Osmotic absorption heat engine
(57) Abstract:Cavity of the generator and absorber are communicated through a semi-permeable partition, made of insulating material. The use of the invention will allow to increase efficiency and reduce energy losses in the recirculation of the solution of refrigerant from the absorbent material between the absorber and the generator, and also to eliminate the recirculation pumps, to reduce noise and to simplify the design. 1 Il. The invention relates to the field of engineering, namely, the refrigerating machines. Known absorption refrigerating machine comprising a generator, a condenser, an evaporator, an absorber, pipe fittings, pumps, interconnected pipelines into a single unit. /1. UDC 621.56 Dossat Roy J. Fundamentals of refrigeration equipment. TRANS. from English. M: Light and food industry, 1984, S. 466.2. UDC 620.92 Twidell J., The Weir A. Renewable energy sources. TRANS. with ang.-M.: Energoatomizdat, 1990, S. 125.3. UDC 536.7, 621.036 nasakin centuries of Technical thermodynamics and heat transfer. A training manual for non-energy specialties.-M: "High school", 1975, S. 303.4. UDC 621.1 Thermal engineering Handbook. Ed. 2nd, Rev. ed the heat engine./
In these refrigeration machines use a property of certain liquids /absorbents/ absorb other liquids /refrigerants/, relatively boiling.The disadvantages are: low efficiency, the presence of mechanical moving parts, namely, pumps recirculation of the solution of refrigerant from the absorbent material between the absorber and the generator, the complexity of the device and the regulation, the presence of some, though small in comparison with the compressor refrigerating machines noise.The closest in technical essence is the osmotic heat engine, containing an absorber, a generator, a condenser, a throttle device, an evaporator and a semipermeable wall permeable to vapors and check absorbent and located between the evaporator and the absorber, and all devices are connected by a pipeline, in which circulates a refrigerant, an absorbent, or a solution /Application PCT N89/11071, CL F 25 B 15/14, 1989. Osmotic heat engine/.However, this heat engine is in principle little different from the normal absorption and, as in all absorption machines, used beogradjanka diffusion caused g what about in the absorber /absorber/. In this case, a semi-permeable partition only allows you to position the absorber above the evaporator.Instead of the usually applied pump recirculation of the solution of refrigerant and absorbent material between the absorber and the generator used the gravitational principle of circulation due to the difference in the densities of weak and concentrated solution. This is a shortcoming of the engine, as it cannot work in the absence of gravity, for example in space.In addition, the above-mentioned engine, called osmotic, in fact it is not, based on the definition of the process of osmosis.The purpose of the invention is the increase of efficiency and reduction of energy losses in the recirculation of the solution of refrigerant from the absorbent material between the absorber and the generator, the exclusion of mechanical moving parts and recirculation pumps, noise reduction, simplification of the structure, the rejection of the use of electricity.The aim is achieved in that the internal cavity of the generator and absorber are interconnected but separated by a semi-permeable, insulating wall /membrane, hollow fiber, etc.,/, leaking refrigerant and delaying the bus.Refrigerating machine contains the following main components: on the side of the high pressure generator 1, the compensator 2, the low-pressure side of the evaporator 3, the absorber 4, connected by pipes 5, a semi-permeable partition 6 dividing the internal cavity of the generator 1 and the absorber 4, and the generator 1 and the absorber 4 are communicated with each other via the partition wall 6 and the coolant piping and cooling water /scheme conditionally not shown/. The partition 6 has the property of flowing refrigerant and to hold the absorbent, while it also has insulating properties.The working substance for the implementation of the refrigerating cycle of the absorption machine is a solution consisting of two components with different boiling points at the same pressure. One with a lower boiling point is used as the refrigerant, and the other absorbent material.The refrigerant passes from the condenser 2 to the evaporator 3, the absorber 4, the generator 1 and is returned to the condenser 2 and the absorbent, unlike conventional absorption refrigeration machine, not circulate from absorber 4 in the generator 1 and back, and is constantly in the generator 1 and the absorber 4, but in different concentrational refrigerating machine, through the use of osmotic effect. Osmosis is the spontaneous transition of solvent through a semipermeable membrane into a solution. If the pure solvent and the solution of any substance in the solvent, or two solutions of different concentrations are placed in two compartments on both sides of the semi-permeable walls, capable of transmitting only solvent molecules in the system will be observed the following. Due to the differential pressure /concentration/ solvent molecules in different compartments of the transition of the solvent molecules in the volume of their lower concentration, i.e., in the Bay of concentrated solution.The sequence of the cycle of absorption and osmotic machine next. The liquid refrigerant high pressure is supplied from the condenser 2 to the evaporator 3, due to the loss of pressure while moving through the pipeline 5 /or throttle valve/ decreases the pressure of the refrigerant.The liquid refrigerant in the evaporator 3 is converted into steam, taking heat from the cooling medium. The resulting low pressure steam flows through the pipe 5 from the evaporator 3 to the absorber 4, where the steam is absorbed by the absorbent material.The refrigerant flows from the evaporator 3 in AV absorber 4 determines the pressure and therefore, the evaporating temperature of the refrigerant in the evaporator 3.In turn, the pressure of a solution depends on the properties of the absorbent material, its temperature and concentration.When the absorption of the absorbent vapor of the refrigerant coming from the evaporator 3, the volume of the refrigerant is reduced and released heat absorption.To maintain the temperature and pressure of the solution at a given level the heat in the absorber 4 /is equal to the sum of the latent heat of vaporization and heat of dissolution of the refrigerant in the absorbent/, is given to the environment in the condenser 2. This process is carried out as follows.Refrigerant vapor absorbed by the absorbent, and increases the pressure of the solution in the absorber 4. Therefore, it is necessary to continuously increase the concentration of the absorbent in the solution to maintain its pressure at a low level relative to the pressure in the generator 1. It is necessary to provide a given pressure and temperature in the evaporator 3. The increase in the concentration of the absorbent solution in the absorber 4 through the flow of refrigerant through the semi-permeable wall 6 under the action of osmotic pressure of the absorber 4 in the generator is of a greater part of the refrigerant during heating.The refrigerant is constantly coming due to the difference in the concentration of the absorber 4 through the partition 6, lowers the concentration of the absorbent, and therefore increases the pressure in the solution in the generator 1.The process occurs without the compression of the refrigerant.The refrigerant is separated in the generator 1 from the absorbent by heating the solution and boils. The resulting high-pressure steam enters the condenser 2 where it is liquefied, giving up latent heat of vaporization to the environment. Then the cycle repeats again.This ensures that the cycle of the refrigeration machine, which for the implementation of this cycle can use low-grade heat ventilation gases, purging boilers, solar energy, etc., without the use of electricity. Absorption heat engine, containing an absorber, a generator, a condenser, a throttle device, an evaporator and a semipermeable wall permeable to the refrigerant and check absorbent, and all devices are connected by a pipeline, in which circulates a refrigerant, an absorbent, or a solution, characterized in that the cavity of the generator and absorber are communicated through a semi-permeable partition,
SUBSTANCE: present invention pertains to the power engineering industry. To extract heat from a cold medium and transmit it to a hot medium, heat of dissolution is used as well as separation from the solution, two or more substances or two or more groups of soluble or absorbable substances with different thermodynamic properties on their saturation lines or beyond these lines. For this purpose, in the cold part of the cycle, through a selective membrane or membrane, a solvent is moved from one solution to the other such that, one of the substances or one of the groups of substances separates from the solution or is absorbed, with heat release or heat absorption or no thermal effect. The second substance or group of substances is dissolved or separated by an absorber, with absorption of a large amount of heat. As a result, in the cold part of the cycle, heat is taken off the cooled medium. The obtained solution and separated substance or substances are channelled to the hot part of the cycle, heating them with oncoming heat exchanger. In the hot part of the cycle, there is oppositely directed movement of solvent through the selective membrane or membrane. As a result, a reverse thermal effect is achieved and heat is transferred to the hot medium. The obtained solution and separated substance are returned to the cold part of the cycle, cooling them with oncoming heat exchanger. Use of the invention increases efficiency of a refrigerator or heat pump.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of a refrigerator or heat pump.