The method of separation of water on the spin-modification and device for its implementation
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the field of separation of substances. Water vapor is served at a certain pressure in the separation column filled with the substance to be selectively adsorbing one of the spin-modifications. In the process of adsorption of water vapor within the column is enriched in the other modification. Water vapor is pumped out of the column for use or for accumulation in a ditch by numerazione. Water vapor generated within the column in the desorption process, also is pumped out for use. Repeating cycles over and over again, you can get water, enriched as ortho-and para-spin-modification. The technical result of the claimed invention is expressed in the technical implementation of the method of separation of water on the spin-modification. 2 S. and 2 C.p. f-crystals, 2 Il. The invention relates to the field of separation of substances, and more specifically to the enrichment of water ortho - or para-spin modifications, and can be used in chemical engineering, medicine, agriculture, biotechnology, cosmetic and perfume industry.You know the phenomenon of selective spin-modifications to the adsorption of water molecules on the surface and crystals from the rotational state of the molecule. The sum of all rotational States of water molecules can be divided into two subsystems belonging respectively para - and ortho-modifications. Within each subsystem is installed thermodynamic equilibrium due to the relaxation transitions between rotational levels during the collision of molecules. At the same time the transition from one subsystem to another within a very large extent, Smoking, almost can be regarded as water vapor composed of two different not blending into each other substances (time constant with which the complete system tends to thermodynamic equilibrium, is approximately 4.4 days). In a certain pressure range, when not all the centers of adsorption on the surface of the substance filled with water molecules, the probability of adsorption for water molecules will depend on belonging to one or the other subsystem levels.There is a method of separating gases on the spin-modification based on the phenomenon of photoinduced drift (LED-effect). The powerful laser radiation is passed along the tube with a gas of low density, which causes the movement of gas molecules to one end of the tube when the frequency of the radiation matches the frequency of the absorption line molecul this spin-modification leads to separation .However, the separation of the spin-modifications of water in this way is still technically was not implemented.Closest to the present invention is a method of separating water on the spin-modification, based on the phenomenon of heterogeneous condensation of water molecules in clusters of carbon dioxide. Water vapor and carbon dioxide are mixed in the prechamber and the resulting mixture is subjected to expansion into vacuum through the hole that leads to the formation of a supersonic jet in a vacuum chamber. At a certain distance from the opening of the gas mixture stream is cooled to the condensation temperature of carbon dioxide. Water molecules are trapped in clusters, carbon dioxide, and clusters predominantly condense the vapor molecules-modification water. The clusters are selected in the cuvette of a supersonic jet using a Pitot tube, passing through the shock wave front tip of the tube, while the light gas component of the mixture is scattered by the shock wave. In a ditch is formed a mixture of carbon dioxide and water vapor enriched vapor molecules-modification .The disadvantages of this method are the need to use equipment to create a supersonic gas stream that Akonadi from the gas stream, the possibility of enrichment of water by only one spin-modification (steam-water) and the inability to obtain enrichment of ortho-modification. In addition, the final product of this method is a mixture of carbon dioxide and water vapor, and to obtain clean water with a high content of steam-modification required to split their mixtures.An object of the invention "Method of separation of water on the spin-modification is to increase the performance of the process of enrichment of water one of the spin-modifications (ortho - or para-water).In the present invention a pair of equilibrium spin modifications of distilled water served in the separation column filled with the substance to be selectively adsorbing one of the spin-modifications. For concreteness of description, we assume that the adsorbed predominantly para-modification (in the General case it may be, and Vice versa, ortho-modification). After completion of the process of adsorption of water vapor within the column is enriched in ortho-water, and pumped from the column to use as ortho-water. Over time, characteristic of the absorbent material inside the column in the desorption process accumulates leading ocess desorption lasts longer than the adsorption process and its completion, the concentration of water vapor vapor-modification is negligible, so the last portion of the desorbed water vapor pumped into the atmosphere without use. Thus completes a full cycle of the process of separating water on the spin-modification and repeating cycles over and over again, get as ortho-water and steam-water.It is known a device for the separation of spin-modifications based on LED-effect. The device contains a laser cell with partial gas, the pumping system. The device operates as follows: the laser beam passes through the sample cell, while the part of the radiation is absorbed by one of the spin-modifications that cause photoinduced drift and separation of the spin-modifications .The drawbacks are the necessity of using a powerful laser, which significantly complicates the installation and requires high energy consumption due to low efficiency and low productivity.A device that is most similar to that proposed for enrichment of water vapor one of the spin-modifications described in . The device contains a compressed carbon dioxide gas, a container of water, a settling chamber, a vacuum chamber with RA is the device operates as follows: water vapor and carbon dioxide are mixed in the prechamber, and the resulting mixture is due to expire in the vacuum chamber through the opening in the wall of the pre-chamber. The Pitot tube are selected clusters of carbon dioxide and condensed them water molecules (predominantly para-modification), which are then collected in a ditch.The drawbacks are the need to use equipment to create a supersonic gas flow, which complicates the installation, low productivity due to condensation on the cluster only a small part of the water from the gas stream, the possibility of enrichment of water by only one spin-modification (steam-water) and the inability to obtain enrichment of ortho-modification. In addition, the final product of this method is a mixture of carbon dioxide and water vapor, and to obtain clean water with a high content of steam-modification required to split their mixtures.An object of the invention is the technical implementation of the proposed "method of separation of water on the spin-modification".In Fig. 1 shows a device for separating water on the spin-modification.The vessel with distilled water (1) is attached to the measuring nozzle for controlling flow of water vapor (2) and then to the entrance DV the entrance of the separating column (4). To the output of the separation column, attached three-way vacuum switching valve (6). Monometr (5) is also connected to the separation column. One outlet valve (6) connected to the evacuation system (7), the second to a ditch to collect ortho-water (8) and the third is to ditch for collecting steam-water (9).The device operates as follows.A pair of ordinary water, equilibrium spin modifications come from the water container (1) in the separation column (4), filled with substance, selectively adsorbing one of the spin-modifications. Measuring nozzle (2) is used to create a controlled design flow of water vapor. For concreteness of description, we assume that the adsorbed predominantly para-modification (in the General case it may be, and Vice versa, ortho-modification). The process results in the selective adsorption of water vapor within the column is enriched in ortho-water. During this process the valve (3) connects the vessel with water (1) and the inlet of the separation column (4) and the valve (6) connects the output of the separation column, and a cell for the collection of ortho-water (8). After completion of the process of selective adsorption, when filled most of the centers of adsorption, the valve (3) closes and the valve (6) is switched on with the mA speakers and absorbent material. In column begins desorption process and accumulate water vapor enriched vapor is water, which is collected in a ditch for steam-water (9). The desorption process lasts longer than the adsorption process and its completion, the concentration of water vapor vapor-modification is negligible, so the last portion of the desorbed water vapor is discharged into the atmosphere without use. Switching valve (6) connects the output of the separation column and the pumping system. Thus completes a full cycle of the process of separating water on the spin-modification, and repeating cycles over and over again, you can get as ortho-water and steam-water. Before starting work, the crane (3) is switched to connect the vessel with water (1) and the pumping system to obezvozhivanija distilled water. The pressure gauge (5) serves to control the pressure in the separation column.The cell to collect the ortho - and para-water can be samarajiva system (10). In this embodiment, water vapor covered the walls and ortho - and para-water accumulate for future use. It uses the difference of the relaxation time of the spin-modified water to thermodynamic equilibrium for g is nitrogen is 4.5 months) . Frozen spin modificirovannaja water can be stored for a long time and then after thawing be used immediately in large quantities.The processes of adsorption and desorption depend on the temperature of the adsorbing substance. With increasing temperature the rate of adsorption decreases, and the rate of desorption increases. To control the processes of adsorption and desorption to increase the device performance of the separation column can be heated and cooled absorbent material.Another opportunity to improve performance is the use of multiple separation columns operating in series, so that the processes of accumulation of ortho - and para-water is continuous. In Fig. 2 shows the system of the five columns (4), the combined switching valves (3) and (6). The synchronized operation of the valve control device (11). While in the first column (4-1) is the accumulation of ortho-water in the second column (4-2) produced steam-water, and the other three columns pumped. In the next period ortho-water accumulating in the column (4-5), steam-water produced in (4-1), and three columns is pumped. And so on, posledovatelnoy column was used vessel made of stainless steel with a volume of 30 liters, filled with alumina adsorption predominantly para-modification. Before starting work, the separation column was pumped to a pressure of 0.1 Torr, the original distilled water was obzharivalas pumping in vacuum. Pressure of water vapor in the column during the adsorption was increased to 5 Torr. The adsorption process lasted for 2 min, the time of steam-water lasted 2 min, duration of pumping - 6 minutes the plant Capacity was approximately 0.1 g of water enriched ortho-modification, and 0.025 g of water enriched para-modification. The degree of enrichment for ortho-water: 96% ortho-molecules and 4% para-molecules; the degree of enrichment for steam-water: 50% ortho-molecules and 50% para-molecules. Thermodynamically equilibrium water consists of 75% ortho-molecules and 25% para-molecules. The method and apparatus proposed in the prototype , allow you to get an hour of not more than 0.002 g of water enriched para-modification.Sources of information
1. Grooms C. K. , Tikhonov C. I., Tikhonov, T. L. // Short notes in physics, No. 9, S. 12-14, 1988.2. Krasnoperov L. N., Panfilov C. N., Strunin B. N., Capowski P. L. // JETP Letters, I. 39, 122 S., 1984 (analog).3. A. S. N 1469289, CL 4 G 01 N 1/10, 1986 (prototype).4. Grooms C. K., Logvinenko B. N. Tikhonov, the torus as the initial substance use distilled water, transfer the water into water vapor, conduct the process of adsorption of water vapor on the adsorbent selectively adsorbing one of the spin-modifications, characterized in that conduct the preliminary outgassing of distilled water, pre-pumping separation column with the adsorbent to a pressure of 0.1 Torr, increase the pressure of water vapor in the separation column to 5 Torr, and then separately collected passed through the separation column and the adsorbed part of the water vapor and store the collected water in frozen form.2. A device for the separation of water on the spin-modification containing vessel with distilled water, the separation column Packed with an adsorbent selectively adsorbing one of the spin-modifications, manometer for measuring the pressure of water vapor in the separation column, vacuum switching valves, the cell to collect the ortho - and para-modifications of water and the pumping system, wherein the first vacuum switching valve is arranged to connect the vessel with distilled water or with the input of the separation column or to the pumping system, the second vacuum switching valve are made with the possibility of connecting the output of the separation column Il the tx2">3. The device according to p. 2 characterized in that the cuvette to collect ortho - and para-modifications of water and is equipped with cooling systems for freezing collect water.4. The device according to p. 2, wherein the separation column is equipped with a system of heating and cooling absorbent material.
FIELD: chemical engineering; medical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method involves plotting two chromatograms one of which is based on radioactivity (No 1) and the other one on ultraviolet absorption (No 2) or on radioactivity (No 1) and on fluorescence (No 2) and chromatogram specific relative to ultraviolet absorption (No 3) or relative to fluorescence (No 3). Material quality is estimated to be the more high the more close studied labeled compound peak shape is to trapezoid shape on the third chromatogram.
EFFECT: high accuracy of the method.
FIELD: analytical chemistry, ecology, in particular controlling of environmental air.
SUBSTANCE: claimed method includes aspiration if air sample through chemosorbtive medium, elution of formed dimethylamine salt, eluate closure with alkali, and gas chromatography analysis of gas phase with flame-ionization detection. Dimethylamine salt elution from adsorbent is carried out with 1 cm3 of distillated water; closured with alkali eluate is held in thermostat for 5 min; and as filling in separating chromatography column chromosorb 103, containing 5 % of PEG-20000 and treated with 20 % hexamethyldisilazane solution is used.
EFFECT: method for dimethylamine detection with improved sensibility and accuracy.
FIELD: chemical industry.
SUBSTANCE: during process of taking sample from technological pipe-line, absorption of water vapors and nitrogen oxides (II) and (IV) are conducted simultaneously. For the purpose the chemical agents are used which don't absorb nitrogen oxide and don't react with it. Chromatographic measurement of volume fraction of nitrogen oxide (I) is carried out by means of industrial chromatograph having heat-conductance detector by using column of thickness of 5 m and diameter of 3 mm. The column is filled with polysorbent; temperature of column's thermostat is 20-30 C and temperature of evaporator is 100C. Hydrogen is used as a gas-carrier. Concentrations of nitrogen oxide, measured by the method, belong to range of 0, 05-0, 50% of volume fraction. Method excludes aggressive affect of corrosion-active components on sensitive parts of chromatograph. Method can be used under industrial conditions for revealing factors influencing process of forming of nitrogen oxide at the stage of catalytic oxidation of ammonia and searching for optimal conditions for minimizing effluent of ammonia into atmosphere.
EFFECT: high reproduction; simplification; improved efficiency of operation.
FIELD: oil and gas production.
SUBSTANCE: aim of invention is estimating expectations for oil and gas of oil-source rock areas. For that aim, sampled rock is treated to isolate organic substance soluble in organic solvents, after which organic substance is chromatographed to detect 4-methyldibenzothiophene and 1-methyldibenzothiophene. When ratio of 4- to 1-isomer exceeds 0.9 rock is regarded as ripened.
EFFECT: increased determination reliability and rapidity.
SUBSTANCE: in the method, hard carrier with system of narrow pores and channels is kept under temperature below height of potential barriers for movement of at least one type of separated molecules.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.
SUBSTANCE: gas analyzer comprises chromatographic columns, detectors, unit for preparing air mounted inside the thermostat, unit for control and processing signals, member for sampling, switches of gas flows, pump for pumping gas mixture, and separating passages connected in parallel and provided with the check valve interposed between them. Each of the separating passages is made of absorbing and separating chromatographic columns connected in series, and the pump is connected to the input of the gas line through the electric valve. The gas analyzer can be made of two separating passages and low pressure chromatographic columns.
EFFECT: enhanced quality of analyzing.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: analytical methods.
SUBSTANCE: to determine methyl alcohol in water, sample to be assayed is preliminarily subjected to distillation with sulfuric acid added in amount required to provide its concentration in mixture to be distilled c(1/2 H2SO4) = 0.002 M, while strippings constitute 6-7% of the volume of sample. Stripped liquid is thrice rinsed with hexane or Nefras at 1:1 hexane (Nefras)-to-strippings ratio. Rinsed material is then introduced into packed column filled with diatomite modified with 1,2,3-tris(β-cyanoethoxy)propane having deposited fixed phase thereon, which phase is prepared by way of consecutively keeping glycerol each time for 4 h at ambient temperature, 100°C, 130°C, 160°C, and 200°C, and then for 8 h at 230°C and for 40 h at 200°C under nitrogen bubbling conditions. Calculation of methanol content is performed taking into consideration calibrating coefficient.
EFFECT: enabled determination of small concentrations of methyl alcohol in water with sufficient selectivity and reliability.
2 cl, 2 tbl, 6 ex
FIELD: analytical chemistry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method for quantitative determination of thiotriazoline and pyracetam in complex drugs by high performance chromatography, wherein silicagel with grafted 3-(chlorodimethyl)-propyl-N-dodecylcarbamate having particle size of 5 mum is used as sorbent; and degassed 0.05 M aqueous solution of potassium dihydrophosphate is used as mobile phase. Mobile phase velocity is 1 ml/min, and column temperature is 30°C. Method of present invention makes it possible to determine content of two abovementioned active ingredients simultaneously.
EFFECT: simplified process of sample preparation.
3 ex, 3 tbl
FIELD: biotechnology, in particular content determination of polymer chitosan molecules, chitosan-chitine polymer molecules and molecules of chitosan-protein complex in finished form of chitosan.
SUBSTANCE: claimed method includes application of high performance chromatography column filled with polyvinylbenzene sorbent with refractometer detector. As eluent and for dissolving of chitosan preparation samples acetic acid aqueous solution is used. Chain-length distribution is determined on the base of first chromatography peak, and polymer molecular content is calculated on the base of area of first, second and third chromatography peaks, divided up to zero line and belonging to polymer chitosan molecules, chitosan-chitine polymer molecules and molecules of chitosan-protein complex, respectively. To calculate chain-length distribution of polymer chitosan molecules separately calibration curve is plotted using dextran polymer standards.
EFFECT: new effective method for determination of polymer chitosan molecules in chitosan preparations.
4 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: the invention refers to laboratory chromatographic devices for conducting high-speed chromatographic analysis.
SUBSTANCE: the express-chromatron has an injector, a chromatographic column located in a thermostat, a detector, an amplifier of the signal of the detector, an analog-digital converter, a control system, a pneumatic system. The column is fulfilled either in the shape of a short capillary column or either in the shape of a polycapillary column. The injector is fulfilled with possibility of introduction of the test for the time of 5-50 ms. The detector and the amplifier of its signal are fulfilled with possibility of ensuring constant time of no worse then 10-3 sec. The analog-digital converter is fulfilled with possibility of ensuring speed of no less then 200 measurements in a second.
EFFECT: ensures conducting high-speed chromatographic analysis.
11 cl, 2 dwg