Catalytic converter exhaust gases of internal combustion engine

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to mechanical engineering and can be used for purification of exhaust gases of internal combustion engines. Catalytic Converter exhaust gases of the internal combustion engine contains a porous carrier on zirconium dioxide in a mixture with one metal oxide and a catalytically active layer on the carrier. The carrier includes an inner layer of zirconium dioxide and an intermediate layer on the zirconium dioxide in a mixture with a Nickel oxide content of these components 75-80 and 25-20% by weight respectively. The active layer is a mixture of copper oxide, chromium oxide, cerium dioxide, cobalt oxide and Nickel oxide in the following ratio, wt.%: oxide copper 26-29, chromium oxide 4-11, cerium dioxide 10-13, cobalt oxide 30-25, Nickel oxide 30-22. The Converter has a high reliability and durability when cleaning the exhaust gases.

The invention relates to the field of engineering, namely the engine, and can be used for purification of exhaust gases of internal combustion engines.

The well-known oxidation catalyst containing a single layer of the medium obtained by forming a mixture, breathtesting 25 - 70 wt.% and 0.05 - 1 wt.%, and deposited on the carrier of the active layer of platinum or palladium. The media can be obtained by forming a layer of zirconium oxide of thorium dioxide is taken in the ratio indicated, on a substrate of aluminum oxide (JP, application, 56-35937, class B 01 J 23/56, 1981).

The catalyst is sufficiently effective for the purification of exhaust gases from carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons. However, in the catalyst made according to the scheme "one-layer media - active words, in the latter cause internal stress, thereby creating conditions for the destruction of the boundaries between the layers during thermal cycles of the engine and as a consequence - to the disruption of the active layer and reduce the service life of the catalyst.

Also known catalyst for purification of exhaust gases of internal combustion engines, containing a single-layer porous media zirconium oxide with one oxide of metal such as iron, cerium or manganese, as well as supported on a carrier catalytically active layer of platinum or palladium (US, patent, 4299734, class B 01 J 21/06, 1981). The catalyst is closest to the invention by a combination of traits and adopted as a prototype.

The catalyst is more efficient in operation than known for the Chi made under the scheme "one-layer media - the active layer, it also is not a high service life. One reason for this is to reduce the adhesion of the platinum layer at the boundary with the carrier. In addition, the General lack of both catalysts is their high cost due to the use of the active layer is platinum.

The task of the invention to provide a catalytic Converter for exhaust gases of internal combustion engines, in which the effective purification of gases from carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen would be carried out at a sufficiently high share of the work and at the same time significantly reduced the manufacturing cost of the catalyst.

The task is solved in that in the catalytic Converter of the exhaust gas of the internal combustion engine, containing a porous carrier on zirconium dioxide in a mixture with one metal oxide and a catalytically active layer on the carrier, according to the invention, the carrier is made with two layers, including an inner layer of zirconium dioxide and an intermediate layer on the zirconium dioxide in a mixture with a Nickel oxide content of these components 75 - 80 wt.% and 25 - 20 wt.% accordingly, and as an active layer used a mixture of copper oxide, chromium oxide, dis chromium - 4...11, cerium dioxide - 10...13, cobalt oxide - 30...25, the Nickel oxide - 30...22.

When using the invention can be obtained by technical results expressed in:

- improving the efficiency and reliability of the Converter, which is caused by an internal layer of the medium is fully zirconium oxide, which forms a highly porous structure with maximum geometric surface, and an intermediate layer between the carrier and the active layer, which serves to compensate for the internal stresses that occur on the border of medium - active layer as a result of technological operations, and during engine operation;

improving the durability of the Converter during operation due to the presence in the composition of the intermediate layer of oxide of Nickel, creating condensation nuclei for the subsequent deposition of the active layer with high adhesion on the structure of the media;

- significant decrease in the cost of manufacture and operation of the Converter, because, having high reliability and durability when cleaning the exhaust gases from harmful impurities, it is not in the catalytically active layer of expensive metals.

Nath size with the size of the elementary cell of 1.2 mm x 1.2 mm and a wall thickness of 0.15 mm, containing 49,76% of silicon oxide, 35,97% aluminum oxide, a 12.7% magnesium oxide with impurities of oxides of potassium, calcium, sodium, titanium, and iron. As the initial product for applying carrier, an intermediate layer and a catalytically active layer using the appropriate metallorganic based on mixtures of branched carboxylic acids. For applying the inner layer media ceramics impregnated with metallorganic based on zirconium. Then conduct a two-step annealing on the first stage for 15 - 20 minutes at 250oC and the second for 10 - 15 minutes at 350 - 400oC. soaking and annealing repeat 10 - 15 times. For applying the intermediate layer media on the finished inner layer precipitated impregnation metallorganic based on zirconium and Nickel. Then perform a two-step annealing on the first stage for 15 - 20 min at 200 - 250oC and the second for 10 - 15 minutes at 350 - 400oC. soaking and annealing repeat 5 to 8 times. The obtained intermediate layer media spend deposition of the active layer CuO - Cr2O3- CeO2- CoO - NiO using metallorganic on the basis of the respective metals with subsequent two-step anneal is at the first stage for 35 to 40 minutes at a temperature of 200 - 250oC o "cell" ceramics is formed geometric surface, equivalent 20,0 - 24,0 thousand m2- the unit is ready. Impregnation of ceramics and all walks upon receipt of the neutralizer should be performed within 20 -30 minutes

A couple of blocks ready to be installed using a resistant to high temperature gaskets in metal case, which is then sealed and inserted into the exhaust tract of the internal combustion engine. The Converter is ready for operation.

Tests of a prototype Converter made in accordance with the claimed invention have confirmed its high performance exhaust gases from carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides.

The relatively low cost of manufacture Converter allows you to organize mass production equipment for domestic road transport, primarily cars.

Catalytic Converter exhaust gases of the internal combustion engine, containing a porous carrier on zirconium dioxide in a mixture with one metal oxide and a catalytically active layer on the carrier, wherein the carrier is made with two layers, including an inner layer of zirconium dioxide and an intermediate layer on Deoksugung layer used a mixture of copper oxide, chromium oxide, cerium dioxide, cobalt oxide and Nickel oxide in the following ratio, wt.%:

Oxide copper - 26-29

Chromium oxide - 4-11

The cerium dioxide - 10-13

The cobalt oxide - 30-25

The Nickel oxide - 30-22V

 

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