Electrolyte-based surfactants

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: chemical current sources, Russ. The inventive electrolyte contains organofluorine sulfadiazine General formula RfS O2A, where Rfan alternative from a number of functionally homogeneous substances type

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Rf= XCnF2nX = F or Cl when n = 6-9;

Rf= H(CF2)nCH2O when n = 1-8;

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< / BR>
< / BR>
< / BR>
A is the alternative of a series where Me = K, Na, NH4, NH(Alk)3, AlK is alkyl:

where Hal = Cl, Br, J at X = -CH2CH2OH or-CH2COOH;

or contains fluoride substance of General formula

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where R'fan alternative from a number of functionally homogeneous substances type

R'f= XCnF2nX = F or Cl when n = 6-9;

< / BR>
< / BR>
A'an alternative from the set:

A'= CnH2n+1when n = 1-3;

A'= NH4, K, Na, NH4(CH2)3N(CH3)2Xhal, where Hal = J, Cl, Br; X = CH2CH2OH, CH2COOH;

A'= CnH2n+1when n = 1-3. The electrolyte has a low internal resistance, especially at low temperatures, and provides corrosion protection for electrical wiring is in the operation of the device, implementing elements of electrochemistry, in particular in the batteries, when electrodriven etc.

Usually conductive environment with ionic conductivity are, as a rule, solutions of acids, alkalis and salts dissociate in the solvent ions, providing for the presence in the system of at least two elements: solvent and dissolving substances, i.e. substances, atoms or groups of atoms which have a fairly high potential for separation of the polar solvent molecules with the formation of different ions, capable of transmitting charges, including electric. Such environments usually use in metabolic processes, when the transfer of the electric charges associated with the deposition of ionized groups of substances on the elements that perform the function of the electrodes, or by ablation of the newly formed ions from the surface of the electrode in its consumable form. Such reactions are usually the irreversible nature. But it's good only in those technologies where either coated or dissolve the surface, i.e. when the equilibrium concentration of ions is maintained at the expense of the dissolved element.

In all other cases, when, over the contradiction between the need to transfer the charge of the ions and restore it on the electrode is chemically inert (non -) substance and the simultaneous need to maintain the electrode surfaces for long-lasting operation of the system. I.e. ions should send a charge, but should not interact with the electrodes.

Thus, the problem can be solved either by introducing an insulating layer between the electrode and the volume of normal bisecting (solvent + dissolved substance) of the electrolyte or the replacement of the entire interelectrode space monobasic polar substance.

Known for a wide range of surface-active substances (surfactants), the functional feature of which is determined by the presence in their molecules of centres of different polarity, which determines the objective possibility of polarization of the electric current and used as a conductive medium. Similar properties have complex salts of strong acids, organic compounds with active elements, such as functional organofluorine compounds or salts of alkali metals, as well as some other compounds with pronounced polar character. The functional feature of surfactants is also reflected in the influence on the surface tension of the boundary surfaces of their phases, which in turn affects the increase of mobility of the particles relative to each other. Accordingly, given their polar nature, the impact of adesta, spratley them, in turn, dramatically reducing the internal resistance of the medium and, hence, allows to operate at much lower voltages while maintaining the nominal current, which is a significant advantage, especially in freezing temperatures while decreasing capacitance and voltage, for example, in the accumulators.

Known technical solutions for the formulation of electrolytes with very small additions of surfactants, decisive narrow, often secondary tasks. Thus, the electrolyte in Japanese application N 46-290601 (publ. 16.11.71, MKI H 01 M 39/00, 39/04) has additive amide of nicotinic acid, which reduces the release of hydrogen at the anode.

Known electrolyte surfactant-based on Japanese application N 593026 (publ. 21.01.84, MKI H 01 M 4/20) with additives of powder PTFE resin. Teflon provides good conditions for shear surfaces of the pair of phase medium, and surfactant creates conditions only electric charges interaction without destruction of the electrodes. However, the decision provides for the introduction of surfactant on the surface of the electrodes without the complex mechanical interaction with the environment of the electrolyte.

Known electrolyte-based surfactant on the application Germany N 3922100 (publ. 10.01.91, MKI H 01 M 2/16, 10/06) which allows polar molecules of surfactants with different capacity more evenly fill the interelectrode space along the force lines of the electric field, concentrating surfactant molecules with great potential around a charge electrode, keeping the rest of the space filled with electrolyte polar molecules other additives. It also reduces the internal resistance of the medium. However, the surfactants described in the application of structural formulas insufficient to resolve the totality of the above tasks.

The closest in technical essence and the achieved result of the analog prototype is electrolyte-based surfactant according to the U.S. patent N 5108856 (publ. 28.04.94, MKI H 01 M 6/16, 6/04) with the addition of a surfactant with hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups, allowing spatial separation of functional properties of surfactant relative to the volume around the electrode and conductive environment in General. However, the effectiveness of this solution is significantly reduced, given the absence of strong chemical bonds entered surfactant with the surface of the electrodes.

The aim of the invention is to create a conductive environment with ionic or equivalent conductivity, which provides simultaneous corrosion protection of the electrodes, as well as giving it properties that determine a significant reduction of internal resistance, especially when otucome contains organofluorine sulfadiazine General formula

RfSO2A,

where

Rfan alternative from a number of functionally homogeneous substances type

< / BR>
Rf= XCnF2nX = F or Cl when n = 6 to 9;

Rf= H(CF2)nCH2O for n = 1 to 8;

< / BR>
< / BR>
< / BR>
< / BR>
A is an alternative from a number of

< / BR>
where

Me = K, Na, NH4, NH(Alk)3, Alk is alkyl;

< / BR>
where

Hal = Cl, Br, J, X = CH2CH2OH or CH2COOH;

or contains fluoride substance of General formula

< / BR>
where

Rfan alternative from a number of functionally homogeneous substances type

R'f= XCnF2nX = F or Cl when n = 6 to 9;

< / BR>
< / BR>
A' is an alternative from the set:

A' = CnH2n+1when n = 1 - 3;

A' = NH4, K, Na, NH4(CH2)3N(CH3)2XHal, where Hal = J, Cl, Br; X = CH2CH2OH, CH2COOH;

A' = CnH2n+1when n = 1 - 3

or any combinatorial combinations effective amount of 0.001 to 99.9 wt.%.

In addition, the electrolyte further comprises water in an amount of 0.1 to 99.9 wt.%.

The electrolyte further comprises a mineral acid in an amount of 0.1 to 99.9 wt.%.

The electrolyte further comprises organise beginning) of the electrolyte organofluorine alfaprostol or fluorine-containing substances mentioned General formulas or their combinatorial combinations creates good conditions conductivity without transferring insoluble newly formed during the passage of electrolytic processes substances (as, for example, lead acid batteries, hydrogen and sulphate of lead). Surfactant electrolyte is included in the surface chemical bond with the material of the electrode without forming the barrier additional connections, as if the natural spatial continuation of electricity transmission means (electrode), significantly mitigating these processes overvoltage, thus significantly increasing the charge capacity. When combinatorial combinations of the above substances the last line up along the force lines of the electric field in accordance with their capacity, i.e., energy propensity to electrode certain polarity, evenly filling the volume of the interelectrode space, thus creating a uniform distribution of conductive elements in the volume and at the same time creating conditions volumetric accumulation of charge, because in this case, the charges are accumulated not only on the surfaces of the partition environments of the electrode and the substance of the electrolyte, but also on the boundary surfaces of the molecules of the electrolyte with different potentials, given their chemical bond only in the polar level and a clear separation of the individual charged groups.

Under additives are understood to be substances stabilizers. In some cases organic, for example oil as a natural dielectric separators polarized cells surround electroncapture environment. Moreover, given the sticky nature of such electrolyte in a gel or stalinophobia substances, additives can be, and the conductive particles in the form of powders of graphite or metals.

The polarity of the surfactant molecules basics of the electrolyte allows the use of organic solvents and water. Used solvents allow you to create compositions that are most optimal for the specific devices that require different viscosity, and electrical conductivity.

The addition of mineral acid in combination with the previously entered by the addition of water creates interactive bi-system mineral and organic electrolytes. When this surfactant covers the surface of the electrodes due to its surface activity, in parallel, to create a good electrical connection of the electrodes with an organic electrolyte surrounding the electrode plates, and mineral filling the space between them, simultaneously dissolving the portion of organic matter that improves the conductivity of the mineral part of the electrolyte and, consequently, reduce the internal resistance systemautomation impact on the process overvoltage and management optimization volume charge, significantly increasing the capacity of the devices electronically and smoothing technological heterogeneity other technological processes, in which the inventive electrolyte will be used.

The assessment of the degree of achievement of the formulated technical result due to the use in the electrolyte of the inventive surface-active substances with additives was carried out at the experimental facility, including electrochemical cell or a cascade of cells connected in series, a control unit, a load unit, a charge-discharge unit and system instrumentation.

Study the influence of different electrolyte compositions were performed at the temperature of the cell from +20 to -25oC and an effective amount of the active agent from 0.001 mg to 1200 g per 1 liter of the electrolyte measurement of the electrical characteristics of the cell in terms of self-discharge, hydrogen, such as the strength of the discharge current, capacity, internal resistance, etc.

In table. 1 - 4 presents the most characteristic results.

Were used for comparison of standard sulfuric acid electrolyte with a density of 1.28 g/cm2at 25oC.

For a more convenient placenta is imenovanie in the framework of this proposal:

Connection 1

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Connection 2

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Connection 3

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Connection 4

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Connection 5

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Connection 6

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Connection 7

CF3CF2CF2CF2CF2CF2SO2ONH4< / BR>
Compound 8

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Connection 9

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Connection 10

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In table. 1 shows the influence of the active principle on the discharge characteristics of a cell.

In table. 2 shows the effect of the active principle to the self-discharge of the cells and the number of operating cycles.

In table. 3 shows the influence of the active principle on the rate of hydrogen evolution.

In table. 4 shows the combined influence of the active principle on the electrical characteristics of the cascade of cells.

Note to the table. 4.

The composition of the active start: connection 1+3+connection 6 in the amount of 120, 170 and 185 mg, respectively, per 1 liter of the electrolyte or 0,009; 0,013; of 0.014 wt. % when the total content of active principle 0,040 wt.%. In the test electrolyte was used cascade of 6 series-connected cells.

The results are shown in table. 1 and 4 allow us to conclude the proof of causal relationships between the modified electrolyte announced what's in the table. 1 - 4 cover only the most representative results obtained when testing the totality of the claimed composition.

Not being optimal, but nevertheless demonstrates the appearance of the said technical result can be the following examples of specific applications of the claimed composition at the boundary and other characteristic values of the content of the active principle.

1. Sulfate electrolyte containing compound 1 in an amount of 0.001 wt.%, has a short circuit current of the 959 And the discharge time of 6.2 min at 20oC.

2. The electrolyte containing 56,8 wt.% compounds 1, to 26.6 wt.% compounds 4, 10, 3 wt.% compound 7, 6, 2 wt.% compounds 10 and 0.1 wt.% water, at 25oC and a voltage of 2.8 V is the discharge rate of 0.17% per day.

3. The electrolyte containing 99,899 wt.% water, 0.1 wt.% acid and 0.001 wt.% compound 7 at 25oC and the voltage 3.2 Century

4. The electrolyte containing 99,899 wt.% acid and 0.1 wt.% connection 10 has a specific rate of hydrogen 0,083 ml (h cm2) when the potential of the cell 850 mV.

5. The electrolyte containing 2.2 wt.% connection 7, to 12.1 wt.% triftoratsetata in a mixed solvent of General formula (CF3)2CFO(CF2)<oC.

The inventive electrolyte may be implemented by any substances, similar to those noted by functional characteristics coupled with a neutral media from a range of traditionally used in the compositions of this assignment and the claimed additives, providing increased main technical result due to the above physical effects.

The invention can be used in devices and processes for any purpose upon presentation of high purity requirements and samoreguliruemaja electrolytic processes.

1. The electrolyte on the basis of surface-active substances (surfactants) with additives, characterized in that it contains organofluorine sulfadiazine General formula

RfSO2A0< / BR>
where Rfan alternative from a number of functionally homogeneous substances type

< / BR>
Rf= XCnF2nX = F or Cl when n = 6 to 9; Rf= H(CF2)nCH2O for n = 1 to 8;

< / BR>
< / BR>
< / BR>
< / BR>
A is alternative from a number of

< / BR>
where Me = K, Na, NH4, NH(AlK)3, AlK is alkyl;

< / BR>
where Hal = Cl, Br, J, X = -CH2CH2OH or-CH2COOH,

or sod the popular type substances

X = F or Cl when n = 6 to 9;

< / BR>
for n = 1 to 4;

< / BR>
for n = 1 to 4;

A' is an alternative from a number of

A' = CnH2n+1when n = 1 - 3;

A' = NH4, K, Na, NH4(CH2)3N(CH3)2X Hal, where Hal = J, Cl, Br; X = CH2CH2OH, CH2COOH;

A' = CnH2n+1for n = 1 to 3, or any of their combinatorial combinations effective amount of 0.001 to 99.9 wt.%.

2. The electrolyte under item 1, characterized in that the additive contains water in an amount of 0.1 to 99.9 wt.%.

3. The electrolyte under item 2, characterized in that the additive contains a mineral acid in an amount of 0.1 to 99.9 wt.%.

4. The electrolyte under item 1, characterized in that the additive contains an organic solvent.

 

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2 cl

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