Boiler with a pressurized internal circulating fluidized-bed, electric generating system and the furnace with a fluidized bed


F23C11/02 -
F22B3/08 - at critical or supercritical pressure values

 

(57) Abstract:

Boiler with a pressurized internal circulating fluidized bed used in electrical generating system of the combined cycle, in which fuel, such as coal, petroleum coke and similar materials, is burned in a pressurized fluidized bed and the exhaust gas formed during combustion of the fuel, is introduced into the gas turbine. Boiler with a pressurized internal circulating fluidized bed contains a high-pressure vessel 1, the combustor 2, located in the pressure vessel 1, and the main combustion chamber 9 with a fluidized bed equipped with air diffundere device 24. Luggage regeneration of thermal energy 10 is separated from the main combustion chamber 9 of the inclined wall 8. Fluid medium flowing in and out, circulating between the main combustion chamber 9 and the chamber 10 heat energy recovery. Free portion integrally located above the main combustion chamber 9 and the chamber 10 heat energy recovery, resulting gaseous combustion products exiting the primary combustion chamber 9 and from the chamber 10 of the regeneration heat energyrich emissions. 4 C. and 30 C.p. f-crystals, 15 ill.

The scope, the invention relates to

The present invention concerns a boiler with a pressurized internal circulating fluidized-bed, and, more precisely, boiler pressurized internal circulating fluidized-bed intended for use in the system of generating electrical energy with the cycle of the pressurized fluidized bed, in which fuel, such as coal, petroleum coke, or similar materials, is burned in a pressurized fluidized bed and the flue gas formed burnt fuel, is fed into the gas turbine.

Efforts to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide from various sources, are important in light of the environmental damage caused by air pollution, which, apparently, takes on the earth more and more serious. I believe with some certainty that the coal will act as a main source of energy, as at present, it is undesirable increased dependence on nuclear energy and oil. In light of the need to end ejection deoxyactein system of generating electrical energy, able to utilize the combustion of coal for clean energy.

To meet such requirements were designed boilers with atmospheric fluidized bed, suitable for burning coals of various kinds to produce electrical energy, because boilers with combustion of pulverized fuel was not a stable source of energy because of the limitations imposed by the form of cash coal [1].

However, natural gas boilers with atmospheric fluidized bed has been unable to perform those functions that are expected. In addition, since only the steam turbine can be connected to boilers with atmospheric fluidized bed are some restrictions on attempts to improve the effectiveness and energy efficiency in boilers with atmospheric fluidized bed. These shortcomings boilers with atmospheric fluidized bed has directed the efforts of researchers and developers on boilers with pressurized fluidized bed than was provided with the opportunity to create a generated electric systems combined-cycle gas turbines.

Further, the study was subjected to electric generating system merge removing dust particles, is directed into the gas turbine. Electric generating system combined cycle coal gasification, containing air-cooled gas turbine that receives exhaust gases with a temperature of 1300oC, has planned efficiency in 47.1% of the in generating the end [2].

On the other hand boilers with pressurized fluidized bed bubbling fluidised bed type, characterized by the equivalent capacity of more than 80 MW already operating abroad in the form of a demonstration or industrial models; and, in addition, they have the advantage that does not require the use of desulfurizing education. However, the electrical generating system with coal gasification efficiency action exceeds the electrical generating system of the combined cycle with the Department of volatile substances, which has the advantages of both systems and higher efficiency.

The electrical generating system of the combined cycle with the Department of volatile substances includes a gas generator, in which the decomposition of coal coal gas and burnt coal, and oxidation apparatus comprising a boiler with a fluidized bed, in which polverari, and the exhaust gas obtained by the combustion of the burned coal in the oxidation apparatus, mix and burn at the inlet of the gas turbine, thereby obtaining a high-temperature gas. Received high-temperature gas is then fed to a gas turbine which operates connected with her electric generator [3].

Usually boilers with a pressurized fluidized bed, have the equivalent capacity of more than 80 MW, which act as demonstration or industrial models represent the boilers with the pressure of the fluidized bed bubbling fluidised bed type.

However, the boiler pressurized fluidized bed bubbling fluidised bed type has the following disadvantages.

Electric generating system with pressurized fluidized bed bubbling fluidised bed type is controlled in accordance with the acting load by changing the height of the fluidized bed in the combustion chamber. More specifically, the fluid medium is discharged from the combustion chamber and transferred into the storage chamber than changing the area of heat transfer from the heat transfer tubes, the result is driven by the pipes are exposed to gas, the heat transfer coefficient from them is reduced and, consequently, decreases the amount of waste heat. Since the exhaust gas delivered from the heat transfer surfaces, the temperature of the exhaust gas fed to the gas turbine decreases, which is accompanied by a decrease in the energy given to the gas turbine.

However, in the above-described control process, there is a disadvantage in that the material layer located in the storage room, you must remove and return in the high-temperature fluid environment by removing it and returning it to the combustion chamber; it is not easy to extract and return fluid environment at high temperature and pressure, and there is still a tendency to agglomerate when fluid environment with a high heat capacity is injected and withdrawn from storage material layer.

Further, since the boiler with pressurized fluidized bed under pressure, the heat transfer pipe located in the zone of the fluidized bed, is subjected to a more severe attack than it takes place in boilers with atmospheric fluidized bed. Another problem is that a large kolichestvu pipe and since the exhaust gas remains in the fluidized bed within a short period of time, because the height of the fluidized bed is reduced during periods of low load.

Typically, the boiler pressurized fluidized bed bubbling fluidised bed consists of a rectangular combustion chamber 146, built in a circular pressure vessel 145, as shown in plan in Fig. 14. Therefore, between the combustion chambers 146 and the housing of the pressure vessel 145 remains unused space, resulting in the pressure vessel is larger and increases in boiler construction costs [4].

To solve the above problems m-p Jim Anderson Jim Anderson, an employee of the ACC. Islands A. B. B. Carbon, A. B., suggested a boiler with a pressurized fluidized bed bubbling fluidised bed type, which on the principles of construction and design was intended for a module boiler pressurized fluidized bed on the equivalent capacity of 350 MW. Boiler pressurized bubbling fluidized bed type constructed by combining three combustion chambers of diamond-like shape 147 with the formation of the hexagonal shape shown in plan in Fig. 15. The Assembly from the combustion chamber 147, the form of which pria, located between the combustion chambers 147 and the casing of the pressure vessel 145, is low, and low are the dimensions of the pressure vessel. The reason for this design decision is that in the pot with pressurized fluidized bed bubbling fluidised bed of the type having a cylindrical combustion chamber, the location of the heat transfer tubes is complicated [5].

Further, as the storage material layer and the tube needs to bend and supplying the high-temperature fluid medium selected from the combustion chamber and enter into it, the need for placement of the camera housing material storage layer and tubes in the pressure vessel makes a large pressure vessel.

In a conventional boiler with a pressurized fluidized bed bubbling fluidised bed type heat pipe are more susceptible to destruction, because the heat pipe is placed in the fluidized bed, where the fluid environment intensively oijala. Therefore, the heat transfer pipe requires the same surface treatment, which is carried out during thermal spraying.

In conventional boiler with pathiramanal in horizontal section of the fluidized bed. To eliminate the non-uniformity of combustion in the boiler must be installed by a large number of the supply fuel tube that leads to the complication of the supply of fuel. Further, it is difficult to bring fuel, such as coal, to each of the fuel inlet tube in the same way. Unbalanced flow of fuel accompanied by uneven combustion and leads to agglomeration, which leads to a stop of the boiler.

In the normal electrical generating system with pressurized fluidized bed limestone is mixed with a fluid medium for the purpose of desulfurization. However, limestone is quickly consumed and dissipated in the form of ash removed from the dust collector, without adequate participation in the process of desulfurization. Normal electrical generating system with pressurized fluidized bed unable to provide a high rate of desulfurization required powerful installations. Conventional pressurized fluidized bed bubbling fluidised bed type requires the use of a large number of obeserver substances to achieve high speed desulfurization, which is accompanied by formation of large amounts of ash.

On the other article is liquefied layer, which is used in the oxidation apparatus, has the same disadvantages mentioned above.

Further, the gas generator with a fixed layer is inconvenient in that coal tar remains in a fixed layer, and a gas generator with increased flow is inconvenient in the sense that due to the high temperature interaction, sintering of ash. Conversely, the generator fluidized bed has the advantage that there is no coal tar, no sintering of ash and sulfur removal is carried out in the fluidized bed, since it operates at an intermediate temperature relative to the above two types of generators. However, the gasifier fluidized bed bubbling fluidised bed type has the same drawbacks as listed in sections A-D.

Therefore, the technical result of the present invention is to provide a boiler are under the pressure of the internal circulating fluidized-bed designed for use in electric generating system, the combined cycle, which can be controlled depending on the load without changing the height of n is nitrogen, and which may be enhanced by the utilization of the limestone and the rate of desulfurization.

According to one aspect of the present invention is proposed boiler with a pressurized internal circulating fluidized-bed designed for use in electric generating system, the combined cycle, which includes the pressure vessel; a combustion chamber located in the pressure vessel; the main combustion chamber fluidized bed containing the air diffusing device located at the bottom of the combustion chamber and adapted to discharge pseudoviruses air up with such massive speed which is at least higher on one side than on the other side; an inclined wall located above the part of the air diffusing devices out there, where the mass rate is higher than the impacts on the upward flow of air supplied to the fluidization, and thus the deviation of the air to the portion located on the other side of the air diffusion device where the mass velocity is lower; the camera regeneration of thermal energy, separated from the main combustion chamber inclined wall; heat transfer means, put what's diffuser, located in the lower part of the chamber heat energy recovery; and a free portion, integrally going over the main combustion chamber and a chamber heat energy recovery; in which the camera regeneration of thermal energy reported its upper and lower parts with the upper part and the lower part of the main combustion chamber fluidized bed, the movable layer is formed above a portion of the air diffusing device, where the injected mass flow is weaker than lets gathering and diffusion fluid environment of the rolling layer, and a circulating fluidized bed is formed above a portion of the air diffusing device, where the mass flow pseudoviruses air is higher than is possible intense fluidization fluidized medium and vortex motion in the direction of the field above the movable layer, and part of the fluidized medium is introduced into the chamber of the regeneration heat for the upper part of the inclined walls, the formation of the rolling layer and circulating fluidized bed now governed by the amount of air blown from the air diffusing device and thermal energy, causes the fluidized medium in the camera regeneration, to fall, being moveable, which ensures the circulation passage into the main combustion chamber, and the gaseous combustion products exiting the primary combustion chamber and camera regeneration heat, mix in the free area.

According to a preferred variant of the invention, the boiler comprises at least a nozzle of the secondary air used to supply secondary air into the free part, resulting gaseous combustion products exiting the primary combustion chamber and camera regeneration heat, mix, and unburned substances in the gaseous products of combustion, burn. Further, the boiler includes shielding means mounted between the main combustion chamber and a chamber heat energy recovery and intended to eliminate the ingress of combustible materials with increased grain size in the camera heat energy recovery and to allow ingress of gaseous combustion products from the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy, which is achieved by regulating the flow of gazoo the l with the pressurized internal circulating fluidized bed, designed for use in electric generating system, the combined cycle, which includes the pressure vessel; a combustion chamber located in the pressure vessel and having a cylindrical outer wall; the main combustion chamber containing the air diffusing device located at the bottom of the combustion chamber and is designed to discharge pseudoviruses air up with such mass velocity, which is at least higher on the outer side in comparison with the Central part; a partition containing a cylindrical wall and a conical wall formed in the upper part of the cylindrical walls, moreover, the conical baffle is located above a portion of the air diffusion device where the mass flow is stronger, resulting in impacts on thermal pseudoviruses air and, thus, is the deviation of the air to the portion located above the Central side of the air diffusion device where the mass flow is weaker; the annular chamber of the regenerative thermal energy, separated from the main combustion chamber Perigord is obtained for the transmission of heat, coming toward them from the environment; and an air diffuser mounted at the bottom of the camera heat energy recovery; in which the camera heat energy recovery are reported in the upper and lower parts of the chamber with the main combustion chamber fluidized bed, the movable layer is formed above a portion of the air diffusing device, where the supplied mass flow is lower, resulting in a fluidized medium descends and diffuses the rolling layer, and a circulating fluidized bed is formed above a portion of the air diffusion device where the mass flow pseudoviruses air is more strong, resulting fluidized medium is actively pseudogiants and whirls in the direction of the field above the movable layer, and part of the fluidized medium is introduced into the chamber of the regeneration heat for the upper part of the inclined walls, the formation of the rolling layer and circulating fluidized bed effectively is controlled by varying the amount of air blown from the air diffusing device, and adjusting the flow pseudoviruses of the air pumped from the air diffuser in the camera regeneration of those is the state of the rolling layer, what circulates.

According to a preferred variant of the invention, the boiler includes a free portion that is located on the main combustion chamber and a chamber of the regenerative thermal energy, in which the gaseous combustion products exiting the primary combustion chamber and chamber heat energy recovery, are mixed, while in the free area. Further, the boiler includes at least one nozzle of the secondary air used to supply secondary air to the protruding shaft, resulting gaseous combustion products exiting the primary combustion chamber and camera regeneration heat, mix and unburned combustible materials contained in the gaseous products of combustion, burn.

According to a preferred variant of the invention, the boiler includes shielding means located between the main combustion chamber and a chamber heat energy recovery and preventing dispersal of flammable materials with increased grain size in the camera regeneration heat and allowing the gaseous products of combustion leaving the camera regeneration of thermal energy is. Further, the boiler includes a second air diffuser mounted in the connecting hole and actively promote fluidization there fluidized bed environment.

According to a preferred variant of the invention, the heat transfer surface means includes heat transfer tubes, which are characterized by radial location, and the heat transfer tubes are divided into a set of blocks using them in the unit evaporator tubes, power tubes superheat and block the tubes of the secondary heat the steam. Further, the boiler includes a dust collector installed in the path of movement of the gaseous products of combustion, where submitted ash captured by the dust collector, return to the cell regeneration of thermal energy passing through the hole formed in the pressure vessel.

According to another aspect of the present invention is proposed electric generating system of the combined cycle with the Department of volatile substances, comprising a gas generator that is designed to receive gas and burnt coal, oxidation device intended for combustion of the burned coal for gas about the drug mixture, consisting of generated gas and gaseous products of combustion obtained using at least one gas generator and an oxidizing apparatus, comprising a boiler with a pressurized internal circulating Presidium layer, which includes the pressure vessel; a combustion chamber installed in the pressure vessel and having a cylindrical outer wall; the main combustion chamber with an air diffusivum device located at the bottom of the combustion chamber and designed to discharge pseudoviruses air and moving it up with such mass velocity, which is at least higher on the outer side in comparison with the Central part; a partition with a cylindrical wall and a conical wall formed in the upper part of the cylindrical walls, and a conical baffle is located above a portion of the air diffusion device where the mass flow is stronger than the impacts on thermal pseudodiamesa air, and, thus, is the deviation of the air in the portion located above the Central part, air difflugia, separated from the main combustion chamber by a partition; heat transfer surface means located in the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy and intended for the transmission of heat through them from the environment; and an air diffuser located at the bottom of the camera heat energy recovery; in which the camera heat energy recovery are reported in the upper and lower parts with the main combustion chamber fluidized bed, the movable layer is formed above a portion of the air diffusing device, where the injected mass flow is weaker, resulting in fluidized medium descends and diffuses the rolling layer, and circulating fluidized bed is formed above a portion of the air diffusion device where the mass flow pseudoviruses air is stronger, resulting in a fluid environment actively pseudogiants and whirls toward the area above the movable layer, and part of the fluidized medium is introduced into the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy at the top of the inclined walls, the formation of the rolling layer and circulating fluidized bed now regulated by changing the number who ha blown from the air diffuser in the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy, force the fluid medium in the camera regeneration, to go, being in the condition of the rolling layer, which results in the circulation.

According to another aspect of the present invention features an integral type boiler with an internal fluidized bed for use in an electric generating system, the combined cycle with the Department of volatile substances, comprising a cylindrical outer wall; a cylindrical partition, disposed concentrically with the cylindrical outer wall; a gas generator formed by the inner side of the cylindrical partition; oxidizing apparatus, formed by the space between the cylindrical outer wall and a cylindrical wall; an air diffusing device located at the bottom of the gasifier and is designed for injection pseudoviruses air with such massive speed which is at least is higher on the outer side in comparison with the Central party; conical wall formed on a cylindrical wall and a conical wall raspolojennaya impact on the upward flow pseudoviruses air and thus, the deviation of the air flowing on fluidization, in the area located above the Central part of the air diffusion device where the mass flow is weaker; an air diffuser located in the lower part of the oxidation apparatus; and a first free portion, located above the generator, and the second free portion of the above oxidizing apparatus, and first and second free portion are separated from each other by a cylindrical wall, causing the gas produced in the gasifier, and the gaseous combustion products out of the oxidation apparatus, thrown out separately; in which oxidative device reported its middle and lower parts with the gas generator, the movable layer is formed above a portion of the air diffusing device, where the injected mass flow is weaker, resulting in fluidized medium descends and diffuses the rolling layer, and a circulating fluidized bed is formed above a portion of the air diffusion device where the mass flow pseudoviruses air is stronger, resulting in a fluid environment of the fluidized medium is introduced into the oxidation unit, acting for the intermediate part of the septum, education moveable and circulating fluidized bed effectively is controlled by varying the amount of air blown from the air diffusing device, and adjusting the feed pseudoviruses of the air pumped from the air diffuser in the oxidation apparatus, causes the fluid medium in the oxidation apparatus, to subside, being moveable, which ensures the circulation.

In the case of the above devices, the present invention is characterized by the following features or advantages.

1. Because the primary combustion chamber and Luggage regeneration heat are functionally separated from each other within the entire combustion chamber, the boiler can be operated when replacing the load with a simple change of the total heat transfer coefficient the heat transfer tubes, which is achieved by adjusting the amount of air supplied into the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy, and does not change the pitch psevdoozhizhennogo layer in the combustion chamber. Therefore, there is no need to use a complex method and equipment for handling pseud is glomeruli, when the fluid medium is injected and removed from the main combustion chamber and chamber heat energy recovery. As the temperature of the fluidized bed is maintained at a constant level even when the load changes on the boiler, the boiler can operate in temperature conditions that are optimal in relation to the reduction of emissions of nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides and other undesirable emissions. Since the heat transfer tubes are placed only in the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy, where the smooth movement of the fluid medium, the heat transfer tubes are subjected to less wear than this would happen when they would be in the fluidized bed, which is in a state of intense traffic.

Because in the fluidized bed are developing swirl flows, fluid environment does not remain stagnant in the fluidized bed, fuel, such as coal or petroleum coke, Rudomino disperse and burn without agglomeration. Thus, not decreases the efficiency of the gas turbine. The amount of carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide (NOx), generated, maintained at a low level because the flue gas outlet is having a wide opening, is located above the camera regeneration heat and the main combustion chamber; gaseous products of combustion leaving the camera regeneration of thermal energy, and the main combustion chamber, are fairly well mixed in serving the mine. Consequently, the gaseous products of combustion remain in the free area for a long period of time, combustible materials sufficiently burned in the free part. Furthermore, since the free part of the fall of the secondary air, the gaseous products of combustion leaving the camera regeneration heat and the main combustion chamber, mixed completely, and unburned combustible materials captured gaseous products of combustion, sufficient burn in the free part.

2. The cylindrical combustion chamber is located in the pressure vessel, which is capable of withstanding high internal pressure, which is excessive relative to the atmospheric pressure. The pressure vessel may be cylindrical or spherical shape. Inside the fluidized bed of the cylindrical combustion chamber is a cylindrical wall with pointed top, clicks the screen separates the main combustion chamber from the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy. Conical partition installed with the purpose of influence on the upstream flow pseudoviruses air and, thereby, with the aim of deviation of the air to the Central part of the main combustion chamber. In the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy radial manner, when viewed in plan, set passing into the chamber of the heat transfer tube. The bottom surface of the main combustion chamber is conical in form and provided with an air diffusion nozzles, which pseudogout material layer located in the main combustion chamber. The volume of air entering from the air diffusion nozzles is regulated so that the speed pseudoviruses gas in the area of a concentric circle of a diameter which is approximately half the diameter of the main combustion chamber down to a speed of about one to 2.5 times greater than the minimum speed pseudoviruses gas (vmf. Speed pseudoviruses gas in the annular region surrounding the concentric circle comes to high speed, from about 4 to 12 times higher than the minimum speed pseudoviruses gas (vmf).

Because of the presence of this device material layer (pseudouridine the main combustion chamber and then slowly dissipate in all directions along the bottom surface of conical shape, reaching the surrounding annular region, where, thanks to the existence of a strong fluidization, fluidized medium is forcibly given up and moved along the inner surface of the cylindrical wall. At this point, because in the upper part of the cylindrical partition wall is formed by a conical wall, devaysa power increases, leading, ultimately, to its maximum value when reaching the surface of the fluidized bed, where the fluid medium is forced to change the direction of movement opposite that occurs under the influence of reactive power, resulting in horizontal scattering in all directions, which, in part, is up.

The result of this is that a large amount of fluid medium (material layer) flows into the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy passing through the upper part of the septum, while the rest of the environment, remaining on the surface of the fluidized bed, is deposited in the form of a cylindrical flow in the vicinity of the Central part, which is accompanied by passion surrounding fluid environment. When the fluid medium reaches the area in the vicinity of the center is different in the horizontal direction and a circular peripheral surface. Circulating for forcing fluid environment move as dispersed flow going from the Central portion along the tapered bottom surface with a gradual deviation in all directions, which ensures the uniform distribution of fuel and desulphuriser substances. Therefore, combustion is made uniform without any agglomeration. The number of entry points fuel can be minimized, resulting in the fuel supply system is greatly simplified. As the fluidized medium remaining on the surface of the fluidized bed, is deposited in the form of a cylindrical flow near the Central part, which is accompanied by passion surrounding fluid environment, fuel and desulphurise substance remain in the fluidized bed for a long period of time, resulting in increased combustion efficiency and the efficiency of desulfurization.

A large number of fluidized medium flows around the baffle and into the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy. In the free area above the upper part of the main combustion chamber and chamber heat energy recovery, is covering the camera regeneration heat E. the possible ingress of solid fuel, such as particles of coal large diameter chamber of the regenerative thermal energy. In accordance with the foregoing, can be eliminated, the process of agglomeration in the fluidized bed in the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy, although fluidized bed and moving slowly at a speed which is less than twice the minimum speed of the fluidized gas. The screen plays the role of the bumper partitions in respect of gaseous combustion products formed in the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy than is possible enough good blending and mixing of the gaseous products of combustion from the combustion gases generated in the main combustion chamber. In the boiler with pressurized fluidized bed in the capture of gaseous combustion products of a large number of unburned materials, the combustion efficiency is reduced unburned materials burn in located further downstream dust collector such as a cyclone, accompanied by agglomeration, and, if the dust collector contains ceramic filters, unburned materials are burned on the surface of the ceramic filters, destroying ceramic filters. These troubles are reasons which would combustible materials completely burned in the combustion chamber. Mixing and mixing is achieved under the influence of the screen, acting as a sliding door partition, are highly effective in achieving complete combustion of combustible materials in the free area when combined with appropriate means of secondary air, the height of the free area and the duration of stay of the gaseous products of combustion in the free part.

3. Since the heat transfer surface is not present in the main combustion chamber of the boiler with an internal circulating fluidized bed according to the present invention, in the main combustion chamber can burn fuel in a healing environment. Therefore, by setting the ratio for distribution of the air supplied for combustion in the main combustion chamber, the air supplied at a rate equal to or less than the velocity of the air at stoichiometric combustion, and the camera regeneration heat the air supplied at a rate that permits to control the operation of the camera heat energy recovery, and the remainder of the air required to ensure complete combustion, serves as secondary air through a set of nozzles of the secondary air installed in the spare parts than on the in regenerating the atmosphere within the main combustion chamber, ensuring the efficient release of volatile matter of coal. Hydrocarbons such as CH4, CO or nitrogen-containing chemical particles, including particles with a high content of nitrogen, HCN, and so on, reduce the emission of nitrogen oxides formed during combustion from flowing gas-phase reactions; and the selectivity, or the probability of transformation of nitrogen-containing particles in nitrogen oxides is reduced. Therefore, in the main combustion chamber can be efficient combustion with low emissions of oxides of nitrogen.

4. Air chamber and an air diffuser located at the bottom of the furnace below the connecting hole under the wall, effectively pseudogout fluid environment within the connecting holes, resulting in increasing the amount of fluid medium circulating through the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy from entering the main combustion chamber. The air chamber may be communicated with an air chamber that is used to control the operation of the camera heat energy recovery, or may be controlled independently from this air chamber. If the air chamber is controlled independently of the air chamber designed for UPRAVLENIE amount of fluid environment regardless of the amount of diffusing air, coming into the camera regeneration heat. In this case, the air chamber functions as the control valve. The result of this is that in the case of the cylindrical combustion chamber of a circulating fluidized medium is higher than in the case of a rectangular combustion chamber, and the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy in a cylindrical combustion chamber can be characterized by a large size in comparison with a rectangular combustion chamber than further underlines the benefits from the use of the cylindrical combustion chamber.

5. Heat transfer tube introduced into a fluidized bed in the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy, are radial manner and functionally divided into the unit evaporator tubes, block paroperegrevatelya tubes and block re-heating steam. The amount of diffusing air coming from the base of the furnace into the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy can be adjusted in each of the blocks so that each block will become independent control of the amount of extracted heat energy. Between the blocks is provided by the observation space required for the survey is feasible, the boiler can be made more compact if without observation spaces.

6. If submitted ash collected by the separator particles placed at the end of the movement path of the exhaust gases back into the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy, then the average diameter and specific gravity of the particles in the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy are reduced. Although the average diameter of the particles in the main combustion chamber, and is approximately 0.6 mm, the diameter of the particles carried along by the combustion gases and collected by the separator particles are returned back into the cycle, is much less, and their share is also much less, because they contain burnt coal. In the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy speed pseudoviruses gas is small, about twice the minimum speed pseudoviruses gas. Therefore, prevents new grip is returned to the cycle of the particles, resulting in average diameter and specific gravity of the particles in the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy, are below those values, which correspond to the main combustion chamber.

The minimum speed n is also their specific weight, resulting speed pseudoviruses gas in the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy is significantly lower than the speed corresponding main combustion chamber. Therefore, the velocity of air flow is intended to control the extraction process of thermal energy, can be made significantly lower in comparison with that which would have occurred if the proposed ash did not return back into the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy. The consequence of this is that the speed pseudoviruses gas (v0in the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy is reduced. Since the rate of destruction of the introduced heat-transfer tubes, placed in the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy is proportional to the cube of the speed pseudoviruses gas (v0), the rate of erosion of the introduced heat-transfer tubes is greatly reduced when it is low speed pseudoviruses gas (v0). Lowering the feed rate of air into the chamber extraction of thermal energy, it is possible to minimize the impact on the combustion process, when there is any change in the velocity inlet, and said it is the free movement of exhaust gases, extending from the cylindrical boiler with internal circulating fluidized bed, and provides accommodation classifying device designed to collect unreacted desulfurised matter and unburned carbon particles from the collected submitted ash and classification submitted ash into three groups with large, medium and small particle sizes with a refund only made of ash with an average diameter of particles in the main combustion chamber and (simultaneously or separately) in the free part of (and at the same time or separately) in the fuel supply system. Because of the cylindrical combustion chamber is returned only particles with diameter in the range of 10 to 60 μm, which are characterized by the highest concentration of burnt coal, it is possible to reduce the content of nitrogen oxides, to reduce erosion on the movement path of the exhaust gas and to improve the combustion efficiency with the minimum content of the circulating ash.

8. In an electric generating system, the combined cycle with the Department of volatile substances cylindrical boiler with internal circulating fluidized bed is used as a gas generator and (simultaneously or CTD the face is captured educated gas and cooled to 600oC or lower temperature, and then is going to are located further downstream of the dust collector. Then the particles containing unburned burned coal, is introduced into the oxidation apparatus, where they are completely burned. The exhaust gas formed in the oxidation apparatus, removed from it and is cooled to 600oC or to a lower temperature. Particles containing sodium, potassium, etc. captured flue gas gathering located downstream of the dust collector and then unload it. The purified exhaust gas and the generated gas, which is withdrawn from the gasifier and is filtered to remove particles containing sodium, potassium, etc. are mixed and burned in the combustion cycle of the separation of volatile substances. High-temperature exhaust gas generated in the combustion cycle of the separation of volatile substances, is fed into the gas turbine. Because the flue gas is free from particles containing alkali metal such as sodium, potassium, etc. that otherwise would be subjected to high temperature corrosion of turbine blades, gas turbine can be made of conventional materials and designed in the usual way.

The above and other objectives, E. application of the drawings, with examples illustrate preferred embodiments of the present invention.

Fig. 1 is a view in cross section of the boiler pressurized internal circulating fluidized bed according to the first variant implementation of the present invention.

Fig. 2A is a view in section, taken along the line IIA - IIA shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 2B is a view in cross-section, corresponding to Fig. 2A, depicting a modified arrangement of the heat transfer tubes.

Fig. 3 is a block diagram of an electric generating system that includes a boiler with a pressurized internal circulating fluidized bed according to the first variant implementation of the present invention.

Fig. 4 is a graph describing the relationship between the total heat transfer coefficient immersed heating surface and speed pseudoviruses gas.

Fig. 5 is a view in cross-section with a detailed picture of the structure of the cylindrical combustion chamber shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 7 is a structural diagram of the electrical generating system of the combined cycle, which includes the boiler with the pressurized internal circulating fluidized bed according to the third variant of implementation of the present invention.

Fig. 8 is a modified block diagram of the electrical generating system of the combined cycle, which includes the boiler with the pressurized internal circulating fluidized bed according to the third variant of implementation of the present invention.

Fig. 9 is a structural diagram of the electrical generating system of the combined cycle, which includes the boiler with the pressurized internal circulating fluidized bed according to the fourth variant of implementation of the present invention.

Fig. 10 is a structural diagram of the electrical generating system of the combined cycle with the Department of volatile substances, which includes boiler with a pressurized internal circulating fluidized bed as oxidation apparatus according to the fifth variant of osushestvlenie unified cycle with the Department of volatile substances, which includes a boiler with a pressurized internal circulating fluidized bed as oxidizing apparatus and the gas generator according to the sixth variant of implementation of the present invention.

Fig. 12 is a view in cross section depicting the integral furnace that includes an oxidizing unit and the gas generator and intended for use in an electric generating system, the combined cycle with the Department of volatile substances according to the seventh variant of implementation of the present invention.

Fig. 13 is a structural diagram of the electrical generating system of the combined cycle with the Department of volatile substances, which includes integrated furnace containing an oxidizing apparatus, and the gas generator, as shown in Fig. 12, according to the eighth variant of implementation of the present invention.

Fig. 14 is a view in plan of a conventional boiler, pressurized fluidized bed bubbling fluidised bed type.

Fig. 15 is a view in plan of another conventional boiler, pressurized fluidized bed bubbling fluidised bed type is astasia the invention, will be described below with reference to the illustration of Fig. 1 according to Fig. 13 inclusive.

The first option. As shown in Fig. 1, the electrical generating system of the combined cycle consists of the pressure vessel 1, which is characterized by a cylindrical reservoirdogs form. The pressure vessel 1 is equipped with the outlet 4 through which extend gaseous products of combustion and which is located in the upper part of the outlet 3, intended for giving pseudoviruses air, and placed at the bottom of the holes supply air 5 used to control the operation of the camera heat energy recovery. The pressure vessel 1 is designed so that it can withstand high internal pressure in excess of atmospheric pressure. Vessel high pressure may be spherical.

Inside the pressure vessel 1 is cylindrical combustion chamber 2, which is an airtight vessel containing a cylindrical webbed wall 11, consisting of water pipes. The main combustion chamber 9 with a fluidized bed formed inside the cylindrical combustion chamber 2. In the upper part of the / establishment, which is connected with the outlet 4, designed for removal of gaseous products of combustion from the vessel high pressure 1. Cylindrical combustion chamber 2 is rigidly retained on the bottom of the cylindrical support 7, resting on the end plate of the pressure vessel 1. Inside cylindrical fluidized bed combustor 2 is the partition 8, which separates the chamber 10 of the recovery of thermal energy from the main combustion chamber 9. The partition 8 is composed of water pipes, going radially inward from the cylindrical membranous wall 11 and a refractory material, which is lined with webbed wall. The partition wall 8 includes a cylindrical wall 8a and the conical wall 8b with a radially inward directed inner surface formed in the upper part of the cylindrical partition wall 8a. Conical wall 8a performs the role of reflective walls, designed to reflect pseudoviruses of air injected from the air nozzle toward the center of the main combustion chamber 9, resulting in the main combustion chamber 9 develop savanaudis flows a fluid environment, as shown by the arrows in Fig. 1. Free part 31 is formed above the main combustion chamber 9 and cameraeaster thermal energy and the protruding shaft above the main combustion chamber 9, the result is the formation of extensive total free area, which ensures the free movement of the gaseous products of combustion coming from both cameras.

In the camera 10 of the regeneration of heat introduced heat-transfer pipes 15 are radial, as in the plan shown in Fig. 2A. These tubes 15 branches from the upper and lower manifolds 13 and 14, located on the cylindrical webbed wall 11 of the cylindrical combustion chamber 2. At the bottom of the pressure vessel 1 provided input 16, which is designed to supply water. Boiler water coming from the inlet water supply 16, flows through the membrane cylindrical wall 11 and the connecting pipe 16a and introduced into the lower manifold 14, and then spread through the heat transfer tubes 15. Thermal energy generated in the main combustion chamber 9, is extracted heat transfer tubes 15 in the camera 10 heat energy recovery, resulting in pairs. The steam generated in the heat-transfer pipe 15, is collected in the upper reservoir 13 and out through hole output pair 17.

On the pressure vessel 1 has balanced with the filing of the balancing air 19a. Supply system pseudoviruses air 19 is connected to the input of the feed pseudoviruses air 3. Supply system pseudoviruses air 19 creates the same pressure as the pressure vessel 1, and a cylindrical combustion chamber 2, which leads to the balancing of internal and external pressure in a cylindrical combustion chamber 2, except for a small pressure drop associated with the loss of pressure in fluidized bed. In the considered case there is no need to make a cylindrical combustion chamber 2 capable of withstanding pressures. In this case, in the free part 31 of the cylindrical combustion chamber 2, the combustion chamber 2 is subjected to pressure. When balancing the pressure in the space 36 between the casing of the pressure vessel 1 and the cylindrical combustion chamber 2, the pressure in the free part 31, by means of the pressure reducer is installed in the line to counterbalance the nozzle 18, the lower part of the fluidized bed is subjected to internal pressure caused by loss of pressure in fluidized bed. On the pressure vessel 1 has a pipe 6, which is designed to supply fuel pipe 6, designed for fuel supply, connect the practical shape and provided with an air diffusing nozzles 21, through which fluidization fluidized medium in the main combustion chamber 9. The hole 22, through which the injected fuel is characterized by the presence of an open end located near the bottom surface 20 of the main combustion chamber 9. The volume of air blown air diffusing nozzles 21, is regulated so that the speed pseudoviruses gas in the area of location of the concentric circles, the diameter of which is approximately half the diameter of the main combustion chamber 9, trimmed to speed, from about one to 2.5 times the minimum feed rate pseudoviruses gas (vmf). Speed pseudoviruses gas in the annular region surrounding a concentric circle, reaches high values, exceeding from about 4 to 12 times the minimum speed pseudoviruses gas (vmf).

Due to the above-described device, the fluidized medium in the fluidized bed of the main combustion chamber 9, begins to fall in the Central part of the main combustion chamber 9, and then slowly dissipate in all directions along the bottom surface of conical shape, achieving environmental consistiu blowing and moves along the inner surface of the partition 8. At this time, since the upper part of the cylindrical partition wall 8a is formed by a conical wall 8b, devaysa power increases with the maximum value in the end, when it reaches the surface of the fluidized bed, where the fluid medium is forced to change its direction of movement opposite that occurs under the influence of the reactive force and the resulting dispersion in the horizontal plane in all directions, as well as partially and up.

The result of this is that a large number of fluidized medium flows into the chamber heat energy recovery 10 for the partition 8. Fluidized bed in chamber heat energy recovery 10 has a speed which is not more than twice exceeds the minimum speed pseudoviruses gas (vmf). Since the fluidized bed is in a slow state of fluidization, should be observed the tendency for the agglomeration. Therefore, it is necessary that the solid fuel, such as coal particles of large diameter, do not fall into the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy 10. Comb-toothed screen 12 is installed in your like surrounds the camera regeneration heat 10. Comb-toothed screen 12 is effective in preventing the penetration of solid fuel in the form of particles of large diameter in the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy 107. In accordance with the foregoing, can be prevented the occurrence of agglomeration in the fluidized bed in the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy 10, although fluidized bed and is in a state of slow motion with a speed less than twice the minimum velocity of fluidization. Screen 12 performs the role of the bumper partitions in the products of combustion formed in the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy 10 than is possible with sufficient blending and mixing of the gaseous products of combustion from the combustion gases generated in the main combustion chamber 9. In the boiler with pressurized fluidized bed when the gaseous combustion products carry a large amount of unburned materials, the combustion efficiency is reduced unburned materials burn in located further downstream of the dust collector such as a cyclone, which is accompanied by the occurrence of agglomeration, and, if the bag contains ceramic filters, unburned materials, stop the boiler with pressurised fluidized bed. Therefore, it is desirable that combustible materials were completely burned in the combustion chamber. Blending and mixing, which occurs under the influence of the screen 12, as it functions as a bumper retainer, are highly effective in combination with appropriate means of secondary air, the height of the free part 31 and the duration of stay of the gaseous products of combustion in the free part 31 in achieving complete combustion of combustible materials in the free part 31.

On the other hand, the fluidized medium in the main combustion chamber 9, begins to fall in the Central part of the state of the cylindrical flow. Coming Wednesday, reaching the Central part of the conical bottom surface 20 of the main combustion chamber 9, begins again to dissipate in all directions. This way, internal circulation, shown in Fig. 1. Through this internal circulation fuels, such as coal-water paste, leaving holes in the input fuel 22, evenly distributed in all directions in the main combustion chamber 9. Therefore, even when using a simple fuel injection eliminates the uneven distribution Toi 20 has a conical shape and provided with an air diffusing nozzles 24, through which pseudogiants fluid medium in chamber heat energy recovery 10. When the discharge air from the air diffusing nozzles 24 that are attached to the air inputs 5, allowing to control the operation of the camera heat energy recovery, fluid environment, a member of the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy 10 per partition 8, begins to slowly descend, descending through the fluidized bed chamber heat energy recovery 20, where it is involved in the process of heat exchange with the heat transfer tubes 15. The medium then passes through the connecting hole 27 located beneath the cylindrical wall 8a, returning to the main combustion chamber 9. In this way the heat energy produced in the main combustion chamber 9, which effectively removed the heat-transfer pipes 15 in the camera regeneration heat 10.

In addition, on the outer surface of the conical walls 8c can be installed additional air diffusing nozzle 265 and inlet air pipe 25 connected to the nozzles 26. Additional air diffusing nozzle 28 pump air, exposing fluidization medium and partially technical partitions 8 with a large angle of inclination, such additional air diffusing nozzles 26 are not necessary.

Under the bottom surface 20 of the main combustion chamber 9 is Luggage pseudoviruses air 28. Luggage pseudoviruses air 28 covered by a membranous wall 29, which supports the partition 8 and is connected to the input pseudoviruses air 3. The air chamber of the regeneration control of thermal energy 30 is located under the bottom surface 23 of the camera heat energy recovery 10. The air chamber of the regeneration control of thermal energy 30 is connected to the air supply system through the nozzle air supply 5 going to manage the regeneration of thermal energy.

Free part 31 a large volume is located above the main combustion chamber 9 and the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy 10. That is, there is no constriction between the main combustion chamber 9 and the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy 10 and free part 31. Therefore, the gaseous combustion products exiting the primary combustion chamber 9 and the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy 10, sufficiently mixed and mixed with each other in the free part 31 and remain in the free part 31 for a long promennych gas.

Further, in the free part 31 is provided by a set of nozzles of the secondary air 33 attached to the outlet of the secondary air 34, which ensures the flow dvuhstupenchatogo burning. Since the heat transfer surface is not located in the main combustion chamber 9, it is possible to burn the fuel in the reducing atmosphere of the main combustion chamber 9. Therefore, the task distribution relationships for going to the combustion air in the primary combustion chamber 9 supply air at a rate equal to or lower than the rate of admission of air, necessary for the occurrence of stoichiometric combustion, and the camera regeneration heat 10 supply air flow rate required to ensure control of the regeneration process of thermal energy, and the remainder of the air required to ensure complete combustion, serves as secondary air through a set of nozzles of the secondary air 33 installed in the free part 31, which ensures the possibility of occurrence of two-stage combustion. The result of this is that the fuel burning in a reducing atmosphere in the main combustion chamber 9, actively allocates Le is ical particles, including NHi, HCN, etc. and restore the nitrogen oxides formed in the conditions of flow of the gas-phase reaction, and the selectivity, or the probability of the process of transformation of nitrogen-containing chemical particles in nitrogen oxides is reduced. Consequently, it is possible to effectively carry out combustion in the main combustion chamber at low NOx emissions.

In the free part 31 is installed bumper retainer 32, preventing the direct emission of the gaseous combustion products in the vent hole of the gaseous products of combustion 4, and it contributes to sufficient mixing of the gaseous products of combustion in the free part 31. However, if the gaseous products of combustion sufficiently mixed secondary air or gas flow, referred to the total cross section is low and playing mine high enough, then the bumper retainer 32 is not necessarily required due to the low probability of direct leakage of gas.

In Fig. 2B shows a modified arrangement of the heat transfer tube shown in Fig. 2A. Heat transfer tubes immersed in the fluidized bed in the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy, are radial is operaciashi tubes, block 43 with N 3 paroperegrevatelya tubes and block 44 of the tubes of the secondary heat steam. In the case of the boiler single acting steam passes through the evaporative unit 40 tubes, block 41 with N 1 paroperegrevatelya tubes, block 42 with N 2 paroperegrevatelya tubes and block with N 43 N 3 paroperegrevatelya tubes that happens consistently. Educated superheated steam introduced into the steam turbine high pressure and then return again in block 44 of the tubes of the secondary heat steam. Steam heated in block 44 of the tubes of the secondary heat steam introduced into the steam turbine intermediate pressure.

With this arrangement, the heat transfer tubes, the amount of air flowing from the nozzles of the air distribution 24 in chamber 10 heat energy recovery, can be installed in each of the blocks, the number of extracted thermal energy will be regulated independently in each block. Between the blocks are operational space 45, intended for examination of immersed heat transfer tubes. The boiler can be made more compact, unless the use of performance spaces.

In Fig. 3 illustrates the device management system flow rate supplied in the in the steam line, coming to the entrance of the turbine, the result is the change of the signal corresponding to the steam flow, which generates a flow meter pair F31. A counting device UO calculates an output signal based on the signal from the steam flow rate from flow meter pair F31, and the signal pressure supplied from the pressure regulator pair F31, and sends the calculated output signal to the fuel supply system, which ensures the flow of fuel with a speed corresponding to the load. The output signal from the counting device UO is also sent to a counting device UO' system air supply.

A counting device UO' in addition to the output signal from the counting device UO also receives signals from the regulator oxygen A25 and airflow switch F21 going to manage the process heat recovery, which is located on the discharge line gas 50. Based on the received signals, a counting device UO' calculates an output signal characterizing the consumption of the remaining air, which is equal to the difference between the full flow of air to achieve complete combustion and air flow used in the recovery of thermal energy, resulting in regulating the flow of air, the Le, coming from the counting device PP', the counting device Y1 and Y2 are conducted according to specified algorithms, calculations, producing corresponding output signals to the flow regulator pseudoviruses air F22 and the flow regulator secondary air F24, resulting pseudalgihagi air and secondary air at a constant ratio comes into the combustion chamber 2.

In the case of filing pseudoviruses air and secondary air at a constant ratio can be realized in the two-stage combustion mode when the combustion chamber 9 is supplied with air at a speed equal to or lower than the feed speed of the air at stoichiometric combustion, and the camera 10 of the regeneration heat is supplied with air at a speed necessary for the implementation of the process of regeneration control of thermal energy, and the remainder of the air required to ensure complete combustion, is supplied as secondary air in the free part 31.

Because the burning is conducted in a reducing atmosphere in the main combustion chamber 9, the volatile matter of coal is actively removed in terms of reducing combustion and hydrocarbons such as CH4, CO or gazoobrazovania gas-phase reactions, and selectivity, or the probability of transformation of nitrogen-containing chemical particles in nitrogen oxides is reduced. Therefore, you can maintain combustion in the main combustion chamber 9 in the low emissions of nitrogen oxides.

The output signal from the flow regulator pair P31 is used to control temperature controller fluidized bed T58 by the counting device Y31. More precisely, when the steam pressure drops slightly, the output signal from the counting device Y31 several lowers the temperature of the layer, which is achieved through exposure to control the temperature of the fluidized bed T58. The control signal coming from the temperature controller fluidized bed T58, changed and fed through the counting device Y21 on the airflow switch, used to control the regeneration process of thermal energy, i.e., the regulator F21, which then increases the flow rate of air flowing into the regeneration heat.

As can be seen in Fig. 4, total heat transfer coefficient at the immersed heat transfer tubes in the camera extraction of thermal energy 10 is substantially proportional to the speed pseudoviruses gas pseudowire the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy, i.e., with increasing speed pseudoviruses gas, increasing the number of selected heat, resulting in a restored steam pressure. With increasing vapor pressure above a specified value, the system operates in the opposite direction, lowering air flow into the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy, thereby lowering the vapor pressure.

In this case, the rate of fuel feed is regulated in the primary control mode, and the flow rate of air into the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy is regulated in the auxiliary mode control, resulting in any adverse effects caused by load changes, are minimized with rapid and sustainable management burning.

The gas output of the gas turbine 38 and the air inlet of the compressor 39 may be connected to each other through the valve 49, which is designed for speed control of the discharged gas being mixed with the air supplied to the compressor 39, what is being done to reduce the content of nitrogen oxides NOx and stabilization of the process of fluidization with increasing feed speed pseudoviruses gas at low loads.

In Fig. 5 detailing the design cilindri is as shown in Fig. 1, the camera regeneration of thermal energy 10 is an annular chamber behind the partition 8, and thus, she may have an increased size in comparison with a rectangular combustion chamber, and therefore it is more suitable for placing in her of the heat transfer tubes. To manifest advantages existing in this chamber heat energy recovery, it is necessary to circulate a greater quantity of fluid medium in comparison with the combustion chamber of rectangular shape.

Previously, the connecting hole 27 located under the partition wall 8, there were no air diffusing nozzle layer was pseudovirus way through an auxiliary supply pseudoviruses of the air diffusing nozzle located in the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy, and from the air diffusing nozzles 21 located in the main combustion chamber 9. Therefore, previously existed region 27A, where proceeded actively to the process of fluidization. According to the present invention this problem can be eliminated by introduction of the air chamber 30 and the air diffusing nozzles 24 which are placed in the bottom of the furnace under Sousa effective against fluidized layer around the connecting hole 27, what increases the amount of fluid medium circulating through the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy 10 from the main combustion chamber 9.

The air chamber 30 may be in communication with the air chamber 30, which ensures the ability to control the regeneration process heat, or can be controlled separately from the air chamber 30. If the air chamber 30 is controlled independently from the air chamber 30, then it is possible to control the number of circulating fluidized bed environment regardless of the amount of diffusing air entering into the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy 10. In this case, the air chamber 30 functions as a control valve.

The second option. In Fig. 6 shows a structural diagram of the electrical generating system of the combined cycle, which contains the boiler with the pressurized internal circulating fluidized bed according to the second variant of implementation of the present invention.

As shown in Fig.6, the discharged gas discharged from the pressure vessel 1 passes through the flue output of gas discharged 50 in the cyclone 51. Submitted ash collected by the cyclone 51, settles under dei is named ash back into the cycle, and returns to the camera regeneration heat 10, acting through the tube entry returned in the cycle of ash 54, which passes through the side walls of the pressure vessel 1 and the cylindrical combustion chamber 2.

As brought ash back into the camera heat energy recovery 10, the average particle diameter and specific gravity is reduced. Although the average diameter of the particles in the main combustion chamber 9, and is approximately 0.6 mm, the diameter of the particles entrained flue gas is then captured by the cyclone and returned to the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy 10, is a lot less. The proportion of such particles is small because they contain burnt coal.

Because the speed pseudoviruses gas in the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy 10 is low, no greater than about two times the minimum speed pseudoviruses gas, recycled particles are not captured again, and therefore, the average diameter of the particles in the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy 10, is less than the average diameter of the particles in the main combustion chamber 9.

The minimum speed pseudologia the additional weight, resulting in the minimum speed pseudoviruses gas in the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy 10 is significantly lower in comparison with the main combustion chamber 9. Therefore, the feed rate of air supplied to the management of the regeneration process of thermal energy may be significantly lower than when submitted ash is not returned back to the cell regeneration heat 10. The result of this is that the speed pseudoviruses gas (v0in the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy 10 is reduced.

Because the rate of erosion of the immersed heat transfer tubes placed in the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy 10, is proportional to the cube of the speed pseudoviruses gas (v0), the rate of erosion of the immersed heat transfer tubes is greatly reduced when the speed pseudoviruses gas (v0) is reduced.

As shown in Fig. 3, the feed rate of air flowing to manage the process of regeneration of thermal energy, i.e., the flow rate of air passing through the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy fluctuates all the time, because it UPA in the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy to minimize the impact on combustion, caused any change in the rate of admission of air, and this decline seems to be very effective in achieving stable combustion.

As shown in Fig. 6, the discharged gas is injected through the cyclone 51 in the container 55, which may include ceramic filters or high-temperature baghouse. Submitted ash collected by the dust collector 55, ash is cooled in the refrigerator 56 and is discharged through a lock hopper 56, getting out. High temperature of the discharged gas, which was subjected to filtration, and made pure, direct from the dust box 55 in the gas turbine 58.

Coal stored as fuel in coal hopper 59 is subjected to crushing in a crusher 60 and is directed into a mixing vessel 61, where it is mixed with desulfoviridin substance coming from the hopper 62 containing disulfirame substance and water from the water container 64, and the mixture is stirred into the slurry fuel. Fuel, in the form of sludge, then served a pump for pumping sludge 65 in the cylindrical combustion chamber 2, where it goes through the insertion of fuel 22 in the fluidized bed in the combustion chamber 9.

Making up the input of recycled ash 54A of such length that it took place near the Central part of the main combustion chamber 9 can be submitted submitted ash on the rolling surface layer or the inner region of the rolling layer. Providing fluid communication environment submitted with ash, you can keep the ashes in the fluidized bed for a long period of time, which increases the efficiency of combustion of unburned materials and the degree of desulfurization and NOx reduction.

Boilers with pressurized internal circulating pseudouridine layer shown in Fig.6 - Fig.8, are by their type for boilers with forced circulation, while the boiler is under pressure to an internal circulating fluidized bed shown in Fig. 1, at its dipheny water system boiler feed water 70; and the water circulates from parosbornoj 71 through the pipe forced circulation 73, entering the water wall and the evaporator tube camera regeneration heat 10 under the influence of pump forced circulation 72.

Pairs 74, formed in pasborice 71 is fed through a connecting tube (not shown) in paroperegrevatelya tube located in the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy 10, where superheated steam is formed 74'. Educated superheated steam 74' is then fed to the steam turbine high pressure.

A third option. In Fig.7 illustrates the boiler with the pressurized internal circulating fluidized-bed that meets the third variant of implementation of the present invention, the boiler includes a system designed to process off-gas.

As shown in Fig.7 submitted ash collected by the cyclone 51, located on the movement path of the exhaust gas 50, ash is cooled in the refrigerator 77. The refrigerant used in the ash fridge 77 may be water supplied to the boiler, or pseudoviruses air to effectively remove heat from the ash.

The cooled ash is entered through a lock b is holodilnik 56 and a lock hopper 57; and the mixture is subjected to classification. In the illustrated embodiment, classifying air 80 enters the classifier 79 through the tube air diffuser 81, which provides the classification of particles in fluidized bed. However, this alternative embodiment of the invention is not necessarily limited to this type of classification.

Particles of unreacted desulfurised matter and unburned carbon, which was selectively separated in the classifier 79 and have a diameter of 60 μm or less, are carried away in the cyclone 83 air. These particles are additionally classified cyclone 83. The classified particles selected cyclone 83, which have a diameter of about 10 microns or less, are introduced into the dust collector 84, separated from the air bag 84 and then is discharged from the dust collector 84. Carry out the ash discharged from the cyclone 83, which is characterized by a particle diameter in the range from 10 to 60 μm, is discharged through the shut-off valve 85, a lock hopper 86 and the rotary valve 87, acting in a cylindrical combustion chamber 2 under the influence of air 88, transporting recycled ash. When returning to carry out the ash chamber heat energy recovery 10 across the Anta embodiment of the invention, is illustrated in Fig. 6. If you carry out recycling of ash to enter it in the free part 31 through the tube subspecies recycled ash 54a increases the concentration of particles increases mixing effect on the gaseous products of combustion and increases the likelihood of contacting unburned burned coal and unreacted desulfurised substance that increases the efficiency of combustion and the degree of desulfurization and NOx reduction.

Making up the input of recycled ash 54A of such length that it is his end was held near the Central part of the main combustion chamber 9 can be adopted ash show on the rolling surface layer or to enter into a movable layer. Providing the ability to co-locate fluid environment submitted with ash, you can keep the ashes in the fluidized bed for a long period of time, improving thereby the combustion of unburned materials and increasing the degree of desulfurization and NOx reduction.

In this case, the particle diameter are classified into three groups. Because in a cylindrical combustion chamber 2 is returned only particles with the highest concentration wigging is s, to decrease the rate of erosion on the movement path of the discharged gas and to increase the efficiency of combustion with a minimum number of circulating ash.

Although dust particles and are collected in two stages through the use of the cyclone 51 and the dust collection unit 55, it is possible to dispense with the cyclone 51, ash fridge 77 and the lock hopper 78 and used to collect dust particles only a dust collector 55. With this change, the dust particles can be classified under pressure without passing them through the ash fridge 56 and a lock hopper 57. The dust collector 55 typically includes a ceramic filters.

In Fig.8 shows another method of processing classified carry out the ash.

As shown in Fig. 8, the particles of unreacted desulfurised matter and unburned carbon, which were selectively allocated in the classifier 79 and which have a diameter of 60 μm or less, are carried into the cyclone 83 air. The particles are then classified by the cyclone 83. The classified particles selected cyclone 83, which have a diameter of about 10 microns or less, are introduced into the dust collector 84, separated from the air bag 84 and then removed from the dust collector 84.

Carry out the AOR is through shut-off valve 85, a lock hopper 86 and the rotary valve 87 into the hopper 89. After that, the ash discharged from the hopper 89, mixed with coal and desulfoviridin substance, forming a fuel in the form of particles that occurs in the mixer 90. The resulting fuel is then in a cylindrical combustion chamber 2, which occurs under the influence of air from the tank with air 92.

Carry out the ash coming from the butterfly valve 87, the diameter of the particles is in the range of 10 to 60 μm, may be filed with the protruding shaft 31 of the pneumatic method using secondary air 34.

The fourth option. In Fig.9 shows the entire boiler system with pressurized fluidized bed, meets the fourth variant of implementation of the present invention.

As shown in Fig.9, the boiler pressurized fluidized bed is constructed in the form of boiler single actions with pressurized fluidized bed. When the boiler with pressurized fluidized bed Slovene fuel is pumped sludge transfer 65 into the combustion chamber 2, where it passes into the main combustion chamber 9, entering the fluidized bed and burning tamtam filtered dust collector 55, which removes dust particles from the discharged gas. Then the discharged gas drives the gas turbine high pressure 100 and gas low-pressure turbine 101, after which it heats the water supplied to the boiler that takes place in refrigerator gas discharged 102. After that, the exhaust gas is discharged into the atmosphere through the chimney 103.

The air to support combustion in the fluidized bed, is pumped by the compressor high and low pressure 104 and 106, which are driven by respective gas turbines 101 and 100. Part of the air is discharged in the form of air going to manage the process of regeneration of heat, and is introduced into the air chamber 30 that is used to control the regeneration process of thermal energy. The remainder of the air is introduced into air chamber 28 acting on the combustion of fuel and producing twisting of fluidized medium in the main combustion chamber 9.

In the steam-generating system, water is fed by the feed pump boiler water 107 in the refrigerator exhaust gas 102 and then there heat. The heated water is fed into the boiler, where it passes through the water tubes forming a cylindrical wall, after which the water passes chere.

Received superheated steam drives a steam turbine high pressure 110 and then back into the combustion chamber 2, where it is again heated in the immersed heat transfer tubes 111. After this steam drives the medium-pressure turbine 112 and a low-pressure turbine 113, causing the electric generator 114 generates electric power. Then the steam is condensed in the condenser 115, turning in the water, which serves back into the boiler.

The fifth option. In Fig.10 shows the boiler with internal circulating fluidized-bed that meets the fifth variant of implementation of the present invention, the boiler is included in the electrical generating system of the combined cycle with the removal of volatile substances as oxidizing apparatus.

Although it is not shown, but the boiler under pressure cylindrical fluidized bed that meets the present invention can also be used as a gas generator in an electric generating system, the combined cycle with the Department of volatile substances, shown in Fig. 10. In relation to the gas generator described will be carried out below. As described in detail is lirousi fluidized bed, meets the present invention, there is no heat transfer surface. Therefore, two-stage combustion is carried out with the purpose of lowering the emission of nitrogen oxides, which is achieved by burning fuel in the main combustion chamber 9 and replenish the atmosphere when the air ratio value of 0.8. As in the main combustion chamber 9 there are different speed pseudoviruses gas, the predominant amount of air relations in the movable layer is about 0.5, and this value is close to that existing in the gas generator. Therefore, quite simply, you can turn the boiler to the gas generator with a cycle of separation of volatile substances. If desired thermal balance there is no need to expose the regeneration heat energy in the layer, then the air supply going to manage the process of regeneration of heat, may be terminated or may be removed immersed heat transfer tubes.

The action of the boiler with an internal circulating fluidized bed, which is shown in Fig. 10, will be described below.

The coal from the coal hopper 121 and desulphurise substance is in the tank with this substance 122, serves the I, what happens under the influence of air coming from the tank 124.

Burnt coal and sulphide of calcium is withdrawn from the gas generator 120 and the dust collection unit 123 installed in the path of coal gas, and impose on line 125 into the oxidation unit 126, represented by the boiler with internal circulating fluidized bed where they are served near the base of the furnace has a cylindrical combustion chamber 2. Burnt coal and sulphide of calcium can be enjoyed in the fluidized bed, and not in the area, located near the base of the furnace.

Oxidative device 126 may be supplied with coal from the coal hopper 121 and desulfoviridin substance from the container with desulfoviridin substance 122, through which hole the fuel supply 22 are received in the main combustion chamber 9, where they are burned with burned coal.

The exhaust gas formed in the oxidation apparatus 126, filtered dust collector 127 and is then injected into the combustion chamber 129 that is connected to the input of the gas turbine 128. In the combustion chamber 129 of the exhaust gas is mixed with coal gas coming from the gas generator 120, and filtered dust collectors 123 and 130. The mixture will burn, receiving a high-temperature gas, katuturan 128, in turn, actuates compressor and an electric generator 132. The exhaust gas discharged from the gas turbine 128, is cooled by the heat recovery device 133 and then discharged into the atmosphere.

Superheated steam 74', produced by the boiler drives a steam turbine 134 and the electric generator 135, which is connected with it, after which it is condensed into water in the condenser 136. The water is then fed back into the boiler, which make the feed pump boiler water 137. The action of the boiler with pressurised cylindrical fluidized bed in the form of oxidation apparatus 126 is the same as boilers, responsible from the first to the fourth embodiments of the present invention.

The sixth option. In Fig.11 shows the boiler under pressure cylindrical fluidized bed that meets the sixth variant of implementation of the present invention, which as a gas generator 120 and the oxidation apparatus 126 is part of the electrical generating system of the combined cycle with the Department of volatile substances.

In Fig.11 the gas generator 120 is supplied with coal from the coal hopper 121 and desulfoviridin substance from the container with desulfoviridin WESM it in coal gas. Instead of air as the oxidizing agents may be filed with the oxygen from the tank with oxygen 150 or vapor from the tank with the steam 151.

Unburned burned coal, etc. generated in the gas generator 120, captured entirely generated by gas and cooled to 600oC or lower temperature setting cooling gas 140, which is located on the movement path of the strip and attached to the gas generator 120, thereby hardening particles with compounds of alkali metals such as sodium, potassium, etc., under the effect of which could occur high temperature corrosion of turbine blades, or fixation of compounds of these alkali metals on the surface of the particles. These particles are then collected by the dust collecting container 141 and introduced into the oxidation apparatus, where they are completely burned. The exhaust gas produced in the oxidation apparatus 126, deduce from it and cooled down to 600oC or lower temperature that occurs in the gas cooling device 142, which is connected downstream to the oxidative apparatus 125. Particles with alkaline metals such as sodium, potassium, etc., that were subjected to curing by cooling in the installation of cooling gas ITR.

The exhaust gas subjected to cleaning with the removal of compounds of sodium, potassium, etc., and formed by gas, which was subjected to filtration and purification after its leaving the gas generator 120, mix and burn in the combustion chamber 129. Because these gases have been cooled, the combustion temperature at which they are burned in the combustion chamber 129 is somewhat warmer. To prevent unreasonably strong lowering of the temperature combustion oxidation apparatus 126 operates at the lowest possible content of excess air to the low quantity of waste gas. The oxygen required for combustion chamber 129, served from the tank with oxygen 150 in the combustion chamber 129.

High-temperature exhaust gas generated in the combustion chamber 129, served in the gas turbine 128, which ensures high effectiveness. Gas turbine 128 then actuates the compressor 131 and the electric generator 132. The exhaust gas discharged from the gas turbine 128, is cooled in the device heat energy recovery 133 and then discharged into the atmosphere. If the blades of a gas turbine 128 is made from superior materials with high corrosion is, 12 shows the complete furnace 201, which includes a gas generator and an oxidizing apparatus and used as boiler pressurized internal circulating fluidized-bed intended for use in an electric generating system, the combined cycle with the Department of volatile substances.

As shown in Fig. 12, a cylindrical boiler with fluidized bed designed for use in electric generating system, the combined cycle with the Department of volatile substances, has a cylindrical outer wall 202, and the partition wall 203, located concentrically with the cylindrical outer wall 202. The partition wall 203 includes a cylindrical wall a, conical wall b, conical wall a, and a cylindrical partition a. The connection hole 204 is formed between the conical wall 203 and a tapered wall b, and the communication hole 205 is formed under the cylindrical wall a. The upper end of the cylindrical partition a' connects with the top of the cylindrical outer wall 202 and forms therein a gas outlet 206.

The divider 203 divides the inner space, Opletalova apparatus 208. The bottom surface 209 of the gas generator 207 is conical in shape, and the bottom surface 212 of the oxidizing apparatus 208 is conical in shape. That is, the bottom surface of the entire furnace is characterized in cross section of the W-shaped.

Further, the chamber air supply 214-217, which are made separate from each other, are arranged under the bottom surface 209 and 212 of getgenerator 207 and oxidative device 208.

The volume of air blown from the air diffusing nozzle 210, is set such that the speed pseudoviruses gas within concentric circles, the diameter of which is approximately half the diameter of the gas generator 207, drops up to speed about component from one to 2.5 minimum speed pseudoviruses gas (vmf). Speed pseudoviruses gas in the annular region surrounding a concentric circle, reaches high values, from about 4 to 12 times higher than the minimum speed pseudoviruses gas (Vmf).

With this design, the fluidized medium in the fluidized bed gasifier 207, begins to fall in the Central part of aerator 207 and achieving environmental annular area, where, due to the existence of intense pseudoviruses action fluid medium is forced back and moves along the inner surface of the partition wall 203. At this point, since the upper part of the cylindrical partition a formed conical partition wall 203, the power boost increases, attaining ultimately the maximum value is achieved when the surface of the fluidized bed, where the fluid medium is forced to change its direction of motion that occurs under the influence of reactive power, resulting in scattering in all directions in the horizontal plane, as well as partially and up. The result of this is that a large number of fluidized medium flows into the oxidizing unit 208 through the communication hole 204.

On the other hand, the fluidized medium in the gas generator starts to descend in the Central part, being cylindrical flow. When reaching the settling of the environment the Central part of the conical bottom surface 209 of the gas generator 207 environment starts again dispersed in all directions. This method is shown internal circulation shown in Fig. 12. P the s input of fuel 211, evenly dispersed in all directions by the gas generator 207. Therefore, even when using a simple input system fuel eliminates the unevenness of its distribution and prevents agglomeration.

The bottom surface 212 of the oxidation apparatus 208 has a conical shape and provided with an air and diffusing nozzles 213, through which fluidization fluidized medium in the oxidation apparatus 208. During injection of air through the air diffusing nozzle 213 fluid environment, a part of the oxidizing unit 208 through the communication hole 204, slowly begins to fall, settling on the fluidized layer of the oxidation apparatus 208. The medium then passes through the connecting hole 205, located under the cylindrical wall a, returning to the gas generator 207. In addition, on the outer surface of conical partitions 203 can be installed additional air diffusing nozzles and nozzles can be attached pipe, inlet air. In the case of conical partitions 203 with a large angle such additional air diffusing nozzle is not necessary.

arnosti 212 oxidation apparatus 208, so that the surface 212 of the oxidation apparatus 208, so that the speed pseudoviruses gas in the layout area of the annular gap along the cylindrical outer wall 202, exceeded the speed pseudoviruses gas in the layout area of the annular gap along the walls 203, it is possible to achieve a situation where fluid environment begins to fall Digas along partitions 203, and is forced to rise and move along the cylindrical outer wall 202, testing, thereby swirling motion. In this swirling flow, unburned burned coal is completely consumed, because his time in the layer is long.

To create a swirl flow below the Central part of the bottom surface 209 of the gas generator 207 is the air chamber 214 that is used to form the rolling layer, from which comes a small volume of air, and the air chamber 215, is used to form a fluidized bed, is provided below the outer part of the bottom surface 209 of the gas generator 207. Air chamber 214 and 215 provided with separate openings for supplying air.

Further, side walls II camera 216 and 217 are used for speed control pseudoviruses air. The cylindrical outer wall 202 has openings 218 to exit the gaseous products of combustion, which are connected with an oxidizing apparatus 208.

In the case of the above-described construction, the coal and desulphurise substance enters the gas generator 207 and circulating fluidised bed, forming, thereby, coal gas and burned coal. Coal gas out through an opening of the gas outlet 206, and the material layer, including burnt coal is injected through the connection hole 204 in the oxidation apparatus 208. When circulation burnt coal is completely consumed in the oxidation apparatus 208. The gaseous combustion products produced through hole output of the gaseous products of combustion 218. In the free part of the oxidizing apparatus 208 can be mounted nozzle 219 intended for secondary air, which ensures the flow of two-stage combustion.

The eighth option. In Fig. 13 shows a structural diagram of the electrical generating system of the combined cycle with the Department of volatile substances, which contains integral oven shown in Fig. 12.

Coal 251 and desulphurise substance 252 served in the gas generator 207 and partially burned and g of the substances in the gas generator 207 can be filed oxygen 150 or steam 161.

Unburned burned coal, etc. formed in the gasifier 207, completely made of formed gas and cooled to 600oC or lower temperature in the gas cooling device 254 attached to the outlet of the gas generator 207, the purpose of curing melodramaticheskij particles of sodium, etc. that could make the high-temperature corrosion of turbine blades, or fixation of such alkali metal on the surface of the particles. These particles are then collected by the dust collector 205 and entered pseudoviruses air 260 in the oxidation apparatus 208, where they are completely burned. The exhaust gas obtained in the oxidation apparatus 208, deduce from it and cooled down to 600oC or lower temperature setting cooling gas 256, which is connected with the outlet of the oxidation apparatus 208. Melodramatycheskye particles of sodium, potassium, etc., that have been cured by cooling the flue gas installation gas cooling 256, collect dust collector particles 257 and unloaded from it.

Particles trapped by the dust box 255, served in the oxidation apparatus 208 by way of pneumatic transport. Dust 255 and 257 include ceramic filters. Oceanliteracy the combustion products are mixed and burned in the combustion chamber 258, and high-temperature gaseous combustion products is served in the gas turbine 261 working with high efficiency. Gas turbine 261, in turn, actuates the compressor 262 and an electric generator 263. The gas discharged from the gas turbine 261, cooled in the heat recovery device 264 and discharged into the atmosphere. The gas cooling device 254 and 256 can be excluded, if the turbine blades of a gas turbine 261 made of superior material, resistant against corrosion.

Further, in the oxidation apparatus 208 can be placed immersed heat transfer tubes. The pressure vessel 266 may be designed to accommodate the integral furnace 201, resulting integral oven 201 can be made not designed for the pressure.

As should be pretty obvious from the above description, the present invention provides the following advantages.

1. Because the primary combustion chamber and Luggage regeneration heat are functionally separated from each other, while in the same combustion chamber, the load effect can easily be compensated not by changing the height of the fluidized bed, and izmeneniiami supply pseudoviruses air heat energy recovery. Therefore, it eliminates the need for complex management processes and devices, such as storage material layer for inputting and outlet fluid medium into the chamber and out of the combustion chamber, and eliminates the possibility of leakage of the sintering process, which otherwise would occur when the input and output of the combustor fluidized bed environment. Since any change of temperature in fluidized bed are small, even when there is a change in load, allows operation of the boiler temperatures are optimal in relation to the reduction of emissions of nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides and other undesirable emissions. Since the immersed heat transfer tubes are placed only in the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy, where the fluidized bed is in a state of slowly varying currents, immersed heat transfer tubes are less destruction than it would be when they would be in conditions of intensive fluidization.

2. Fluidized medium moves, gradually dissipating from the center in all directions when moving along the conical bottom surface, the tion flows evenly, without agglomeration. The number of holes to enter the fuel can be minimized, which greatly simplifies the feeding system of charcoal.

3. Fluid medium located on the surface of the fluidized bed in the main combustion chamber, comes in the form of a cylindrical flow, settling near the center, accompanied by passion surrounding fluid environment. Consequently, fuel and desulphurise substance remain in the fluidized bed for a long period of time, thereby improving the efficiency of combustion and efficiency disulfirame substances.

4. In conventional boilers rectangular shape with an internal circulating fluidized bed immersed heat transfer tubes are placed on opposite sides of the rectangle. According, however, the present invention is, as available for placement of the heat transfer tubes is all a circle, can be set larger number of heat transfer tubes, which makes the design more compact.

5. In conventional boilers with pressurized fluidized bed combustion chamber of rectangular shape, where structurally the full-time, so that it can withstand the pressure difference acting with the inner and outer sides of the combustion chamber. According to the present invention, since the combustion chamber has a cylindrical shape, it has a sufficient mechanical strength, and its strength can be ensured by simple means. Because the hull of the vessel and the casing of the combustion chamber have a consistent circular form, they do not form a useless space and can be placed compactly.

6. Comb-toothed screen, which is installed in serving the mine in close proximity to the camera regeneration heat is effective in preventing the penetration of solid fuels such as coal particles of large diameter, into the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy. In accordance with the foregoing, can be eliminated leakage agglomeration in the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy. The screen plays the role of a striker partitions in respect of off-gas generated in the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy, which ensures the possibility of mixing with the exhaust gas from the main combustion chamber, and sufficient mixing.

7. Because the boiler with verania, it is possible to burn the fuel in the reducing atmosphere present in the main combustion chamber. Therefore, in the main chamber can actively emitted volatile substance. Hydrocarbons such as CH4, CO or gaseous nitrogen-containing chemical species, including MON, sales tax and so on, reduce the content of nitrogen oxides in the presence of gas-phase reactions and selectivity, or the probability of transformation of nitrogen-containing chemical particles in the oxide. Therefore, in the main combustion chamber is provided the opportunity to conduct combustion at low concentrations of oxides of nitrogen.

8. Immersed heat transfer tubes in the fluidized bed in the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy are arranged radially and functionally divided into the unit evaporator tubes, block paroperegrevatelya tubes and block the tubes re-heating steam. The functional division of the tubes, as shown in the drawing in the plan, the number pseudoviruses air supplied into the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy, can in each block to be regulated separately, resulting in each block can be independently set the amount of recoverable heat.

9. the Oh at the end of the movement path of the exhaust gas, reduced average diameter and specific gravity of the particles in the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy. The result of this is that reduced the minimum speed at pseudoviruses gas, and can be lowered number pseudoviruses air supplied into the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy. Greatly reduced the rate of erosion of the immersed heat transfer tubes, and attenuated impact that combustion can lead to any change in the number pseudoviruses air going to the regeneration of thermal energy that is very effective in achieving stable combustion.

10. Carry out the ash containing unburned carbon in unreacted desulphurise substance collected from the flue gas leaving the combustion chamber, are subjected to classification. In the combustion chamber is returned, only the proposed ash, whose particle diameter is in the range of 10 to 60 μm. Thus, it is possible to decrease the rate of erosion on the movement path of the exhaust gases, the reduction of emissions of nitrogen oxides and lowering the efficiency of combustion with a minimum number of circulating ash. Consequently, it is possible to do without desulfurization desulfurization furnace to achieve high rate of desulfurization.

11. Carry out the ash collected by the dust collector, cooled and then classified under atmospheric pressure, and unburned carbon and unreacted desulphurise substance selectively returned to the combustion chamber. In accordance with the foregoing, can be eliminated problems such as clumping, which can occur when high-temperature particles are treated at high pressure, and decreases the amount of substances being processed, because, due to the classification in the loop only returns useful substances. Because these nutrients are returned to the cycle, doing the fuel system to the combustion chamber, a different system of recyclization return in the combustion chamber is not used, unreacted desulphurise substance and fuel are in good contact with each other, which results in an increased rate of desulfurization.

12. In an electric generating system, the combined cycle with the Department of volatile substances boiler cylindrical shape with an internal circulating fluidized-bed that meets the present invention is used as a gas generator and (simultaneously or separately) oxidation apparatus is given up to 600oC or lower temperature in located downstream of the dust collector. Then the particles containing unburned burned coal, is introduced into the oxidizing apparatus, where they are subjected to complete combustion. The exhaust gas formed in the oxidation apparatus is removed from it and is cooled down to 600oC or lower temperature. Particles containing sodium, potassium, etc. and enthusiastic exhaust gas is collected by a dust collector located downstream, and then derive from it. The purified exhaust gas and the formed gas was withdrawn from the gasifier and subjected to filtration to distinguish particles containing sodium, potassium, etc. are mixed and burned in the combustion cycle with the Department of volatile substances. High-temperature exhaust gas generated in the combustion cycle with the Department of volatile substances, is fed into the gas turbine. Since the exhaust gas does not carry away particles containing compounds of alkali metals such as sodium, potassium and so on, which otherwise would become responsible for high-temperature corrosion of turbine blades, gas turbine can be made of conventional materials and is constructed in the usual way.

13. In the furnace with cinchocaine under pressure fluidized bed, in the fluidized bed is a wall mounted concentrically with the cylindrical outer wall, and the intermediate and lower parts of the walls are formed fixing holes. The upper end of the partition is in contact with the top of the cylindrical outer wall, forming outlet openings for gas. The inner space located behind the partition, serves as a gas generator, and the annular space located on the outer side of the wall, serves as the oxidizing apparatus. For this reason, while the oven with a cylindrical fluidized bed is a single, it serves as a component of the furnace as a gas generator and as an oxidizing apparatus, and can work very effectively.

1. Boiler with a pressurized internal circulating fluidized bed, comprising a pressure vessel, a combustion chamber located in the pressure vessel, the main combustion chamber fluidized bed with air diffusing device located at the bottom of the combustion chamber and adapted to discharge up pseudoviruses air mass flow, stronger extremely what's diffusing device, the camera regeneration of thermal energy, separated from the main combustion chamber of the inclined wall, the heat transfer surface means located in the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy and intended for transmission of heat from the environment, air diffuser mounted at the bottom of the camera heat energy recovery, and spare part above the main combustion chamber and a chamber of the regenerative thermal energy, characterized in that the camera regeneration heat is connected at its upper and lower parts with the main combustion chamber fluidized bed, the movable layer is formed over the place air diffusing device, where the mass flow rate of the injected air is weaker, resulting in fluidized medium descends and disperses the rolling layer, and a circulating fluidized bed is formed above the place of the air diffusion device where the mass flow of fluidized air is stronger, resulting in a fluid environment intensively pseudogiants and whirls in the direction to the place, which is located above the movable layer, and part of the fluidized medium is introduced into the Cam, the fluidized bed is adjusted by means of controlling the amount of air pumped up from the air diffusing device located in the main combustion chamber, and control proceeds pseudoviruses air coming from an air diffuser located in the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy, force the fluid medium within the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy, go, being moveable, which ensures the circulation passage into the main combustion chamber, and the gaseous combustion products exiting the primary combustion chamber and camera regeneration heat, mix in the free area.

2. The boiler under item 1, characterized in that it further includes at least one nozzle of the secondary air used to supply secondary air into the free part, resulting gaseous combustion products exiting the primary combustion chamber and camera regeneration heat, mix and unburned combustible materials contained in the gaseous products of combustion, burn.

3. The boiler under item 1, characterized in that it further includes shielding means located between the main combustion chamber and Luggage ERU regeneration heat and allow gaseous products of combustion, coming out of the camera regeneration of thermal energy passing through them in terms of regulating the flow of gaseous products of combustion and mixing with the combustion gases leaving the primary combustion chamber.

4. The boiler under item 2, characterized in. that it additionally includes an air supply system to control the number of support combustion of the air relative to the amount of fuel burned to provide for continuity in a predefined relationship by air in accordance with the amount of fuel that must be made while maintaining the oxygen concentration at a given level in the exhaust gas coming from the combustion chamber, in which through a system of air supply remaining quantity of air is determined by subtracting the amount of air that must be filed in an air diffuser located in the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy, the amount of support combustion of the air and the rest of the amount of air divided by the amount of air which must be filed in the air diffusing device, located in the main combustion chamber, and the amount of air which must be filed in the freedoms the OE must be filed in the main combustion chamber, less than is necessary to ensure stoichiometric combustion.

6. The boiler under item 1, characterized in that it further includes a pneumatic baffle installed in the spare parts, and the bumper wall positioned in front of the outlet through which gaseous products of combustion leave the combustion chamber, to prevent direct passage of the gaseous products of combustion.

7. The boiler under item 1, characterized in. that it additionally includes a gas turbine driven by the combustion gases leaving the combustion chamber, while the exhaust gas discharged from the gas turbine, mixed with sustaining combustion air entering the combustion chamber.

8. The boiler under item 1, characterized in that it further includes a balancing nozzle designed for supplying a discharge gas in the space between the pressure vessel and the combustion chamber to balance the pressure in the inner and outer regions of the combustion chamber.

9. The boiler under item 1, characterized in that it further includes a dust collector mounted on the movement path of the gaseous productsa into three groups: high, average and low diameter particles and only submitted ash with an average diameter of particles is returned to at least one of the systems: the main combustion chamber, the loose parts in the fuel system, designed for input of fuel.

10. The boiler under item 1, characterized in that it further includes a dust collector mounted on the movement path of the gaseous products of combustion leaving the combustion chamber, which made ash, detained dust collector, is returned into the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy passing through the hole formed in the pressure vessel.

11. The boiler under item 1, characterized in that it further includes a dust collector mounted on the movement path of the gaseous products of combustion leaving the combustion chamber, which made ash, detained by the dust collector is returned to at least one of the following systems: main combustion chamber and a free portion , passing through a hole formed in the pressure vessel.

12. The boiler according to any one of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that the partition consists of a cylindrical wall and a conical partitions formed in the upper part of t the device, over which the mass flow is stronger than the impacts on thermal savaiigaea air, and the resulting deviation of the air in the area above the neutral part of the air diffusing device, over which the mass flow is weaker, and the camera regeneration of thermal energy, separated from the main combustion chamber by a partition wall is annular.

13. The boiler on p. 12. characterized in that the air diffusing device is located on the bottom surface of the main combustion chamber and the bottom surface is conical in shape.

14. The boiler under item 12, characterized in that it further comprises a free portion that is located on the main combustion chamber and above the camera regeneration of thermal energy for mixing in her gaseous combustion products exiting the primary combustion chamber and chamber heat energy recovery.

15. The boiler under item 12, wherein the air diffuser is located on the bottom surface of the camera heat energy recovery, the bottom surface is made inclined inward toward the main combustion chamber, and Naib is intalnim hole. through which return fluid medium from the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy in the main combustion chamber.

16. The boiler under item 15, characterized in that it further includes an air diffuser mounted in the connecting hole, which ensures the possibility of fluidization fluidized medium in the connecting hole.

17. The boiler under item 12, characterized in that the heat transfer surface means includes a heat transfer tube located radially, the heat transfer tube is divided into a set of blocks intended for use as a unit evaporator tubes, block paroperegrevatelya tubes and block the tubes of the secondary heat the steam.

18. The boiler on p. 13, characterized in that the input intended for supplying fuel to the main combustion chamber, located near the bottom surface of the main combustion chamber.

19. The boiler under item 14, characterized in that it further includes a dust collector mounted on the movement path of the gaseous products of combustion leaving the combustion chamber, in which carry out the ash, detained bag, mixed with secondary air, and the mixture Uhde high pressure.

20. The boiler under item 12, characterized in. that it additionally includes a dust collector mounted on the movement path of the gaseous products of combustion leaving the combustion chamber, and designed to collect carry out the ash, and the classifier is designed to extract unreacted disulfirame matter and unburned carbon from fly ash.

21. The boiler under item 20, wherein the classifier is configured to return unreacted disulfirame matter and unburned carbon learned classifier, either in the main combustion chamber or the fuel supply system, designed for input of fuel.

22. The boiler under item 12, characterized in that it further includes a dust collector mounted on the movement path of the gaseous products of combustion leaving the combustion chamber, in which carry out the ash, detained bag are classified into three groups: high, medium and low settings of the particles and only carry out the ash with an average diameter of particles is returned to at least one of systems, consisting of a main combustion chamber, spare parts and fuel injection, designed for input of fuel.

24. The boiler according to any one of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that the heat transfer surface means include heat transfer tubes immersed in the fluidized bed in the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy, is functionally divided into blocks.

25. The boiler on p. 24, characterized in that the quantity of air from the air diffuser in the camera regeneration heat is regulated in each of the blocks.

26. The boiler according to any one of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that the heat transfer surface means contain the immersed heat transfer tubes that are installed radially in the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy.

27. The boiler according to any one of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that the partition wall is made inclined.

28. The boiler according to any one of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in. that free portion is integrally above the main combustion chamber and a chamber heat energy recovery.

29. The electrical generating system of the combined cycle with the Department of volatile products containing the gas generator intended for poluchenierazreshenija combustion products, and the gas turbine, which is driven by a high-temperature gas obtained by burning a mixture of generated gas and gaseous products of combustion, where at least one of the devices in the form of a gas generator and an oxidizing apparatus includes a boiler with a pressurized internal circulating fluidized bed, which includes a pressure vessel, a combustion chamber located in the latter and having a cylindrical outer wall, the main combustion chamber fluidized bed containing the air diffusing device located at the bottom of the combustion chamber and adapted to discharge up pseudoviruses air with the mass flow, which at least is stronger on the outer side in comparison with the Central part, partition, disposed over a portion of the air diffusing device, the annular chamber of the regenerative thermal energy, separated from the main camera of the specified partition, heat transfer surface means located in the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy and intended for transmission of heat coming from the environment, and air diffuser mounted in the lower bsalsa in the upper and lower portions with the upper and lower parts of the main combustion chamber fluidized bed, the movable layer is formed above a portion of the air diffusing device, where the injected mass flow is weaker, resulting in fluidized medium descends and disperses the rolling layer, and a circulating fluidized bed is formed above a portion of the air diffusion device where the mass flow of fluidized air is stronger, resulting in a fluid environment intensively pseudogiants and twisted in the direction to the portion which is located above the movable layer, and part of the fluidized medium is introduced into the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy per partition, education moveable circulating fluidized bed is carried out by adjusting the amount of air, pumped up from the air diffusing device located in the main combustion chamber, and regulating the admission of fluidized air pumped from the air diffuser located in the chamber of the regenerative thermal energy, force the fluid medium in chamber heat energy recovery, to go with the transition to the condition of the rolling layer, thus achieving the circulation in the main camera SG is nerator, fully rendered formed by the gas and is cooled and the particles containing burnt coal, sodium, and potassium, are going to set forth a stream with a dust bag and put in the oxidation apparatus, where they are completely burned, the exhaust gas generated in the oxidation apparatus, removed from it and is cooled, and particles containing at least sodium and potassium, present in the exhaust gas is collected by a dust collector located downstream, and out of, the purified exhaust gas and formed by the gas received from the gas generator and was subjected to filtration for removal of particles, mix and burn in the combustion chamber designed to separate combustion of volatiles, and then high-temperature exhaust gas, obtained by use of the combustion chamber, introducing a gas turbine.

31. Furnace with a fluidized bed of integral type, intended for use in an electric generating system, the combined cycle with the Department of volatile substances, characterized in that it comprises a cylindrical outer wall, a cylindrical wall mounted concentrically with the cylindrical outer wall, a gas generator, obrabotkoi and a cylindrical wall, air diffusing device located at a bottom of the gas generator and adapted to discharge pseudoviruses air up with such mass flow rate, which at least is higher on the outer side in comparison with the Central part, an air diffuser located at the bottom of the above oxidizing apparatus, the first free portion, located above the generator, and the second free portion of the above oxidizing apparatus, and first and second free portion are separated by a cylindrical wall, causing the gas provided by the gas generator, and gaseous products of combustion coming from the oxidation apparatus, separately brought outside, characterized in that the oxidizing unit reported its intermediate and lower parts with the gas generator, the movable layer is formed above a portion of the air diffusing device, where the injected mass flow is weaker, resulting in fluidized medium descends and disperses the rolling layer, circulating fluidized bed is formed above a portion of the air diffusion device where the mass flow pseudovariety in the direction of the field, above the movable layer, part of the fluidized medium is introduced into the oxidation unit, acting through the hole formed in the intermediate part of the septum, education moveable and circulating fluidized bed is carried out by adjusting the amount of air pumped up from the air diffusing device located in the gas generator, and control proceeds of fluidized air pumped from the air diffuser located in the oxidation apparatus, forcing the fluidized medium in the oxidation apparatus, to go with the transition to the condition of the rolling layer, which results in the circulation with the transition in the gas generator.

32. Bake on p. 31, characterized in that it further comprises a heat transfer surface means located in the oxidation apparatus designed for the transmission of heat coming toward them from the environment.

33. Bake on p. 31, characterized in that it further comprises a pressure vessel that has an output that is designed for removal of gaseous products of combustion, and output, designed to drain formed by gas, and the output of prednaznachendlya exhaust gas formed, connected to the gas generator.

34. Oven under item 31, wherein the unburned burned coal output from the generator, fully entrained gas educated and cooled, the particles containing burnt coal, sodium, and potassium, are going located further along the ceiling of the dust collector and introduced into the oxidation apparatus, where they are completely burned, the exhaust gas generated in the oxidation apparatus, removed from it and is cooled and the particles containing at least sodium and potassium in the exhaust gas are collected are located further downstream of the dust collector and unloaded from it, and the cleaned flue gas and the formed gas, which was separated from the gas generator and subjected to filtration for removal of particles, are mixed and burned in the combustion chamber designed to separate combustion of volatile products, and then high-temperature exhaust gas formed in the combustion chamber, introducing a gas turbine.

 

Same patents:

The invention relates to a reactor devices fluidized bed includes a reaction chamber (112) containing circulating (fast) layer with the first grid (114) to enter the expected gas and bubbling (slow) fluidized bed (116) having a second grid (120) to enter the liquefied gas

The invention relates to a reactor with a circulating fluidized bed comprising a lower area 3, is equipped with a fluidization grid 11, the means for injecting primary air 12 below the grate 11, the means for injecting secondary air 13 above the grate 11 and means for introducing fuel 10; wall 5 surrounding this lower zone, provided with heat exchange tubes, and the upper area 2 is surrounded by walls 4, provided with heat exchange tubes; the tubes are connected through the tabs

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The invention relates to methods and devices for providing a gas seal in the reverse channel and/or for regulating the circulating mass flow in the rector circulating the liquefied layer, which is provided with through with crack-like vertical reverse channel, formed by two mainly vertical, flat murine panels and the ends of connecting them

The invention relates to power plants (power plants) and in particular to power plants that use natural gas boilers with circulating fluidized bed under pressure, designed for operation at supercritical pressure steam

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Gas turbine engine // 2280182

FIELD: mechanical engineering; gas-turbine engines.

SUBSTANCE: proposed gas-turbine engine contains housing with fitted-in shaft, compressor, combustion chamber with igniter, turbine and fuel preparation and delivery system. Housing is provided with cover sealing its inlet. Fuel preparation and delivery system is made in form of electrolyzer installed with possibility of supply of direct current to its electrodes, free passing of electrolyte (water solution of electrolyte) through electrolyzer and products of water decomposition formed under action of direct current passing through electrolyte. Electrolyzer is installed before compressor in sealed part of housing. Pumping device and nozzle serve to deliver and atomize water solution of electrolyte in electrolyzer. Nozzle is furnished with cavitator made in form of local contraction of channel.

EFFECT: reduced consumption of fuel, adverse effect on environment.

3 cl, 2 dwg

Gas-turbine engine // 2280183

FIELD: mechanical engineering; gas turbine engines.

SUBSTANCE: proposed gas-turbine engine contains housing with fitted-in shaft, compressor, combustion chamber, turbine and fuel preparation and delivery system. Housing is provided into cover sealing its inlet. Fuel preparation and delivery system is made in form of electrolyzer with supply of direct current to guide and working blades of compressor. Pumping device and nozzle with cavitator of fuel preparation and delivery system are made to feed and atomize water solution of electrolyte in electrolyzer. Compressor is made for building vacuum in seal part of housing and decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen under action of direct current passing through electrolyte.

EFFECT: reduced consumption of fuel, no adverse effect on environment.

2 cl, 2 dwg

Gas-turbine engine // 2280184

FIELD: mechanical engineering; gas-turbine engines.

SUBSTANCE: proposed gas-turbine engine contains housing with fitted-in shaft, compressor, combustion chamber, turbine and fuel preparation and delivery system. Housing is provided with cover sealing its inlet. Fuel preparation and delivery system is made in form of electrolyzer consisting of electrodes to which direct current is supplied and installed before compressor in sealed part of housing and of electrodes formed by delivery of direct current to guide and working blades of compressor. Pumping device of fuel preparation and delivery system provides delivery and atomizing of electrolyte (water solution of electrolyte) through nozzle furnished with cavitator, in electrolyzer where electrolysis of water takes place under action of direct current passing through electrolyte. Compressor is made for building vacuum in sealed part of housing and compression and delivery of gas mixture into combustion chamber.

EFFECT: reduced consumption of fuel, no adverse effect on environment.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: technological processes, fuel.

SUBSTANCE: method includes drying of solid fuel, its pyrolysis in reactor in fluidizated layer with solid coolant with preparation of steam-gas mixture and coal char, their discharge from reactor and separation. Steam-gas mixture is cleaned, and part of it is burned in combustion chamber of gas turbine with generation of electric energy and utilization of exhaust gases. Coal char is separated into coal char separator into two flows by fractions. Coarse fraction is sent to activator for production of activated coal, and the fine one - into gas generator for preparation of generator gas, which is then cleaned and conditioned together with remaining part of cleaned steam-gas mixture to prepare synthesis-gas, which is supplied to reactor for synthesis of liquid carbohydrates. Solid coolant is heated in technological furnace by its partial combustion with production of smoke gases and returned to pyrolysis reactor. At that prepared activated coal is directed as sorption material for purification of steam-gas mixture and generator gas, and spent activated coal is returned back to gasification stage.

EFFECT: maximum possible amount of high-quality liquid fuels of wide purpose with simultaneous efficient power generation by application of gas tube installation.

6 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat power engineering. Steam gas plant with coal pyrolysis includes steam turbine unit, gas turbine unit, waste-heat boiler of gas turbine unit. Steam turbine unit includes steam boiler operating on solid fuel, steam turbine, regenerative air heater and condensate pump. Gas turbine unit includes combustion gaseous fuel chamber, compressor and gas turbine using heated compressed air as working medium. At that, steam gas plant includes a group of independent operating pyrolysers, pyrolysis gas coolers, separator and fine filter. Pyrolysers are installed above burner tier of steam boiler and equipped with pulverised coal and air supply branch pipes. Each pyrolyser is connected by means of coal char supply channel at least to one boiler burner and pyrolysis gas cooler, one of the outlets of which is connected to separator. Coolers and separator is connected via resin and liquid hydrocarbon outlet pipeline to the boiler burners. Separator is connected via pyrolysis gas supercharger by means of supply channel of that gas to fine filter, one of the outlets of which is connected through booster compressor to combustion gaseous fuel chamber, and its other outlet - to the boiler burners through char coal supply channel. Outlets of coolers are connected to regenerative air heaters.

EFFECT: invention allows increasing economy, operating reliability, ecological properties of steam gas plant.

4 cl, 2 dwg

Gas generator // 2406840

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: gas generator consists of inlet and outlet valves with rods located in its combustion chamber, of communicating with chamber cylinder with spring-loaded stepped slide valve positioned between two arresters of its run and of mechanisms of delay. A channel of fuel discharge with an on-off valve installed in it is connected to a fuel supply main. The mechanisms of delay correspond to spring elements arranged on rods of the inlet and outlet valves and resting on the case of the chamber; the spring elements change character of power to a reverse one in the process of deformation. A fuel tank with a filter, and a fuel pump with an electric engine are mounted on the gas generator. The fuel system is equipped with a conic nozzle and controlled system of air ejector.

EFFECT: usage of generator as independent unit.

1 dwg

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