled immediately after extrusion element in the process of the extruder exit.In addition, in accordance with the invention, the material removed from the lintel is returned for re-use in the extrusion of the core.The following is a detailed description of the invention, illustrated in Pelagueya thermoplastic building elements, are in mutual engagement,
Fig. 2 depicts a cutaway perspective view of the proposed wall panel installed on a concrete Foundation before pouring concrete or other fixing material for fixing it to the base using the appropriate anchor rods
Fig. 3 depicts a perspective view of part of the wall of the two wall panels interlocked together using a box-shaped connecting part containing the core, the outer exposed surface of which is covered with a smooth termoplastici shell, the thickness of which for clarity is somewhat exaggerated,
Fig. 4 depicts a perspective view of the proposed roof panels, the respective wall panels shown in Fig. 3, the United four-sided box-shaped connecting parts for attaching roofing to the upper surface of the roof and interaction with other elements under the surface of the roof,
Fig. 5 depicts in terms of triangular box-shaped connection piece connecting the two panels in the same row and the third panel at a right angle to him,
Fig. 6 depicts a perspective view of a corner of the box-shaped connecting parts, which connected the second box-shaped connecting parts for connecting the four wall panels at right angles to each other,
Fig. 8 depicts a perspective view of a slightly modified two-way fitting having an inner connecting lugs for connection to the adjacent insert,
Fig. 9 depicts a view similar to those shown in Fig. 8, but showing the triangular box-shaped connection piece,
Fig. 10 depicts a perspective view of the proposed wall panel with one internal jumper
Fig. 11 depicts a perspective view of the wall panel without internal jumpers
Fig. 12 depicts a perspective view of the proposed connector box-shaped connecting pieces,
Fig. 13 depicts a perspective view of the bottom of the inclined wall covers, corresponding to one of the variants of the invention
Fig. 14 depicts a perspective view of the top cover wall, shown in Fig. 13,
Fig. 15 depicts a schematic view illustrating the manufacture of the proposed elements by extrusion and drilling holes in the jumper,
Fig. 16 depicts a cross section of a box-shaped connector components, manufacturing process, which is shown in Fig. 15.It should be noted that although the surface of the outside surfaces of the wall panels and box match the sustained fashion items have such a shell, and only such elements, as the connector box-shaped connecting parts shown in Fig. 12 that do not have exposed surfaces, when they are installed in the assembled building structure, are produced without any covering.In Fig. 1 shows a perspective view of house 1, as an example of a building that can be built using the proposed thermoplastic building elements made with the possibility of mutual engagement that can be collected with the formation of the walls 2 and roof 3 with openings under doors 4 and box 5.Building, such as shown in Fig. 1, it is expected to build on a concrete Foundation 6, shown in Fig. 2, which shows how the wall 2 of the building can be secured to the Foundation 6 using anchor rods 7, by pouring into a wall of concrete, etc., as shown by the arrow A. To prevent leakage of concrete from under the wall 2 can be applied by suitable means, such as the strip 6'.As further depicted in Fig. 3, the wall 2 is made of panels 8, connected with the box-shaped connecting parts 9, one of which is shown in Fig. 3.Each of the wall panels 8, corresponding to the invention, and refill, having a core 10 and received by joint extrusion of the sheath 11.The core 10 is preferably made of chloride, or rather of polyvinyl chloride containing a suitable reinforcing and limiting the expansion of substances, such as mineral or other fibers or other known substances that can limit the extension, such as calcium carbonate.Reinforcing substances or playing a particularly important role in the composition of the proposed building elements, perceiving a significant load, containing short glass fibers which, when present in thermoplastic such as vinyl chloride or polyvinyl chloride, to provide the necessary indicators harden and restrict extensions to provide high structural strength.Suitable material, including a short glass fiber, which can be used in the production of the panels 8, supplied by B. F. Goodrich (Akron, PCs, Ohio under the trademark "FIBERLOC". Such material is described in U.S. patent N 4536360 and contains a very fine, short fibers of glass embedded in the resin of vinyl chloride.The presence of fiber in the composition of polyvinyl chloride or other thermoplas is Rosie, because when excessive length and concentration of fiber extrusion material is difficult. Such fibers should preferably have a diameter on the order of several microns and a length of the order of several millimeters, and their concentration should not be greater than, and preferably significantly less than 35% of the total weight of glass fibre and resin vinyl chloride.The presence of fiberglass gives the material fragility, creating a shock hazard the destruction of the buildings, made of plastic reinforced with fiberglass. This danger increases with increasing concentration of fiber.Problems associated with the use of glass fiber as a reinforcing filler, while maintaining its positive reinforcing qualities, contributing to the increase in the carrying capacity, solved thanks to the smooth shell covering the outer exposed surface of the panel and received in the process of co-extrusion together with thermoplastic, glass fibre reinforced.Smooth plastic shell can be made of polyvinyl chloride, hard polyvinyl chloride, semi-rigid polyvinylchloride, acrylonitrilebutadienestyrene, polycarbonate with thermoplastics, the company supplied Jen is lawaloca in the core or base 10, the Foundation has somewhat fragile, and its surface is rough and abrasive because of the fiberglass particles that extend beyond the surface of the reference layer and give it some porosity and moisture resistance, which may adversely affect the bond between the fiberglass and thermoplastic.Obtained by co-extrusion thermoplasty shell covers and insulates the outer exposed surface of the construction element from moisture, thereby preserving the integrity of the communication fiberglass and plastic supporting layer. In addition, not only covering the protruding fiber glass outer shell 11, and sealing them in thermoplastic, resulting in the outer surface of the element becomes completely smooth. Fiber glass embedded in the outer shell, connect it to the core 10, resulting in the expansion and contraction of the shell is rigidly connected with the expansion and contraction of the core, which is defined or limited by the presence therein of an optical fiber, the coefficient of expansion which is significantly less than plastic.It should also be noted that the composition of the shell 11 can be included substances that provide resistance to blizanci 11, applied during co-extrusion, allows you to receive wall panels with high structural strength, essentially maintenance-free, resistant to dynamic effects, does not corrode, rot or rust, and is impervious to moisture, termites and other insects.Although fiberglass provides the strength needed for the perception of heavy loads, in those cases where it is not so great, the core 10 may be made of chloride, containing about 5-50%, preferably 5-30% calcium carbonate by weight.To ensure compliance panel established requirements in relation to the carrying capacity as variant can be used a mixture of calcium chloride and fiberglass or other reinforcing agents, such as mineral fiber.As is shown in Fig. 3, each of the panels 8 are provided with two transverse ridges 12, which connect together the opposite surface 13 of the panel between its extreme walls 14.Directly near each of the end walls 14 of the panel 8 is provided with spaced opposite each other speakers inside the slots 15, outside of the cost, which is the most important factor in the provision of mass housing construction, can be significantly reduced by reducing material costs by running along the length of the crosspieces 12 and the outer walls 14 of the series of holes 17, which are separated from each other some space.The material removed from these holes can be collected and reused during extrusion of the core of the next product.Hole 17 is preferably round. The diameter of the holes is slightly less than the distance between the nearest points 18 of the slots 15.Because the holes 17 are located on the axial line of the far wall 14 and midway between the front surface 13 of the panel, they can be cut in the end wall 14, and jumpers 12 without interference from the grooves 15, which are held continuously throughout the length of the profile.In Fig. 3 panel 8 shown in engagement with the box-shaped connecting parts 9, made in the form of a hollow rectangular profile, obtained by extrusion, having protruding flanges 19, the ends bent inward and located opposite each other with the connecting protrusions 20.Box-shaped connection piece NOK 23, the ange 19 and the connecting lugs 20.In accordance with the strength provided by the shape of the profile is made by extrusion of a rectangular box-shaped connecting parts 9, the core 21 may contain polyvinyl chloride resin and, for example, calcium carbonate as a reinforcing and limiting the expansion of the substance, although it can be used and other substances, such as fiber glass short fibers, and mixtures of substances.It should be noted that the outer surface of the wall 23 of the box-shaped connecting parts 9, covered by a cover 22, are precisely aligned with the outer surface 13 of the panel, with the grooves 16 of the panel placed between facing the inside of the connecting edges 20 and transverse walls or ridges 24 of the box-shaped connectors and components.In lintels 24 also made a number of apertures 25. These holes are also made in the shape of circles, the centers of which are located in the middle of the transverse wall or jumper box fittings along its length, and a diameter which is essentially equal to the distance between the projections 20, but less of it, so they will not be affected when cutting holes 25.Material cut from the wall 24 of the box-shaped connecting parts can be assembled and returned for reuse by subsequent extrusion of the connecting parts.It was found that if, for example, panel width, measured between the outer surfaces 13, is 100 mm, and the round holes have a diameter of 70 mm and are separated from each other by intervals of a width of 12.7 mm, provides a substantial saving of material and reducing the cost of products made from vinyl extrusion, without significant loss of structural strength of the panel, so that when it is filled with concrete, as shown in Fig. 2, for a constant wall of the wall panel jumpers and extreme wall panels, which are tensile forces provide the necessary tensile strength, tie the/P> In addition to reducing the cost of materials having holes 17 and 25 restricts the transfer of heat between the outer or exposed surfaces 13 of the panels 8 and external open walls 23 of the box-shaped connecting part 9. As a result, the elements provide improved isolation between the outer and inner walls of the building shown in Fig. 1.Fig. 4 illustrates the relative positions of the panels 26 of the roof, which, as shown in the drawing, is connected between a four-sided box-shaped connecting parts 27 and not double-sided box-shaped connecting parts 9, shown in Fig.3, which should be used when performing a smooth roof, shown in Fig. 1.Four-sided box-shaped connecting parts 27 are designed to attach the roofing to the upper surface of the roof and to support other elements under the roof or in connection with them.Roof panel 26 is identical to the panels of the walls 8, made by the same extrusion and have a core and an outer shell covering the outer surface and applied with co-extrusion (individual layers are not shown).In addition, reinforcing sostavlyayuschi on the elements of the roof.At high loads the reinforcing material may include at least some amount of fine short glass fibers of small diameter.In addition, as well as wall panels 8, the roof panel 26 is made with spaced opposite each other speakers inside connecting grooves 28 and grooves 29 on the edges, designed for connection with a curved inside the connecting tabs 30 located on the edges 31 of the box-shaped connecting parts 27. The same curved inside the connecting tabs 30 are executed on box-shaped connecting parts 27 on the United panelled roof and under them.Roof panels 26 have circular openings 32 cut in the grooves 29 and the bridges 33 and the corresponding circular holes 17, is cut in the wall panels 8. Four-sided box-shaped connecting part 27 also have round holes 34 corresponding to the holes 25 in the double-sided box-shaped connection pieces.It is imperative that the inside of the roof structure, made of thermoplastic elements were air circulation. Openings 32 and 34 provide for free circulation of air across the roof in otbelennyh by extrusion.You must also take into account that the presence of holes in the roof panels and connecting box connecting parts reduces heat transfer from the upper surface of the roof to the underside of the roof, thereby enhancing thermal insulation provided by the building block. You should also take into account that, if necessary, roof panel and fittings can be filled with a suitable insulating material.Despite the removal of the material from the holes 32 in the roof panels, jumpers 33 provide the required capacity of roof panel resistance to deflection and bearing high loads, reinforced through the mutual connection of the grooves 29 with edges 31 of the box-shaped fittings with connection tabs 30.Fig. 5 depicts a view in plan of the T-shaped connection of wall panels using triangular box-shaped connecting part 35. The part has a hole 25 made in each of its three sides, resulting in filling it with concrete, sand or insulating material, as shown by the arrow 36, it can flow into the wall panels through different holes. As shown in the drawing, the base of the T-shaped Figo is C panels 8 and designed to retain material within the wall panels and box connectors and components.If you want to fill the roofing panel Assembly shown in Fig. 4, the insulating material, it can be entered and distributed within the roof due to the presence of holes. Because the distance between the holes is significantly less than the diameter of the holes, a significant coincidence of holes in the adjacent connective elements will always have a place.Fig. 6 depicts a corner of the box-shaped connection piece 37, which connects the two panels 8 at right angles to each other. Box-shaped connection piece 37, as well as others, are made by extrusion, has the appropriate core and shell obtained by co-extrusion, equipped performed on adjacent sides of the curved inside of the connecting tabs 38 and holes 39, which are located in the center between them and the diameter of which is less than the gap between them.Fig. 7 depicts a four-sided locking fastener 40 to connect the four wall panels 8 at right angles. Item 40 has a curved inside the connecting protrusions 41 on all four sides and round holes cut in all four walls.It should also be noted that soedinitel their supporting flanges 42, covered with a smooth shell.It should be noted that the holes in the various elements are arranged so that after Assembly of these structures by sliding enter into engagement with mating elements, the holes become internal, i.e. surrounded by external walls of the building.Fig. 10 depicts a perspective view of the wall panel 8', which differs from the panel 8 so that its span is shorter and it has a single jumper 12'. In the rest of this panel is identical to the panel 8, and the same parts are marked with the same numbers.Similarly, Fig. 11 depicts another smaller wall panel 80, which can be used in the corner of the wall. The panel 80 has no internal jumpers, though in other respects it has the same means of mutual engagement and slotted holes, as the panel 8, and the same parts are marked with the same numbers.Fig. 8 depicts a two-sided box-shaped connection piece 9' corresponding parts 9, but additionally having internal guides in the form of bent outward of the connecting protrusions 43 to enter the paired inserts (not shown) engages.Fig. 9 depicts a perspective view of the tripartite the indoor guide consisting of connecting edges 44 to install internal insert (not shown).Fig. 13 and 14 depict the cover 45 of the wall, made with the possibility of putting on a top wall formed from wall panels, such as panel 8, and a box-shaped connecting parts 9 with the formation of the inclined support surface 46 to maintain the inclined roof 3 (see Fig. 1).Cover wall 45 is a hollow part made by extrusion, having a bottom wall 47, made with the possibility of installation on the upper end of the erected wall, and bent down edges 48, forming a means of mutual connection, which may cover the outer surface 13 of the wall.Jumper 49 and 50, passing upward from the bottom wall 47, support the upper inclined surface 46, and the height of the jumper 50 more than the height of the jumper 49.On the lower side of the inclined wall 46 of the cap 45 is made with a cavity 51, provided with a slot 52 for access to the interior, which can be closed canopy, etc., (not shown). On the opposite side of the cover is provided with a closed cavity 53 and an open cavity 54.In accordance with the invention, the bottom wall 47 and the inclined wall 46 provided with poresand 47, but more than the distance between the ridges 49 and 50, so that during cutting of holes 55 part jumper 49 and 50 are removed to form holes 56 and 57 to access the cavity 51 and 54.After you install the cover on the wall, the bottom wall 47 and the inclined upper wall 46 will not be opened, these surfaces need not be coated with a protective shell. However, other open surfaces should be done in co-extrusion membrane on top of the core to provide the required smooth surface.Fig. 12 depicts manufactured by extrusion element intended for connection between a box-shaped connecting pieces, which when assembled form is fully enclosed and has no exposed surfaces requiring the application shell.As shown in the drawing, the connector 58 of the connecting parts has a crosspiece 59 separating the two grooves facing outwards 60 whose width allows installation in them connecting protrusions, such as protrusions 20 of two adjacent box-shaped connecting parts 9 adjacent to each other. Thus, the connector 58 connects the box-shaped connecting parts between themselves, being entirely enclosed within the/P> In the jumper 59 cut round holes 61, the diameter of which is essentially equal to the distance between the two grooves 60, but somewhat less. The connector 58 is preferably made by extrusion of polyvinyl chloride, but because it is not exposed to significant loads, the number of reinforcing substances, if any, can be minimized. Furthermore, since the collection it is closed on all sides, open surfaces, requiring coatings are missing.Fig. 15 schematically illustrates a method of manufacturing elements of the present invention by extrusion. The drawing shows the direct extrusion of the box-shaped connecting parts 9 having a core 21 and applied during co-extrusion of the outer shell 22 and is provided with circular holes 25, cut in it.As shown in the drawing, thermoplastic material 62, composed of the necessary components for forming the core box-shaped connecting part 9, is supplied from the hopper 63 in the corresponding matrix (not shown) where it comes in the form of a continuous stream having the desired cross-sectional shape. At the same time relevant material 64 for nonessential details.As the continuous exit of the extrusion matrix of the core and shell during their co-extrusion corresponding rotary drill 66, mounted on the platform 67, doing the horizontal reciprocating movement along the guide rails 68 are used for drilling holes 25.Movement of the platform 67 is such that it is from the extruder is carried out at the same speed, which comes out of the extruder profile box-shaped connecting parts, so that in the process of drilling a relative displacement profile and rigs in the direction of movement of the profile is missing. Once the hole is cut and drill laid back, they quickly return to the starting position to begin a new cycle of drilling, moving with the same speed as the feed profile.Drills are performed so that at their removal, they extract cut from profile material, which can then be dropped on the Assembly pallet 69 and fed back into the hopper 63 with the material for the core using the appropriate device 70 of the feed.After extrusion and drilling profile box-shaped connecting parts can be cut into pieces of desired length depending the proposed building elements, in which produce the tenderloin, remove material and reuse of material, as described above, in the production, can be obtained save up to 25% of the cost of the building, such as residential building, which greatly increases the availability of housing, etc. construction for people with low incomes.It should be noted that in addition to the construction shown and described elements, the inventive concept can be applied to produce various other building components that meet the requirements of production of building constructions. It should also be noted that the details of construction and arrangement of the holes may be modified without departure from the essence of the invention and the scope of its formula. 1. An elongated hollow essentially rectangular element thermoplasty(8', 8', 9, 9',26,27,35,35',37,40,80), designed for use during the construction thermoplastic buildings containing wall, separated from each other by a certain gap and held in this position by means of transverse walls or bridges, along with he the means of mutual engagement for engagement with mating elementeita shell (11,22), covering the substrate surface, which remain open in external walls (13,23) by the mutual engagement of the specified element with adjacent elements, and these transverse walls or dams (12,14,24), which are internal in the position of mutual engagement of the specified element with adjacent elements have holes (17,25), is made by cutting out from them material and placed longitudinally in the inner position in relation to these funds mutual engagement (15,19,20) to enable communication between the connected items, and the material cut from the walls or bridges (12,14,24), suitable for use in the extrusion process the next element.2. Elongated thermoplasty item under item 1, characterized in that the base (of 10.21) made of polyvinyl chloride containing a reinforcing and limiting the extension component.3. Elongated thermoplasty item under item 2, characterized in that the base (of 10.21) contains material cut from the walls and lintels previously made by extrusion elements.4. Elongated thermoplastic element according to any one of paragraphs.1-3, characterized in that the specified limiting RA the ptx2">5. Elongated thermoplastic element according to any one of paragraphs.1-4, characterized in that the holes are made round, and their diameter is less than the distance between these means of mutual engagement (15,19,20).6. Elongated thermoplasty item under item 5, characterized in that the holes have the same diameter and their centers are on a line located midway between the specified means of mutual engagement (15,19,20), at equal distances from each other, the diameter of these holes is equal to the greater part of the distance between the means of mutual engagement, but less than this distance.7. Elongated thermoplastic element according to any one of paragraphs.1-6, characterized in that it contains a longitudinal panel(8,8',9,9',26,27,35,35',37,40,80), and these cross bridge include jumper (14), passing across between these essentially flat walls and forming a longitudinal extreme of the wall panel, and at least one crosspiece (12,12') forming panel internal bays between these extreme walls, and means of mutual engagement contain grooves (15), made opposite to each other in said essentially flat walls near each of the end walls of the panel and with the formation of the connecting groove (16), and these holes are made in each of these jumpers.8. Elongated thermoplastic element according to any one of paragraphs.1-6, characterized in that it contains a box-shaped connection piece (9) in the form of an elongated hollow rectangle, two opposite walls (23) which is formed by these essentially flat walls and the other two walls (24) formed by these transverse ridges.9. Elongated thermoplasty item under item 1, characterized in that it contains angular box-shaped coupling piece (37) having apertures (39) made in the walls, which are internal when connecting fittings with mating elements at right angles.10. Elongated thermoplasty item under item 1, characterized in that it is made in the form of a triangular box-shaped fittings (35') having apertures (25) made in the walls, which are internal connected with mating elements.11. Elongated thermoplasty item under item 1, characterized in that it contains a four-sided box-shaped connection piece (4) with the holes drilled in the walls, which become the according to any one of paragraphs.1-11, characterized in that the smooth shell (11,22) selected from polyvinyl chloride, hard polyvinyl chloride, semi-rigid polyvinylchloride, acrylonitrilebutadienestyrene or polycarbonate.13. Elongated thermoplastic element according to any one of paragraphs.1-12, characterized in that the base (5,10,21) contains polyvinyl chloride containing about 5-50% of calcium carbonate.14. Elongated thermoplastic element according to p. 13, characterized in that the core contains about 5-30% calcium carbonate by weight.15. Elongated thermoplastic element according to any one of paragraphs.1-14, characterized in that the thickness of the shell (11,22) is about 0.015 in (0.4 mm), and the thickness of the base (5,10,21) at least 4-5 times greater than the thickness of the shell.16. Elongated thermoplastic element according to any one of paragraphs.1-15, characterized in that the distance between the opposing walls of each of these elements is approximately several tens of times greater than the total thickness (5,10,21) and shell (11,22).17. Elongated thermoplasty item under item 16, characterized in that the distance between the opposing walls of each of these elements is about 4 inches (102 mm).18. Elongated thermoplasty what constitutes a significant part of the total quantity of material, contained therein before removing the excavated material.19. Elongated thermoplasty item under item 18, characterized in that the significance of the part is approximately 25% of his weight.20. A method of manufacturing a hollow rectangular thermoplastic building elements(8,8',9,9',26,27,35,35',37,40,80), made with the possibility of mutual connection of building structures, wherein each specified element is performed by extrusion through co-extrusion base (of 10.21) of thermoplastic material containing reinforcing and limiting the extension component, and smooth termoplastici shell (11,22), closing the wall (13,23) element, which remain open when the element is connected to a mating elements, then in those walls (12,14,24) of the specified element that is internal, when the element is connected to a mating elements, cut apertures (17,25), and the material cut out from these walls, used for the support layer during extrusion of the subsequent element.21. The method according to p. 20, characterized in that the core is made of polyvinyl chloride containing a reinforcing and limiting the extension component, you are the persons according to any one of paragraphs.20 and 21, characterized in that the specified smooth shell is made of a material selected from polyvinyl chloride, hard polyvinyl chloride, acrylonitrilebutadienestyrene and polycarbonate.
SUBSTANCE: method for production of multilayer structural material includes mould filling, subsequent supply of layer materials, moulding, soaking, withdrawal from mould. At the same time serial filling of layer materials is carried out through placement of basalt cloth layers impregnated with epoxide resin onto mould bottom, placement of foam polyurethane layer onto layers of basalt-plastic with further laying of basalt cloth layers impregnated with epoxide resin onto foam polyurethane layer, with intermediate arrangement of carbon threads in between. Ends of carbon threads are taken outside. Moulding and soaking of all layers is carried out simultaneously in process of heating up to temperature of 60°C and pressure of 0.5-1.0 MPa until resin hardens. At the same time ratio of foam polyurethane layer thickness to basalt-plastic layer thickness makes 20-80:0.5-1.5.
EFFECT: improved mechanical properties and reduced process cycle.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction, specifically to methods of construction of buildings and structures using carriers angular wall panels, and can be used in construction of prefabricated low-rise buildings and structures. Method for construction of building using angular wall panels, involving preparation of base (inter-floor slab) and connection of multiple flat wall panels to base (floor deck), connection of multiple angular wall panels to base (floor deck), attachment of each flat wall panel at least one adjacent corner panel. Method comprises sequential floor-by-floor installation of bearing walls of wall panels starting from angular wall panel L-shaped in direction opposite relative to serial installation of wall panels on he previous floor, angular panel L-shaped preliminary mounted on each floor of long side in direction of serial installation on cylindrical pins, one per each wall panel L-shaped pins are installed on base (floor deck) in point of intersection of longitudinal axis of bearing wall perimeter floor and vertical axis inter-panel joint, then to freely resting corner panel of L-shape connected in tongue flat wall panel and tightly tightened inter-panel joint quick-release threaded joints of preset by condition that, value of joints between panels, then assembled perimeter bearing wall floor are fixed by means of quick-release connection with base. Also described is a version of method of construction of buildings and versions of structures bearing angular wall panel.
EFFECT: technical result is reduction of labour intensity, higher efficiency and speed of construction, increased strength and earthquake resistance of building.
9 cl, 17 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of concrete articles with heat insulating layer for construction of buildings and structures. Method of making wall panel is characterized by fact that outer protective layer is placed or poured into mold based on binder. Insulation layer is laid, which is mineral wool heat insulation, so that mineral-wool fibres of heat insulation are directed mainly perpendicular to outer layer and subsequent inner layer made on basis of binder. Reinforcement framework of inner layer is laid. Then placing or pouring of inner layer is performed. Wherein all operations are performed before hardening of outer and inner layers. Wherein possibility of at least partial penetration of mineral-wool fibres of heat insulation at least in major part of area of inner and outer layers is provided.
EFFECT: technical result is higher strength, reliability and durability of wall panel, increased service life of buildings, reduced material consumption and simplification of production technology of wall panels.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction, in particular to an inner layer containing zigzag wood elements and a multilayer composite including an inner layer, as well as methods of their production. Inner layer suitable for a multilayer composite material contains at least one coating layer and an inner layer. Inner layer comprises wood elements contain zigzag sheet sections, herewith a sheet zig-section of the element together with an adjacent sheet zag-section of the element form a common rib between them in order to form a zigzag wood element. Zigzag elements are arranged in the inner layer so, that two such ribs of the two different elements intersect at an angle other than zero and are rigidly connected to each other at the point of intersection. In one embodiment the zigzag wood element can be stuck to a planar wood element for the zigzag wood element in the form of a sandwich to be enclosed with two planar wood elements; or for the planar wood element to be enclosed with two zigzag wood elements in the form of a sandwich.
EFFECT: technical result is improvement of the structure strength.
16 cl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction, namely to a structural element, which can be used as ceiling element or as wall element, as well as method of its production. Structural element comprises cladding, which includes the first concrete layer and is equipped with textile reinforcement, bearing panel which includes the second concrete layer and is equipped with reinforcement of bearing panel as well as multiple connecting bodies, which are located between the textile reinforcement and reinforcement bearing panel and are connected both with bearing panel and cladding, every connection body has a three-dimensional textile mesh structure. Also described is a method of making structural element.
EFFECT: simplified manufacturing, possibility to use at high static loads.
15 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of manufacturing concrete products with a thermal insulating layer for the construction of buildings and structures, in particular flooring panels. A layer of thermal insulation, which is mineral wool insulation, is placed in a mould in such a way that the fibers of the mineral wool insulation are directed predominantly perpendicular to the carrier layer made on the base of a binder. The reinforcing framework of the carrier layer is laid in such a way that a clearance is formed between the thermal insulation layer and the reinforcing framework of the carrier layer. After that, the carrier layer is laid or filled. Wherein it is possible for the mineral wool insulation fibers to at least partially penetrate into at least a larger by area part of the carrier layer.
EFFECT: increasing the strength, reliability and durability of products, increasing the service life of buildings and structures and simplifying the production technology of such products.