Installation for cooling a natural gas compressor stations of main gas pipeline
(57) Abstract:For cooling gas flow applied heat pump, which is provided with an additional evaporator, installed on the pipeline before the supercharger pumping unit, and an additional choke in front of the additional evaporator in the direction of the refrigerant at the entrance of the compressor of the heat pump is connected to both the evaporator and the outlet and inlet tube space of the condenser of the heat pump is connected with the consumer of thermal energy. On the pipeline after each evaporator refrigerant installed temperature sensors whose outputs are connected to the control device, and the outputs of the latter are connected with actuators control valves of the heat pump for automatic temperature control of gas flow. The use of a heat pump with two evaporators of the refrigerant in the chiller natural gas with automatic regulation of the amount taken from the gas stream heat input and at the output of the supercharger compressor units can reduce the power consumed in compressing the gas, and a connection pipe of different energy resources. 1 Il. The invention relates to refrigeration and can be used for transportation of natural gas through main gas pipelines.Known devices for cooling natural gas containing sequentially connected to the gas line after the gas compressor unit air cooler and the evaporator of the refrigeration machine .The lack of such facilities is that in winter, when the gas has a low temperature, excessive cooling of the gas stream can lead to the destruction of the metal pipe.The closest technical solution, selected as a prototype, is the setting for cooling natural gas , containing sequentially connected to the gas main compressor, air cooler and the evaporator of the refrigerating machine equipped with a cooled condenser, which is to improve operational reliability of the main gas pipeline is made of two sections, and one of its sections is connected to the gas line before the compressor to heat the gas flow in the winter.However, using this setting affects the energy performance is>C increases power consumption to a contraction of 0.6%.The purpose of the invention is the reduction of unit energy costs for the transportation of gas.This goal is achieved by the fact that cooling of the gas stream used heat pump , which is provided with an additional evaporator mounted on the pipe before the compressor gas compressor unit (GCU), and an additional choke in front of the additional evaporator in the direction of the refrigerant at the entrance of the compressor of the heat pump is connected to both the evaporator and the outlet and inlet tube space of the condenser of the heat pump is connected with the consumer of thermal energy. On the pipeline after each evaporator refrigerant install temperature sensors whose outputs are connected to the control device, and outputs the latter is connected with actuating mechanisms regulating valves heat pump for automatic temperature control of gas flow.Comparative analysis of the proposed technical solution with the prototype shows that the use of a heat pump with two evaporators of the refrigerant in the plant for cooling is the amount taken from the gas stream heat input, and at the exit of the compressor gas compressor unit allows to reduce the power consumed HPA, and a connection pipe space of the condenser of the heat pump with the consumer of thermal energy provides the utilization of secondary energy resources.The drawing shows a block diagram of the installation for cooling a natural gas compressor station gas pipeline.The diagram shows the heat pump TONS, gas-pumping unit GPA, a linear section of the main pipeline G and the receiver thermal energy PTE.Heat pump VT contains:
two evaporator refrigerant 1 and 2, tubular space which passes the gas stream (teplootdachi);
two circuits I and II of the refrigerant, consisting of a compressor 2 driven adjustable motor M, the input of which is connected to the annular space of the refrigerant evaporators 1 and 7, and the output from the annular space of the condenser 3, hadproved 4, control valves 5 and 8, driven actuators 6 and 9, respectively.Tube space of the condenser 3 TON heat pump, which circulates the heat sink, industrial evaporator refrigerant 1 installed on the pipeline gas temperature sensor DT, and on the pipeline downstream of the evaporator refrigerant 7 - gas temperature sensor T, the outputs of which are connected respectively with the first and second inputs of the control unit CU. The third and fourth inputs of the unit SU is connected respectively Adjuster gas temperature to T01and after T02its compression. The outputs of the control unit CU is connected with the actuators 6 and 9 control valves 5 and 8 are installed on hadproved 4 respectively in the first and second paths of circulation of the refrigerant.The device operates as follows.The flow of gas of high temperature is supplied into the tube space of the evaporator refrigerant 1 and further to the input of the supercharger pumping unit GPA, and after compression, through the tube space of the evaporator refrigerant 7, in a linear pipeline portion, the annulus evaporators 1 and 7 is fed to the refrigerant, which under the action of gas flow temperature (caloosahatchie) boils, and its fumes are sucked by the compressor 2 at the same time from both evaporators, thus constantly maintained low pressure and hence low temperature. Compressed by the compressor 2 pairs of refrigerant to magnetoelectronics and the heat pipe 10 of the receiver thermal energy PTE, resulting condensed. From the condenser 3, the liquid refrigerant flows into the circuits I and II of the refrigerant, and passing control valves 5 and 8, enters the annulus of refrigerant evaporators 1 and 7 TON heat pump. Then work the cycle repeats.Sensor DT measure the temperature of the flow of the cooled gas before compression. The signal from DC fed to the input of the control unit CU, where it is compared with a predetermined setpoint temperature T01. When the temperature changes of the gas stream at the inlet of the compressor station, you receive the difference (the error) temperature T1according to which device the SU generates a control signal actuating mechanism 6 of the valve 5 for regulating (by throttling the flow of refrigerant in the first circuit VT, resulting in stabilizing the temperature of the gas stream at a given level before compression.Sensor DT measure the temperature of the gas stream after compression and cooling in the beginning of the linear parts of main gas pipeline, the Signal from the sensor D is supplied to the second input of the control unit CU, where it is compared with a predetermined setpoint temperature T02. If the gas consumption has SU generates a control signal actuating mechanism 9 of the valve 8 for controlling the flow of refrigerant in the second circuit TN, resulting stabilize the temperature of the gas stream at the specified level after compression.Adjusting simultaneously thus the refrigerant flow in both circuits, TN, change the number of selected heat from the gas stream, which, transformed, transmitted to the heat sink and then flows through the heat pipe 10 to the consumer of thermal energy PTE.The use of the proposed installation for cooling a natural gas compressor stations of main gas pipeline allows you to reduce power consumption on its compression and, in contrast to known devices, enables the utilization of secondary energy resources in full, which leads to an overall reduction of specific energy consumption for the transport of gas. In addition, using this installation eliminates the destruction of metal piping from cold it is in winter, which increases the operational reliability of the gas pipeline.Sources of information
1. USSR author's certificate N 383974, F 25 D 25/00, 1973.2. USSR author's certificate N 545819, F 16 L 53/00, 1977.3. Polytechnical dictionary/ CH. Ed. by Acad. A. Y. Mechanics. - P 50 2nd ed. - M.: Soviet encyclopedia, 1980, S. 519.6
FIELD: refrigeration industry; cooling installations components.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with the field of cooling installations equipment and may be used for production of air conditioning systems. The gas compressor contains a body and located in it two driving and two driven pistons. The body is made out of two hemispheres and contains two gaskets made out of an antifriction heat-insulating elastic-flexible material. Each piston is made in the form of ball-type sectors, on a spherical surface of each of which there is an elastic member. An aperture angle of lateral surfaces of the sectors of the driving pistons makes 86° - 90°, and an aperture angle of the lateral surfaces of the sectors of the driven pistons makes 42°-83°. A groove is made radial with trapezoidal cross-section and oriented perpendicularly to axes of the shaft of the compressor. The bases of the cross-section are in ratio of 1:2 - 1:5, and a lateral side is equal to the length of the smaller base. The elastic member is located on the bottom of each groove and its cross-section is an ellipse. The bigger diameter of the ellipse by 3-7 % is more than the length of the centerline of the trapezoidal cross-section of such a groove. On the elastic member there is the second elastic member of a rectangular cross section, the width of which by 2-5 % exceeds the length of the smaller base of the groove, and its length ensures formation of a ledge on the ball-type surface of the piston, the height of which makes 1-3 % of the smaller base of the groove. The invention allows to increase efficiency of the gas compressor.
EFFECT: the invention ensures increased efficiency of the gas compressor.
FIELD: refrigeration equipment, particularly using carbon-dioxide.
SUBSTANCE: compression refrigeration machine preferably using carbon-dioxide as refrigerant comprises compressor, heat exchanger, cooler (condenser), expander, liquid coolant separator linked to inlet compressor pipe by pipeline. Pipeline is provided with automatic butterfly valve maintaining constant pressure upstream butterfly valve. Machine also includes pump, connected to electric motor and linked to expander by its shaft, and evaporator. Separator has opened vapor cavity and is installed in air-tight case together with expander and liquid coolant pump. Liquid coolant pump is connected to electric motor and to expander shaft by microprocessor-operated electromagnetic clutches. Microprocessor is linked to compressor.
EFFECT: increased efficiency.
FIELD: mechanical engineering; refrigerating units of transport facilities proper and cargo carried in them.
SUBSTANCE: proposed refrigerating plant has compressor, condenser, throttling unit and one or several evaporators. Used as working medium is liquid whose boiling point exceeds ambient temperature, for example water, mixture of water and ethyl alcohol or low-boiling organic fluids. Proposed plant is equipped with turbo-compressor. Working pressure inside system is maintained below atmospheric pressure. Rarefaction is maintained by periodic discharge of working medium vapor from condenser by means of additional compressor or vacuum pump. Working medium vapor discharged from condenser is fed to suction air branch pipe of engine. Entrainment separator is mounted between evaporators and compressor. Check valve is fitted between compressor and condenser. Vacuum hoses are used as parts of piping.
EFFECT: avoidance of penetration of ecologically toxic refrigerants into surrounding atmosphere; possibility of connecting many evaporators.
FIELD: refrigeration equipment, particularly used to utilize secondary energy and natural source energy having low potential, namely for combined heat and cold production.
SUBSTANCE: refrigeration plant comprises body, turbine, compressor, supply pump, evaporative and condensation chambers and capillary system for working liquid throttling. The body is separated into power and cooling sections by solid partition. Evaporative, working and condensation chambers are created in the power section. Inside surfaces of side evaporative chamber walls and partition are covered with wick. Inner surface of end wall is provided with grooves and covered with thin porous material layer. Shaft extends through body walls, power and cooling sections, solid partition and wick layers. Feed pump rotor is put on shaft end so that the pump is communicated with working liquid reservoir. Arranged in cooling sections are low-temperature evaporative chamber and compressive condensation chamber communicated by compressor to which vapor flow is fed. Compressor rotor is put on shaft.
EFFECT: increased performance.
FIELD: refrigeration or cooling, particularly compression machines, plant or systems with non-reversible cycle.
SUBSTANCE: refrigeration plant comprises two-step compressor, condenser, receiver, regulating valve, economizer, air cooler and mixing chamber. The receiver is provided with coil and may act as liquid separator, circulation, linear and drain receivers to provide dosed coolant supply into cooling system. The first compressor stage cylinders may suck coolant from receiver and feed coolant in mixing chamber. Vapor exiting from economizer is also fed into the mixing chamber. The second stage cylinders suck vapor from mixing chamber and supply vapor to condenser. Liquid coolant from condenser passes into receiver via economizer and coil and then into air cooler through regulation valve. Vapor from air cooler enters receiver.
EFFECT: reduced ammonia consumption, power inputs, costs and increased plant safety.
FIELD: refrigerating engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed refrigerating plant includes compressor, condenser, receiver, adjusting valve and air cooler. Receiver is provided with coil; it may combine function of liquid separator, linear and drainage receivers. Compressor is used for suction of cooling agent vapor from receiver. Vapor from air cooler is admitted to receiver. When condenser of heat exchanger is overfilled with liquid cooling agent, it is automatically discharged to receiver. At removal of snow from air cooler surface, condensate is drained into receiver. For preheating liquid in receiver, use is made of flat flexible heating element manufactured from non-metallic resistive materials; it is connected and disconnected by command from level relay.
EFFECT: reduced power requirements; low cost of refrigerating plant; enhanced safety.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: cooling engineering.
SUBSTANCE: refrigerating plant comprises two-stage compressors, condenser, one-stage compressor, economizer, float valve, and three receivers. The third receiver is provided with a separating column. The receivers are made for permitting operating as liquid separator, circulating linear, and drain receivers, and batching the coolant charge. The two-stage compressors are made for permitting sucking the vapors of coolant from the receivers of low-temperature cooling systems and supplying them to economizers for cooling and for permitting sucking vapors from the economizers and delivering them to the condensers and, then, through the economizers, to the receivers. The vapor-liquid mixture enters the separating column of the vapor from which it is supplied to the receiver. When defreezing, the vapor-liquid mixture enters the separating column of the receiver through the float valve.
EFFECT: enhanced safety and reduced power consumption.