Multilayer rear view mirror for vehicles

 

(57) Abstract:

Multilayer mirror includes a transparent substrate, a multilayer coating and was highly reflective metal layer formed on the multilayer coating. Multilayer coating includes at least one layer of material with a high refractive index, formed on the surface of the substrate, and at least one layer of a material with low refractive index. At least one layer of material with a high refractive index is formed from a semiconductor material with a refractive index of 3.4 to 3.8, which is used or amorphous silicon, or amorphous hydrogenated silicon, or amorphous silicon-germanium alloy, or amorphous hydrogenated silicon-germanium alloy. The mirror provides increased relative vidnosti for the driver at night while simultaneously highly effective suppression of blinding lights behind leading vehicles. 8 Il.

The invention relates to a device (structure) of the optical element is a mirror, in particular multilayer mirrors used as automotive rear view mirrors, which is the source of vision in the danger of maneuvering and landing of passengers. Equally multilayer mirror can be used as interior (internal) and external rear view mirrors and, accordingly, can be installed on the automobile, truck, means of public transport or other transport vehicle.

There are several designs of multilayer mirrors, an important advantage over traditional aluminum mirrors, widely used in the domestic automotive industry, is the selectivity (selectivity) spectral characteristics of reflectance of the mirror, resulting in reduced blinding impact driver light modern halogen headlights of passing cars and increases the safety of operation of the vehicle in the night time.

The selectivity of the spectral characteristics of reflectance of the mirror is reflected in the changing colors of its reflections, and in contrast to the spectrum of metal (aluminum) mirror is characterized by the selection in the reflection of a specific set of color tones [1] by suppressing others. In this case, a multilayer mirror has not only effectively suppress glare, relative vidnosti because of poor quality mirrors can lead to dangerous loss of visual information. In this regard, the optical properties of mirrors, providing a level acceptable relative vidnosti strictly regulated. The rearview mirror should have a high level of integral (visible range) reflection coefficient (not less than 0.35) and be characterized by an effective transfer of the color. The transfer of the color reflected automotive mirror items is effective in the case where it is without distortion, leading to errors of identification and assessment of the nature of the movement of these objects.

The selectivity of the reflection multilayer mirrors - analogues of the present technical solution is achieved by a multilayer coating formed between the glass substrate (plate) mirror and was highly reflective layer of metal (aluminum or chromium) or semiconductor (germanium).

Multilayer coating in designs-analogues of multilayer mirrors made of layers of dielectric materials (oxides, fluorides, and sulfides) having different refractive indices and optical thickness. According to the laws of physical optics [2], describing the interference phenomena, the reflectance of the multilayer mirror consisting of a glass pontiuspilate, the number of values of refractive index and optical thickness of the layers constituting exactly multilayer coating.

Known multilayer mirror comprising a glass substrate, the multilayer coating and the metal film [3]. For multilayer coatings offer two combinations of alternating dielectric layers. First, the material with high refractive index optical thickness0/4 (B1) (hereinafter0- the wavelength of light selected as a control in the formation of the coating), a material with a low refractive index optical thickness0/4 (H), the material with high refractive index optical thickness0/2 (2B2). Thus, the formula of the multilayer coating has the form:1AS H2B2i.e. floor has three layers. The second combination multi-coating, described by the authors of the patent [3] , has the following form:1H1IN2H2and consists of four layers of optical thickness0/4. In the described multilayer mirror has a high reflectivity in the region of wavelengths from 430 to 550 nm, which is significantly reduced in the range of 550-700 nm, and the mirror has a light blue color.

For reasons prepyatstvie, is that in the known multilayer mirror color balance rear view differs significantly from the actual color balance and, in particular, the driver is difficult to recognize the color red, the result vidnosti is insufficient. The second important disadvantage of this multilayer mirrors is a good coincidence of maximum reflection with maximum sensitivity of the human eye at night ( 510 nm [4]) and, accordingly, the low ability of the mirror to prevent the blinding of the driver's headlights behind a running car.

Known multilayer mirror [5], which includes a glass substrate, a multilayer coating and was highly reflective metal layer, characterized by a high degree of suppression of the blinding effect, because at least it's reflection falls on the wavelength range of 480-550 nm, which coincides with the maximum sensitivity of the human eye. For reasons that impede the achievement of specified following technical result when using the known multilayer mirrors, is that in the known multilayer mirror is used multilayer coating of a large number (4-8) of dielectric layers, that is-low-tech and Dragone time.

Known multilayer mirror [6], which includes a glass substrate, a multilayer coating and was highly reflective metal layer, characterized by a high degree of suppression of the blinding effect. For reasons that impede the achievement of specified following technical result when using the known multilayer mirrors, is that in the known multilayer mirror is used multilayer coating of a large number (4-8) of dielectric layers, characterized by the method of formation, and the set of materials used that is less technological and more expensive. In addition, the known multilayer mirror does not give a high relative vidnosti for the driver at night.

In the patent [7] describes the known multilayer mirror in which the multilayer coating consists of a smaller number of layers (3-6), which made the process of manufacturing mirrors more automated and less expensive. For reasons that impede the achievement of specified following technical result when using the known multilayer mirrors, is that the number of layers in the multilayer coating remains large and, in addition, known multilayer mirror does not give high otnosiasciesia to the claimed invention by a combination of traits is a multilayer mirror [8] , includes a glass substrate, a multilayer coating of a dielectric material, formed on one side of the substrate, and was highly reflective metal or semiconductor layer formed on the multilayer coating.

Multilayer coating includes at least one layer of dielectric material with a high refractive index optical thickness0/2 and at least one layer of dielectric material with a low refractive index optical thickness (0,05-0,4)0. The arrangement of the layers is such that the layer of material with a high refractive index have closer to the substrate than the layer with a low refractive index. The layer of material with a low refractive index have closer to was highly reflective metal or semiconductor layer relative to the material with high refractive index.

With high refraction material with a refractive index of 1.9 to 2.4 is chosen from a group of dielectrics SiO, TiO2TA2O2, ZrO2, HfO2, ZnS. Nizkoplotnye material with a refractive index of 1.3 to 1.8 chosen from a group of dielectrics SiO2, Al2O3, MgF2, CeF3.

A layer of material the refractive index - from a material having a lower refractive index than that of Al2O3or CeF3.

The optical thickness of a layer with low refractive index equal to 0/8 or0/4.

The dielectric multi-layer coating may be between the substrate and the layer of material with a high refractive index of the other layer of material with low refractive index.

With high refraction layer optical thickness0/2 may consist of two adjacent layers of materials with optical thickness0/4 with different high refractive indices.

Was highly reflective metal or semiconductor layer formed on the multilayer coating, made of a single metal or semiconductor, and an alloy containing at least one metal or semiconductor selected from the group of Cr, Ni, Al, Ag, Co, Fe, Si and Ge.

To assess the effectiveness of suppression blinding in its design multilayer mirrors the authors of the patent-prototype used the sum of the relative spectral luminous efficiency of the human eye (vidnosti) night (V()) and the spectral energy characteristics of radiation automotive halogenation in the field of 510-530 nm. Because in this spectral range, the light intensity affects the driver's particularly painful when the blinding, the authors of the prototype suggested that due to the spectral characteristics of the mirrors to adjust the perceived radiation. Thus, the known multilayer mirrors spectral characteristic of the reflection coefficient has a minimum in the area of 510-530 nm. In Fig. 2 shows the reflectance spectra of the proposed in the patent prototype designs of multilayer mirrors. Curves 1-5 (Fig. 2) correspond to the spectral characteristics of reflectance of the following structures:

curve 1 - P 2V1H1M1-0= 540 nm

curve 2 - P 2V11/2H1M1-0= 600 nm

curve 3 - P H22V1H1M2-0= 540 nm

curve 4 - P1IN2H2M1-0= 540 nm

curve 5 - N2IN1IN21/2H1M1-0= 600 nm

where P - substrate;

B and H respectively high and discopremiya dielectric materials;

M - was highly reflective layer of metal or semiconductor;

IN1- TiO2;

IN2- ZrO2;

H1- MgF2;

H2- SiO0/4; 2B0/2; 1/2H-0/8.

From the curves of Fig. 2 indeed shows that the rear view mirror prototype effectively suppresses glare. The maximum suppression of blinding is described for multilayer mirrors, multi-layer coating which consists of four layers (curve 5, Fig. 2).

For reasons that impede the achievement of specified following technical result when using the known multilayer mirrors, taken as a prototype, is the fact that it does not provide a higher relative vidnosti for the driver.

According to [1, 4, 9] relative vidnosti for the driver of a vehicle is characterized by relative sensitivity (usually denoted by V()). At night when there is behind leading car relative sensitivity is represented as the result of a work

V() = V()R()P(),

where V () is the average relative vidnosti the human eye at night in the optical system of a monochromatic source - the human eye [4];

P () is the energy spectral characteristics of the radiation halogen headlights;

R () is the spectral characteristic of the reflection coefficient of the multilayer mirrors rear widget relative sensitivity for the system, including multi-layer mirrors are examples of the patent-prototype. The results of this procedure for obtaining V() in the visible range is shown in Fig. 3. We see that the known multilayer mirrors that adopted for the prototype, are characterized by different widths of the spectrum maximum relative sensitivity, taken at the level of 0.5 (half-width of the peak), equal =2-1where1blue and2- red range. For the above five multilayer mirrors, the reflection spectrum which is shown in Fig. 2, have a width relative sensitivity equal to 84, 87, 95, 90, and 100 nm for the well-known multilayer mirrors 1-5, respectively.

Thus, a simple, but rigorous quantitative assessment of the relative sensitivity of the visual system, including multi-layer mirrors, adopted for the prototype, allow us to assume that they do not provide high relative vidnosti for the driver at night.

The task of the invention consists in the design of multilayer mirrors for vehicles with high glare action, superior known multilayer mirror to ensure a higher relative vidnosti for the driver of the TB and lower the financial cost of its production.

The technical result, which can be obtained by carrying out the invention, is to increase the relative vidnosti for the driver at night while simultaneously highly effective suppression of blinding lights behind leading vehicles.

This technical result in the implementation of the invention is achieved by the fact that the known multilayer rear view mirror for vehicles includes a transparent substrate, a multilayer coating formed on one side of the substrate, and was highly reflective metal layer formed on the multilayer coating that includes at least one layer of material with a high refractive index and at least one layer of a material with low refractive index, and at least one layer of material with a high refractive index formed on the surface of the substrate, at least one layer of material with a high refractive index is formed from a semiconductor material with a refractive index of 3.3 to 3.8, which is used or amorphous silicon, or amorphous hydrogenated silicon, or amorphous silicon-germanium alloy, or amorphous hydrogenized the C of the transparent substrate, multilayer coatings consisting of two or three layers, and was highly reflective metal layer deposited on the multilayer coating.

The substrate used in the proposed solution is transparent. It was chosen mostly flat on both sides, but may be non-planar (convex or concave), but executed in accordance with the requirements of standardization documents applicable to the respective conditions of the subsequent operation and installation mirrors [10].

Was highly reflective metal layer formed on the multilayer coating has a reflectivity preferably more than 0.6 in the visible range. As a material of the metal film using a single metal, such as CR, Ni, Al, Ag or the like or a metal alloy with matching the specified reflection coefficient.

The main difference of the proposed solution in comparison with the known multilayer mirror rear view is as follows.

This multilayer coating includes at least one layer of semiconductor material, preferably amorphous silicon, having a refractive index of 3.4 to 3.8, and at least one layer of dielectric material with a refractive index of 1.3 to 2.3. As such material is used preferably oxides, such as SiO2, Al2O3but can be used fluoride - MgF2, CeF3or a mixture of them, as well as other dielectric materials with values of refractive index in the specified field.

The optical thickness of the layer of semiconductor is0/4 (where0the wavelength used as a control in the formation of the coating), and the optical thickness of a layer with low refractive index0/2. The reason for limiting the optical thickness of both layers to the specified limits is that such thickness allows to obtain a multilayer mirror with good suppression blinding effect, providing high relative vidnosti for the driver. The optical thickness of the semiconductor layer should not exceed the value of0/4 with the aim of eliminating the effects of light absorption in this layer.

Thus, the simplest multilayer mirror has a two-layer coating and looks as follows:

P IN 2N M

where P is a glass substrate;

- With high refraction layer of semiconductor material, preferably amorphous silicon with a refractive index equal to 3,4-3,8, optical optical thickness T30/2;

M - layer was highly reflective metal.

In multilayer coating that is part of a multilayer mirrors of the present technical solution, defined by the arrangement of layers with high and low refractive indices. So, with high refraction layer of semiconductor material formed on the surface of the substrate; it is nizkoplotnye dielectric layer in contact in its turn was highly reflective metal layer. The specified location of the layers is crucial for the formation of the spectral characteristics of reflectance, providing glare effect mirrors and good vidnosti.

Multilayer coating multilayer mirrors can be formed from three layers. Then the design looks like this:

P 1/2V11/2V22N M

or

P 1/4B13/4B22N M

where 1/2V1, 1/4B1- a layer of amorphous silicon optical thickness0/8 and0/16, respectively;

1/2V2, 3/4B2a dielectric layer with a high refractive index optical thickness0/8 and 3/160respectively.

In this case, as with high refraction layer IN2ispoll as N-layer using SiO2(n = 1,46) or MgF2(n = 1,38) optical thickness0/2, as IN2-use layer TiO2(n = 2,30), ZrO2(n = 2,02), HfO2(n = 1,98) and others, the refractive index of which is higher than that of SiO2or MgF2.

In multilayer coatings, members of the multilayer mirrors of the present technical solution, defined by the arrangement of layers with high and low refractive indices. A layer of semiconductor material (1) formed on the surface of the substrate; it is a dielectric layer with a high refractive index (2), which in turn formed the dielectric layer with a low refractive index (N) in contact with the metal reflective layer (M). The specified location of the layers is crucial for the formation of the spectral characteristics of reflectance, providing glare effect mirrors and good vidnosti.

When choosing the optimal optical thickness of the semiconductor with high refraction layer (no more than0/4) effects of light absorption in the semiconductor film are minor and do not adversely affect the quality of the reflective coatings. On the other is emalaysia and nizkoroslogo layers of the multilayer coating of the present technical solution allows to achieve big, compared with the prototype, results in the suppression of the blinding effect, using multi-layer coating of a small number of layers (2-3), and to increase the width of the relative sensitivity of 10-30 nm, i.e., to increase the relative vidnosti.

Multilayer coating is formed by various physico-chemical methods of thin film deposition, such as evaporation in a vacuum ion-plasma magnetron sputtering, plasma chemical deposition from the hydrides and ORGANOMETALLIC compounds.

A metal film of high reflectance is formed by the same method used for multilayer coatings, preferably in a single technological cycle. The latter easily provides high manufacturability multilayer mirrors.

The feature of the multilayer mirrors of the proposed technical solution also lies in the fact that, as with high refraction of the semiconductor material using at least one of the following: amorphous silicon (a-Si), amorphous hydrogenated silicon (a-Si:H), amorphous silicon-germanium alloy (a-SiGe), hydrogenated amorphous silicon-germanium alloy (a-SiGe: H) or other alloys n the research Institute of the distinctive features of the described multilayer mirrors were no similar known solutions, concerning the use of amorphous silicon-based alloys as the material of the multilayer coating multilayer mirrors.

Conducted by the applicant's analysis of the prior art, including searching by the patent and scientific and technical information sources, and identify sources that contain information about the equivalents of the claimed invention, has allowed to establish that the applicant had not discovered similar, characterized by signs, identical with all the essential features of the claimed invention. The definition from the list of identified unique prototype as the most similar essential features of the analog revealed the essential towards perceived by the applicant to the technical result of the distinctive features in the claimed multilayer mirror, set forth in the claims.

To verify compliance of the claimed invention the term "inventive step", the applicant conducted an additional search of the known solutions to identify signs that match the distinctive features of the prototype of the characteristics of the claimed device. The search results showed that the claimed invention does not follow for specialist explicit treatment provided the essential features of the claimed invention transformations to achieve a technical result.

In Fig. 1 shows the relative spectral luminous efficiency (vidnosti) the human eye in the dark (curve 1); the spectral energy characteristic radiation headlights (curve 2); the result of their work (curve 3), and Fig. 2 - the reflectance spectra of the known multilayer mirrors [8], curves 1-5 characterize the dependence of R() for different designs of multilayer mirrors; Fig. 3 is the result of work V()R()P() for multilayer mirrors prototype [8], Fig. 4 is a multilayer mirror with a multilayer coating of two layers (a) and three layers (b), are marked by numbers: 1, 11 is a glass substrate; 2, 12 - with high refraction layer of amorphous silicon; 3, 14 - nizkoplotnye dielectric layer; 4, 15 - layer was highly reflective metal; 13 - with high refraction dielectric layer; Fig. 5 - spectral characteristics of the reflectivity of multilayer mirrors with two-layer coating of the present technical solution, Fig. 6 is the result of work V()R()P() for multilayer mirrors of the present invention with a two-layer coating (curve 1), and Fig. 7 - spectral characteristics of the reflectivity of multilayer mirrors with a three-layer coating of Fig. 8 is the result of about the

The tool embodying the claimed multilayer mirror in its implementation, is intended for use in industry, namely in the automotive industry.

Multilayer mirror embodying the claimed invention, it is able to achieve perceived by the applicant of the technical result.

Example 1. In Fig. 4,in an enlarged scale the view in the context of multilayer mirrors, where 1 is a glass substrate; 2 - layer semiconductor (In) optical thickness0/4 (in this example0is the reference wavelength in the formation of the coating and 520 nm, respectively,0/4 is equal to 130 nm) made from amorphous silicon (a-Si) having a refractive index of 3.5; 3 - layer material with low refractive index (2H), having an optical thickness0/2 (260 nm) made of SiO2(n = 1,46); 4 - film Al. Thus, in the multilayer mirror of this example, on one side of the glass substrate to form a multilayer coating consisting of In-layer 2N-layer and the Al film arranged in order, when the layer is in contact with the substrate.

The spectral characteristic of the reflection coefficient of the multi-stakeholder the people, because it has a low reflectance in the wavelength 480-530 nm, where the product range of vidnosti the human eye in the dark and spectral energy characteristics of automobile headlamp high. It is evident from Fig. 5 also shows that the mirror has a high reflectance in the blue (430-480 nm) and red (540-700 nm) wavelengths, where the sensitivity of the human eye in brightness is small. The selectivity of the reflection of the mirror does not reduce critical integral (visible range) the magnitude of the reflection coefficient, which is equal 0,51.

In Fig. 6 shows the result of work V()R()P() in the visible range, obtained for a mirror of this example (curve 1) in comparison with the result of such works for a mirror prototype [8] curve 2. It is evident from Fig. 6 it follows that for a mirror of this example, the width of the relative sensitivity equal to 110 nm, 10 nm wider compared to the best design of the prototype. When this multilayer mirror of the present technical solution is coated in two layers, while the mirror cover of the prototype consists of four dielectric layers. Thus, the proposed multi-layer automotive mirror has a high capacity for pogrebennoi compared to the prototype.

Example 2. In Fig. 4,b in an enlarged scale the view in the context of multilayer mirrors of the present invention, where 11 is a glass substrate; a 12 - layer semiconductor (1/2B1) optical thickness0/8 (in this example0520 nm, respectively, 0/8 is equal to 65 nm), a layer of amorphous silicon (a-Si) having a refractive index of 3.5; 13 - layer dielectric material with a high refractive index (1/2V2) having an optical thickness0/8 (65 nm) made of ZrO2(n = 2,02); 14 - layer dielectric material with low refractive index (2H), having an optical thickness0/2 (260 nm) made of SiO2(n = 1,46); 15 - film aluminum. Thus, on one side of the glass substrate to form a multilayer coating consisting of 1/2V1-layer 1/2V2-layer 2N-layer and the Al film arranged in order, when IN1layer in contact with the substrate, and the N-layer film of aluminum.

The spectral characteristics of the reflectivity of this multilayer mirrors is shown in Fig. 7. It is evident from Fig. 7 shows also that the mirror has a high reflectance in the blue (430-480 nm) and red (540-700 nm) wavelengths, where coustical the integral (visible range) the magnitude of the reflection coefficient, which is equal to 0.38.

In Fig. 8 shows the result of work V()R()P() in the visible range, obtained for a mirror of this example (curve 1) in comparison with the result of such works for a mirror prototype [8] curve 2. It is evident from Fig. 8 it follows that for a mirror of this example, the width of the relative sensitivity equal to 128 nm, about 30 nm wider than the mirrors prototype with four-layer dielectric coating.

Sources of information

1. Ged N. F. The parameter measuring devices optoelectronics. - M.: Radio and communication, 1981. - 386 S.

2. Rosenberg, Century Optics of thin-layer coatings. - M.: Fizmatgiz, 1958. - 570 C.

3. The Japan Patent 212704/1985.

4. International lighting vocabulary. - M.: Fizmatgiz, 1963. - 428 S.

5. The Japan Patent 74005/1988.

6. U.S. patent 4805989, G 02B 5/08, 1989.

7. U.S. patent 4921331, G 02B 5/08, 1990.

8. U.S. patent 4955705, G 02B 5/08, 1990.

9. Physical encyclopedic dictionary. - M.: Soviet encyclopedia, 1995. - 928 S.

10. OST 37.001 451-87 "Mirrors exterior rearview trucks, trains, buses and trolleybuses. Technical requirements".

11. OST 37.001 209-78 "rearview Mirror of the automobile automobile vehicles including a transparent substrate, a multilayer coating formed on one side of the substrate, and a metal layer formed on the multilayer coating that includes at least one layer of material with a high refractive index and at least one layer of a material with low refractive index, and at least one layer of material with a high refractive index formed on the surface of the substrate, wherein at least one layer of material with a high refractive index is formed from a semiconductor material with a refractive index of 3.4 to 3.8, which is used or amorphous silicon, or amorphous hydrogenated silicon, or amorphous silicon-germanium alloy, or amorphous hydrogenated silicon-germanium alloy.

 

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