Device for damping vibrations
(57) Abstract:The device is designed for damping oscillations with independently controllable load characteristics and stiffness includes a housing inserted in a vibration support and located between the element absorbing vibrations, which is enclosed in a sealed volume, and contains a source of saturated steam, the heat accumulator and a system of fluid - saturated vapour boundary, formed on the developed surface of the heat accumulator. The device has no restrictions on its dimensions and shape, on the temperature conditions of use, the amount of rigidity and load characteristics, provides a high level of absorption of vibrations. 9 C.p. f-crystals, 2 Il. The invention relates to the field of engineering, particularly to damping devices, protective devices amortization of objects subject to dynamic effects, and can be widely used in any field of technology to protect or damping, mainly in the engineering and electronic engineering.Analysis of the prior art has shown that technical solutions representing this direction in its development of the historical and other properties.The most representative is the direction of mechanical devices, in which the task is achieved by damping the mechanical impact on the object (or its transformation into another form of energy such as heat) by deformation of elastic elements, and the effect of damping can be enhanced by placing the elastic element in the bulk material.Known energy absorbing device, comprising a housing, a lid with a hole, through which passes the piston. In the housing on both sides of its ends, is symmetrical about its mid-made grooves in which interleaved posted elastic material with different ductility. In addition, symmetrically with respect to the piston placed corrugated elastic shell filled with bulk material, and the piston rod, coaxial elastic shells, springs installed, one ends of which are rigidly connected with the piston, and the other with covers. This embodiment of the device allows to increase its energy intensity (USSR author's certificate N 1017852, MKI 6 F 16 F 7/00, publ. 1983).Under the influence of the load, the piston moving down, distorts the bulk material compresses one is anannya elastic material with different ductility. This increases the stroke of the piston and provides more energy.As another typical representative of the mechanical direction can result in a vibration damper, comprising a housing with a made symmetrical to its axis cavities in the form of channels, tapering at the ends and arranged at an angle to the axis of the housing the balls, and the ratio of the diameter of the balls to the diameter of the channels is chosen equal 0,980,01 (USSR author's certificate N 1337580, MKI 6 F 16 F 7/00, publ. 1987)
When the vibrations of the object balls are placed inside the channels, make a reciprocating motion. In the process of collisions of the balls with the end surfaces of the channels is the damping of the vibrations of the object in vibro-impact mode.Another area of mechanical damping devices based on the use of created device distributed friction forces.Known providentiae element that contains the package of elastic plates of rectangular cross-section placed in a vacuum sealed casing of elastic material, and the coefficient of friction of the contacting surfaces of the plates is determined from the relation:
< / BR>divodasa to the bundle package.
z is the distance from the axis of the package to the point of contact;
P - set the intensity of the compressive load;
h - the thickness of each of the plates;
n is the number of plates in a package (USSR author's certificate N 1649164, MKI 6 F 16 F 7/00, publ. 1991).This design allows the device to increase its damping properties by creating a distributed friction forces.From across a wide range of mechanical devices should be mentioned spring vibration absorber containing a spring and secured along the entire length of the damping element, and the spring is made in the form of a one-sheet hyperboloid of rotation of the damping element in cross section has the shape of a rhombus, a large diagonal of which is oriented perpendicularly to the spring axis, and the step of coils of the spring decreases from its center to the ends (USSR author's certificate N 1763748, MKI 6 F 16 F 7/00, publ. 1992).Under the influence of vertical load spring is compressed, decreasing the focal length and the eccentricity of the one-sheet hyperboloid, which increases the dissipation of mechanical impact. Decreasing the step of coils springs lowers the rigidity of the vibration damper, which in turn increases the efficiency in the sa can be noted vibration absorber, containing base, United with him, elastic elements, each of which is made in the form of a metal plate curved in longitudinal section representing the wedge, coiled in a spiral from the thin end and connected to one of the grounds at a distance from the thin end, more than one quarter of the length of the plate, with each elastic element in the direction from the thin end made cuts, including "n" in each cross-section selected from the relation:
< / BR>where B is the total width of the metal plate;
the width of the individual strips between the slits at a distance x from the thin end;
fm- the maximum specified operating frequency vibration isolation;
E - modulus of elasticity;
the density of the material;
h(x) is the current thickness of the metal plate at a distance x from the thin end;
Integer - the integer part of the number x.This design of insulator provides a one-dimensional mode of the traveling Flexural wave energy greater part of which is converted into heat through the applied layer of the vibration absorber (USSR author's certificate N 1805238, MKI 6 F 16 F 7/00, publ. 1993).As noted previously, the known vibration-absorbing elements, sooglossus support containing an absorbent element located between the fixed base and the vibration-insulating body, while absorbing element is made on the basis of a ferroelectric or of ceramics magnetoelastic, or from the composition of magnetoelastic and elastic binder, or from a single crystal magnetoelastic.If vibrations occur at absorbing element applies a force proportional to acceleration, vibration, resulting in its deformation. Due to the hysteresis significant part of the vibration energy is dissipated in the absorbing element, causing oscillation to rapid attenuation (1-3 period). Thus, the device provides a dramatic increase in the damping of low frequency oscillations and vibrations of large (above critical) amplitude (USSR author's certificate N 1154499, MKI 6 F 16 F 7/00, publ. 1981).Also known absorber containing an elastic element in the form of package terminals, tighten clamps, fitted with elements of a managed pressure from electrostriction material, installed between terminals and clamps in pairs in mutually perpendicular planes and connected to a source of controlled voltage, and sensor oscillation. This embodiment of amortizatoriai the effectiveness of the damping of the shock absorber when switching from one mode to another (USSR author's certificate N 1746092, MKI 6 F 16 F 7/00, publ. 1989).There is also known a method of damping of resonance oscillations hydromechanical system provedeniya supports high-speed rotor and a device for its implementation, comprising a housing, located in it bearing for the rotor, the elastic element is disposed between the housing and the bearing, the pipeline for submission to the housing of the working fluid at the entrance of the building there is a modulator bore, coupled with the frequency modulation, by measuring the amplitude and the comparator, connecting the past with the frequency modulation. This design provides a more effective damping due to the expansion of the frequency range (USSR author's certificate N 1696783, MKI 6 F 16 F 7/00, publ. 1991)
The technical solution mentioned above, representing the prior art in this field, provide a damping or cushioning device, but for the most part they have a significant drawback: their stiffness is dependent value from the load characteristics, so in some cases, such dampers are not effective enough.Closest to the present invention on the basis of the figures in it a rod with a piston at its middle part, made in the form of a conjugate between a large base of the cones. Body filled with a filler in the form of rolling elements and is equipped with a mechanism of compensation of the wear of the balls. The design allows you to extend its functionality by providing control characteristics (USSR author's certificate N 1601428, MKI 6 F 16 F 7/00, publ. 1990). Vibrations are converted into the movement of the piston rod with a piston, which acts on the balls, bringing them to a mutual displacement, which occurs between the balls of the friction force dampen vibration mobile node.However, for a number of purposes known device has insufficient sensitivity, besides, not provided with independent control of stiffness and load-carrying characteristics of the device.The technical result, characteristic of this invention is to eliminate the above-noted disadvantages. It is achieved by the fact that the device for damping oscillations located between the fixed base and the vibration-absorbing support element, absorbing vibrations, enclosed in a sealed volume, and contains a source of saturated steam, heat accumulator, the system fluid at the e same time, as a source of saturated steam is used evaporated liquid, placed in the lower part of the pressurized volume of the absorbing element;
and because of the heat accumulator made of heat conducting material, the developed surface of which is wetted by the fluid system;
and the fact that for the centralized management of the load characteristic of the heat accumulator and the source of steam are simultaneously heat exchangers, the temperature of which is regulated by the coolant, and the temperature of the heat accumulator is maintained below the temperature of saturated steam to ensure the conditions of wetting the developed surface of the heat accumulator by the condensation of saturated steam;
and also that to provide centralized management stiffness device is further provided with means to ensure that the change in the square holes in a sealed partition wall located between a source of saturated steam and heat accumulator;
and also that to provide centralized management stiffness device is further provided with means to ensure that the area of the developed surface of thermal battery is a career changing displacement of the sealing system of fluid-saturated steam with a temperature-controlled boundary on the developed surface of the heat accumulator made by gas-tight bellows or by a gas-tight shell or by means of a piston;
and that to ensure that the set pressure of saturated steam at a given temperature as the liquid in the system of fluid-saturated steam is used multicomponent solution.The possibility of implementing the proposed device is supported by the following theoretical conclusions and the results of experimental studies.It is known that the saturated vapor pressure above the liquid depends on the temperature of the system. The increase in the vapour pressure leads to a transition portion in the liquid phase and, conversely, decrease the evaporation of the liquids, so the boundary fluid-saturated steam with a fixed temperature is a perfect absorber of any variation of pressure from thermodynamic equilibrium. However, the condensation and evaporation of liquid accompanied by a return or absorption of heat, therefore, the temperature change of this boundary. This raises the need for temperature control of this border with the technical use of the phase transition of vapor-liquid as absorber pressure fluctuations. The stronger the smoothed temperature fluctuations of the border, the higher the compliance condition is observed due to condensation or adhesion forces.In practice it is convenient to use multi-component solutions at boiling point or near it. The boiling solution ensures the equality of the atmospheric pressure and the saturated vapor pressure in the closed volume. Complexity allows you to smoothly adjust the boiling point by changing the concentration of the components in the solution to adapt to external conditions in accordance with the law Raul:
Pi(T)Xi=YiP(T); Xi = 1; Yi = 1,
Pi(T) is the partial vapor pressure components i at temperature T;
Xiis molar fraction of the i components in the solution;
Yiis molar fraction of components i in pairs;
P(T) is the total pressure of the saturated steam.The best option thermostat for these purposes is thermal battery. The simplest heat accumulator is solid, the surface of which is wetted with this solution.The analysis performed by the applicant in accordance with the claimed invention to the criteria of patentability: novelty, inventive step and industrial applicability - allows to draw the following conclusions.The search conducted by the applicant in patent documents, to the extent determined the minimum PCT, s, characterized by the same set of essential features described in the claims. In this regard, the applicant believes that the prior art is not anticipated the claimed invention, i.e., it is new.As noted above, the claimed invention differs from the most similar analogue device for damping oscillation-absorbing element, which is made in the form of a sealed system fluid-saturated vapour boundary, formed on the developed surface of the heat accumulator.The comparative analysis mentioned distinguishing features with technical solutions that contain similar features identified in the prior art, showed that they are not obvious to the skilled in the art, and therefore the claimed invention, according to the applicant, is regarded as involving an inventive step.As noted above, the first use of vibration-absorbing element sufficiently marketable. The system of fluid-saturated steam is placed in a sealed container, and the boundary system is thermostated. As a simple heat accumulator used tardivo on the conformity of the invention, the criterion - industrial applicability, since it, as mentioned above, practically feasible and can be sirokopasovne.The graphic material presented two implemented models of the device for damping oscillations of this invention. As noted earlier, it solves the problem of creating a device for damping oscillations in a wide frequency range with an independent centralized management load characteristics and stiffness.The inventive device includes a housing 1, placed in it vibration support 2, and located between the element absorbing vibrations, which is enclosed in a sealed volume, and contains a source of saturated steam 7, the heat accumulator 3, the surface of which is covered with condensate 4 evaporating liquid, the heat exchangers 5, saturated steam 6, the bellows 8 (Fig. 1) or the piston (Fig. 2), adjustable hole 9, with valve stem 10 for adjusting holes, the chamber of variable volume 11.The damping device is as follows. When the movement of the dampers 2 down the volume of the chamber 11 decreases, which causes an increase in pressure. Part of the excess steam escapes through the hole 9 and is condensed on the developed stiffness: partially condensing the steam in a small area of the inner surface of the chamber 11 increases the temperature of this surface and, therefore, to increase the vapour pressure in the chamber 11.When the hole 9 as open, the flow of saturated steam passes through it freely and condenses on the developed surface of the heat accumulator 3. As the condensation of saturated steam on the surface of the heat accumulator does not lead to a noticeable change in its temperature, and there will be no noticeable change in pressure in the chamber 11. The stiffness of the system will be minimal, quantitatively it is determined by the capacitance value of the heat accumulator 3 and the rigidity of the bellows 8.When driving fibrogenesis support 2 up - volume of the chamber 11 increases, the pressure decreases. Partially pressure compensated steam flow through the opening 9 by evaporation from the developed surface of the heat accumulator 3.When the hole 9 is fully closed, the device has a maximum hardness: evaporating vapor with a small area of the inner surface of the chamber 11 does not provide a state of saturated vapor environment in the chamber 11 is a gas, the pressure decreases.When the hole 9 as open as possible, changing the volume of the chamber 11 will not lead to a noticeable change in her pressure is of the holes 9.Load characteristic of the device is determined by the pressure inside the chamber 11. It is known that a liquid with a boiling point above 0oC dual pressure of saturated steam at higher temperature at 18-20oC.When adjusting the load characteristics of the device change the source temperature of saturated steam 7 is made simultaneously with the change of the temperature of the heat accumulator 3, and the source temperature of saturated steam 7 must be above the temperature of the heat accumulator 3 to ensure the conditions of wetting the developed surface of the heat accumulator 3 condensate 4.Device for damping oscillations of this invention allows great diversity in its practical implementation:
sealing of the variable portion of volume 11 of the absorbing vibrations of the element metal gas-tight bellows, elastic gastight shell, piston group, etc.;
maintenance of the set temperature of the steam source and the heat accumulator is possible from any source of heat and cold: heat exchanger, thermoelectric element, by light radiation, induction heater, etc.;
change pgmy etc.;
as a thermal battery, you can use the heat-conducting metals with high heat capacity, for example, aluminum, in the form of lamellar radiators, pieces of wire, fractions, etc;
as the liquid can be used in solutions saturated hydrocarbons, quite safe to use and suitable for use in a wide temperature range.The inventive device for damping oscillations has no restrictions on its dimensions and shape, on the temperature conditions of use, the amount of rigidity and load characteristics, provides a high level of absorption of vibrations. It is much easier in terms of its hardware implementation in comparison with the known devices of similar purpose. Effect of the marked advantages of the proposed device will be widely used in modern technology. 1. Device for damping vibrations, comprising a housing, hosting the vibration support and located between the element absorbing vibrations, characterized in that the absorbing vibrations of the element enclosed in a sealed volume, and contains a source of saturated steam, the heat accumulator and the system liquid - nasserist under item 1, characterized by the fact that as a source of saturated steam is used evaporated liquid, placed in the lower part of the pressurized volume of the absorbing element.3. The device under item 1, characterized in that the heat accumulator is made of heat conducting material, the developed surface of which is wetted by the fluid system.4. The device under item 1, characterized in that to control the load characteristic of the heat accumulator and a source of saturated steam are simultaneously heat exchangers, the temperature of which is centrally controlled, and the temperature of the heat accumulator is maintained below the temperature of the source of saturated steam to ensure the conditions of wetting the developed surface of the heat accumulator by the condensation of saturated steam.5. The device under item 1, characterized in that to provide centralized management stiffness device is further provided with a sealed septum located between a source of saturated steam and thermal accumulator and contains adjustable hole to change its bandwidth.6. The device according to p. 1, characterizing what redston, ensure the area of the developed surface of the heat accumulator in contact with saturated steam.7. The device under item 1,characterized in that to prevent leakage of the vapor from the chamber with variable volume sealing system fluid - saturated steam with a temperature-controlled border is divided into the developed surface of the heat accumulator made by gas-tight bellows.8. The device under item 1, characterized in that to prevent leakage of the vapor from the chamber with variable volume pressurization system fluid - saturated steam with a temperature-controlled boundary on the developed surface of the heat accumulator made through flexible, gas-tight shell.9. The device under item 1, characterized in that to prevent leakage of the vapor from the chamber with variable volume pressurization system fluid - saturated steam with a temperature-controlled boundary on the developed surface of the heat accumulator made by means of a piston.10. The device under item 1, characterized in that to ensure the maintenance of given dializuetsa multicomponent solution.
FIELD: transport engineering; car protective devices.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to device aimed at protecting cars in case of collisions, and it can used in form and rear bumpers of cars, microbuses and other vehicles. Buffer is divided into central and side sections, the latter being turned backwards at preset angle, and it includes bumper and energy-absorbing devices connected to bumper and arranged uniformly lengthwise at a distance from each other. Two central energy-absorbing devices of buffer, being mirror reflection of each other, are installed adjoining each other. Each energy-absorbing device includes definite number of adjoining energy-absorbing members, each being mirror reflection of adjacent one, is made integral from cut of round metal rod and it includes base, jumper and brace, all arranged in relatively perpendicular planes. Bases of energy-absorbing members are connected to outer surface of bumper, jumpers of energy-absorbing members are arranged coaxially for interaction with outer surface of bumper. Bases and braces and braces of energy-absorbing members are arranged horizontally, and jumpers, vertically. Each energy-absorbing device is provided with leaf springs and movable base plate, braces of all energy-absorbing devices of left-hand and, accordingly, right-hand halves of buffer are pointed to different sides at preset angle in directions from middle to edges of bumper. Buffer includes outer sheath provided with metal strip sections connected to its inner surface which guarantees regulated destruction of sheath in preset places. Invention provides protection at high energy-absorbing capacity and stability of shock-absorbing characteristics of car at collision with obstacle or other car.
EFFECT: improved protection of cars.
3 cl, 9 dwg