The base alloy of gallium
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to alloys of gallium. The alloy contains gallium, indium and tin in the following ratio, wt.%: gallium 67 - 92, India 5 - 22, tin, 3 - 11. The alloy may optionally contain up to 2 wt.% bismuth and/or up to 2 wt.% antimony and impurities of lead and/or zinc in an amount of not more than 0.0001 wt.%. We offer alloy can be used as a measuring fluid to thermometers or as a lubricant that enhances its technological capabilities. 3 C.p. f-crystals, 2 Il. The invention relates to alloys, in particular to the base alloy of gallium.Famous-based alloy of gallium containing indium (see patent GB N 246843, 1926). Known alloy contains gallium and indium in a ratio of 95 : 5. It is used as a measuring fluid to thermometers. However, the known alloy is solidified at a low temperature, why when it is used as a measuring liquid thermometer can crack.Thus, the disadvantage of this alloy is that its technological capabilities are limited.The objective of the invention is to enhance the technological capabilities of Spago, he further comprises tin, in the following ratio, wt.%:
Gallium - 67 - 92
Indium - 5 - 22
Tin - 3 - 11
At the specified composition of the alloy is liquid at temperature ranges of from about -15oC to above +1800oC.Preferably the proposed alloy is used as the measuring liquid to thermometers. Due to its low melting point and high boiling point of the proposed alloy meets the requirements of this measuring liquid. Components of gallium, indium and tin is especially low point of the eutectic. In addition, the alloy has an electrical conductivity, making it suitable for use in contact thermometers.We offer alloy can also be used as a lubricant, in particular when used in a vacuum, high vacuum and ultra high vacuum.According to a preferred variant of the invention, the alloy may contain up to 2 wt. % bismuth, and about 2 wt.% antimony. Antimony increases the resistance to oxidation, and bismuth beneficial effect on the fluidity of the alloy. In addition, antimony, and bismuth as well as tin, are cheap substances that lying is 2 wt.% leads to a noticeable and undesirable increase the melting point.Preferably, we offer alloy contains only a small proportion of impurities, such as lead or zinc, which is less than 0.001 wt.%, in particular less than 0.0001 weight%.According to a particularly preferred form of the invention, the alloy contains components in the following ratio, wt.%:
Gallium - 68 - 69
Indium - 21 - 22
Tin - 9,5 - 10,5
The alloy of this composition has a melting point under normal conditions at atmospheric pressure -19,5oC.We offer alloy can be used as a measuring fluid to thermometer, made with the possibility of specifying the maximum temperature, and thermometer can be shown on the design drawings. In the drawings presents:
Fig. 1 is a view of thermometer in the front,
Fig. 2 is a cross section along the line I-I in Fig. 1.According to the drawing in the glass body 1 placed the tank 2 with the measuring capillary tube 3 connected to the tank 2 through the intermediate section 4. The tank 2 is filled with the proposed eutectic alloy 5, which according to Fig. 1 has already reached a certain height due to the increase in temperature. In the area of the measuring capillary tube 3, the vessel is equipped with a scale of 6.As can be seen n is gesio alloy 5 to the measuring capillary tube 3. In contrast, the intermediate section 4 is preferably made with a circular cross section of the passage in order to reduce the adhesion force on a given area, thus providing an indication of the maximum thermometer temperature.Near the opposite tank 2 to the end of thermometer on the outer surface of the glass body 1 weld small irregular protrusions, forming a covering body 1 ring, which not only facilitates the manipulation of thermometer, but can also be painted and to serve as a code. 1. The base alloy of gallium containing indium and tin, used as a measuring fluid to thermometers or as a lubricant, characterized in that it contains these components in the following ratio, wt.%:
Gallium - 67 - 92
Indium - 5 - 22
Tin - 3 - 11
2. Alloy under item 1, characterized in that it contains these components in the following ratio, wt.%:
Gallium - 68 - 69
Indium - 21 - 22
Tin - 9,5 - 10,5
3. Rafting on the PP.1 and 2, characterized in that it additionally contains up to 2 wt.% bismuth and/or up to 2 wt.% antimony.4. Rafting on one of the PP.1 to 3, characterized in that it contains an admixture of pig
FIELD: metallurgy; metallohydride alloys for thermal pumps, air-conditioners, cold generators.
SUBSTANCE: proposed metallohydride pair of alloys contains low-temperature and high-temperature alloys; low-temperature alloy has composition mm1-xLaxNi4CO(0.1≤x≤0.999) and high-temperature alloy has composition LaNi5-xAlx (0.001≤x≤0.5).
EFFECT: increased cold generating capacity of thermal pump at pressure in system not below atmospheric.
2 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: non-ferrous metallurgy; methods of production of scandium-containing ligatures.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of non-ferrous metallurgy. The method of production of scandium-containing addition alloys includes a metallothermic restoration in halogenide melts. According to the invention the halogenide melt containing 1.0-1.4 mass % of scandium oxide is added with 1.4-1.7 mass % of zirconium oxide and conduct restoration by an alloy of aluminum with magnesium at the ratio of the halogenide melt to the aluminum-magnesium alloy from 1.2 up to 1.6. The technical result of the invention is production of a synthesized addition alloy containing scandium and zirconium with the maximal strengthening effect, decreased value of the produced addition alloy (by 30-40 %) due to decrease of consumption of the cost intensive scandium oxide by 50 %.
EFFECT: the invention ensures production of a synthesized scandium and zirconium ligature with maximal strength, allows to decrease significantly its production cost and consumption of expensive scandium oxide.
1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: compression refrigeration machines.
SUBSTANCE: regenerative material is defined by the formula R2O2S, where R represents at least one of rare-earth elements such as La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Cd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Ly, and Y. The regenerator provided with nozzle made of regenerative material on the basis of rare-earth metal oxysulfide comprises oxysulfide of rare-earth metal defined by the formula R2O2S.
EFFECT: prolonged service life.
25 cl, 8 dwg, 17 tbl, 28 ex
SUBSTANCE: films and coatings made form proposed alloy can be used in the capacity of corrosion-resistant elements of control systems in precision instrument making, in the form of thin resistive films and coatings of circuit elements of resistance, operating at influence of corrosive mediums. Invention is directed to achievement of high corrosion stability in sea-water and increasing of processing characteristics at application of films and coatings. Optimal by achieved effect is alloy at following correlation of components, wt %: chrome 20.0-25.0; zirconium 5.0-9.0; cerium 0.1-0.9; germanium - the rest. Characteristics of proposed alloy: corrosion stability 0.001-0.005 mm/year, adhesion of films 8-12 MPa, cohesion of films 6.5-10.2 MPa. Films correspond nano-structured system with separation of nanoparticles of size from 30 up to 150 nm.
EFFECT: development of precision alloys with particular physicochemical properties, operating in corrosive mediums.
2 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method includes treatment of contact surfaces to remove oxide film, heating of contact surfaces and application of metal coating from gallium alloy by local contact melting. Removal of oxide film is made by chemical treatment of contact surfaces with the first etching solution with its subsequent neutralisation and cleaning of contact surfaces from etching results. Then mechanical cleaning of contact surfaces is carried out by polishing, afterwards contact surfaces are heated, metal coating of gallium alloy is applied in the medium of the second etching solution, and subsequent neutralisation of remains of the second etching solution is carried out.
EFFECT: improved loading capacity of knock-down electric contact joint during transfer of electric energy without change in design of contact joint, while the temperature mode of operation is within the permissible limit.
8 cl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: according to procedure there is used source charge containing sodium fluoride, potassium chloride, scandium oxide or fluoride, aluminium fluoride, hydro-fluoride of potassium and oxy-fluoride of zirconium and/or hafnium. Charge is mixed with metal aluminium to maintain weight ratio of components of charge to aluminium, as 1:0.8-1.1. Produced mixture is loaded into a crucible and is heated to temperature 800-900°C. Further, there is carried out alumino-thermal reduction at melt mixing. Melt is conditioned during 15-30 min and salt melt and liquid metal are poured separately into moulds. Source charge contains components at the following ratio, wt %: oxide or fluoride of scandium 4.3÷12.0, aluminium fluoride 5.0÷8.0, sodium fluoride 14.5÷18, potassium hydro-fluoride 1÷3, zirconium and/or hafnium oxy-fluoride 8÷15.4, potassium chloride - the rest.
EFFECT: improved modifying effect of alloying components, simplified process and reduced rotation of salts.
2 cl, 6 ex, 1 tbl
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to soldering by gallium-based diffusion-curable solder and can be used for making permanent bonds of different materials, in particular, for low-temperature flux free soldering of metals and ceramics with metals. Solder to this end comprises copper, gallium and tin. Note here that it contains copper with particle size of 25-45 mcm and gallium-tin alloy at definite ratio of components.
EFFECT: low-viscosity high setting rate solder for flux-free soldering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed active material contains the alloy of composition formula SixTiyZnz, where each of x, y and z is the mass percent content satisfying the relationship x+y+z=100, 38≤x<100, 0<y<62 and 0<z<62. Negative electrode comprises said active material. Electric device represents a storage battery with active material of negative electrode.
EFFECT: high initial capacity at high cycling characteristics.
10 cl, 10 dwg, 1 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: manufacturing method of rare-earth magnets involves a stage of bringing a compacted item obtained by hot processing in order to create anisotropy in a sintered item having a rare-earth magnetic composition in contact with alloy melt with a low fusion temperature, which contains a rare-earth element.
EFFECT: increasing a coercitive force without any addition of large amount of such rare-earth elements as Dy and Tb.
13 cl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of a rare-earth magnet. At the first stage a compacted powder part is produced from a powder including the main phase RE-Fe-B, where RE is at least one of either Nd or Pr, and the phase of inter-grain boundary around the main phase in the form of alloy RE-X, where X is a metal. Second stage involves hot deformation treatment of the compacted powder part to obtain magnetic anisotropy with production of a rare-earth magnet. Herewith the hot deformation treatment at the second stage comprises two steps, which represent an extrusion to produce a semi-finished product and settling of the semi-finished product. During the extrusion the compacted powder part is placed in a molding head to apply pressure to the compacted powder part with the help of an extrusion die with provision of reduced thickness of the compacted powder part to produce a semi-finished product shaped as a sheet, and during the setting pressure is applied to the semi-finished product shaped as a sheet in the direction of its thickness to reduce the thickness in order to produce the rare-earth magnet.
EFFECT: provided is production of a rare-earth magnet with high degree of orientation over its entire area and high residual magnetization.
6 cl, 18 dwg, 4 tbl