The method of cultivation of coal and lignitic mine fields

 

(57) Abstract:

The method is designed for remediation of waste dumps of coal deposits with a high content of sulfur formed as a result of the Stripping activity. Soil stockpiles enter absorbent polymers, which increases its ability to hold water in excess of their weight 200-300 times. The use of such polymers in combination with fertilizer in the form of a coating on the latter conserves water and mineral nutrients for plant nutrition in adverse ground conditions due to ion exchange and sorption-desorption of fertilizers. 6 C.p. f-crystals, 5 PL.

The invention relates to a method of agricultural use lignicola and coal mine fields arising from the Stripping activity. How, in particular, describes the original attempt at introducing technological products in these fields, which help save water, fitness water and restoration of soil fertility lignicola and mine coal deposits after removing the carbon-containing substances, implementation of agriculture with massive operation of greenhouses.

Lignite and coal mine field, resulting from the extraction will formed surface, containing carbonaceous substances, such surfaces are unbalanced soils and especially are not rich fertile soils. In addition, these surface layers of the soil remaining after the extraction and handling in the dumps also contain sulfur, usually in large quantities, on the order of 0.5 - 3%. Contained in this soil sulphur is very rapidly converted to sulfuric acid in the oxidative cookinitaly bacteria that oxidize sulfur.

Soil lignicola and coal mine fields, the resulting technologies Stripping, are considered problematic and infected, and their treatment in international scale can be accomplished in two ways:

a) covering the top layer of the soil of these mine fields fertilizer to a depth of from 0.8 to 1.20 m, which is a very costly and time-consuming solution, which, however, despite these difficulties, today it is widely used.

b) removing the top layer of soil before Stripping coal deposits. The top layer of soil is collected in the shaft and is retained in closed compartments or shelters until such time as the Deposit will not be developed, and then it is put on powerice not followed due to the very high sensitivity and high cost.

Therefore, restoration of soils obtained after development of coal, lignitic or young lignitic fields is difficult. Because these fields cannot be improved in a natural way, you need to find a solution how to improve them and make them fertile. In addition to the above for such coal and lignitic fields have problems because of the instability of the soil and that the soil does not hold and does not retain water. They also continuously saturated urban acid precipitation. In the case of long-term operation of power plants that results in the neutralization of all alkaline soil properties and the formation of acid sites.

It is estimated that at least 60% of the sulfur in the carbonaceous substance after burning for electricity generation falls in the form of gas or in the form of fly ash or soot on the areas of development and production of lignite or coal. When exploitation this gives the following values of saturation or load (tons/year) (table. 1).

All of the above acid precipitation pollute the land in this area and constantly neutralize the alkaline properties of the soil. But alkaline properties or alkalinity of Argania sulfur in the soil lignitic deposits reaches high values, and with the resumption of agriculture biological oxidation of sulfur in sulfuric acid will accelerate, destroy, and negatively affect the functioning of the soil lignitic deposits, as revealed by the analysis carried out in the Metropolis in Greece (table. 2).

Therefore, the agricultural use of coal and lignitic mine fields currently not feasible due to the fact that they do not have natural fertility, and the decision to use today mine field with depth of the soil order 0,80 - 1,20 m is very expensive and is not possible, because it is difficult to find a more fertile ground to transfer it to these mine fields. On the other hand, the use of thermal power plants is continuously forced to mine coal or lignite (brown coal) through an open field development with the subsequent burning them to obtain more and more precipitation from the atmosphere. With a third party, it is necessary to provide employment for the local population in agricultural work, with satisfactory earnings, and this is possible only through the greenhouses, which should also be used in addition to the power plants.

Dosycycline reduces the cost. However, greenhouses are also needed humus and ability to hold water. From experience it is determined that the operation of greenhouses leads to contamination of soil, and in 2-4 years the greenhouse must be transferred to the new earth or soil. These conditions, however, cannot prevail in greenhouses operated on coal and lignitic mine fields because of their need to design at a higher technical level, and their transfer, therefore, is very expensive.

The proposed solution to improve such infected fields and the enactment of the operation of greenhouses is highly original and very profitable. This decision is based on the above requirements and leads to planned production, stable and high capacity of water retention and operation so that the regulated power supply in accordance with the existing biological necessity and its full use, and the power is adjusted so that it is consumed slowly, so that no damage to the soil, and the substance is not released into the environment. The invention includes:

a) use technology polymer products, which is Adelaida thus, to provide the necessary power plants, because it contains in the form of molecules and cannot evaporate or seep into the soil. This state of water is constant, thus providing a 12-fold saving water. In addition, these products increase the power by ion exchange and unlimited ability of absorption-desorption, so they act as promoters of fertility, which due to programming can lead to high quality and quantity of food.

b) use of fertilizers, pesticides, and trace metals, etc., for application in water-insoluble form, which biologically is restored to the soil.

The products of the above types a) and b) are sold at the present time like polyacrylamides and used as supera sorbents water and nutrient elements, coating fertilizers, but they are not confronted with the above requirements in the operation of greenhouses on coal and lignitic fields.

The above solutions were investigated and implemented by the inventor of the present invention using the same products that the author has improved, namely fertilizers coated with a trademark Bioval-BRF, the tent Greece.

Technology polymer products for the most part, derived from recycled polymers, water retention, 250 times their weight, and suitable for multiple plant growth, persisting in the soil for many, up to 30 years. Fertilizer coated is spent in the soil in accordance with the existing biological activity, which is increased due to the action of Hydroval-X. When using this pair technology products increased continuous power and plant growth in the soil provide a continuous water supply, water saving and the ability to distribute all the nutrients Bioval-BRF. Therefore, the soil does not form any saturating or loading its substance, and therefore does not need replacement. Thus, as a result of this original and highly profitable solutions created the conditions under which the greenhouse can be operated without transferring 2-4 years, which actually creates a special environment in those areas where there are plants and form acid rain. However, ground coal and lignitic fields, where it is supposed to act greenhouses, unstable and contain sulfur. The Poeti, along the intensive exploitation of greenhouses these events will accelerate. The invention deals with this as follows. The soil in the greenhouse is mixed with powdered calcium carbonate in such quantity and at such a depth, to ensure safe operating conditions without the risk of product spoilage of acid pollution.

Example 1

On a plot of soil with a width of 25 m, length 60 m, on which to build a greenhouse, a backhoe to remove the soil to a depth of 1.5 m can be Extracted soil mixed with powdered calcium carbonate and drilling of wells, filling them with calcium carbonate, leaving blank the top layer 30 see the Remaining excavated soil with calcium carbonate thoroughly mixed with Hydroval-X 1 o/OO w/w (percent weight in weight, i.e., the percentage weights) and 5 o/OO w/w Bioval-BRF (i.e., 1 part soil to 1 weight. part of Hydroval-X and 5 weight. parts Bioval-BRF) and used to fill the remaining depth of 30 cm In air-conditioned so the earth then constructed the design of the greenhouse, which must use heat supplied by cogeneration in the form of warm cooling water from the steam turbine.

Example 2

From the soil of the Megalopolis, Greece, which after n oxidation must have an acidity of pH of 6.5, was treated in zootechnology, with a constant temperature of 30oC and saturated humidity. The soil of the greenhouse is planned in such a way that it is parallel to the frame or the frame containing the raw lignite soil, while both were planted seedlings of tomatoes, which were watered every 3 days. The following results are obtained (table. 3).

Example 3

In from the ground (soil) of Ptolemais, Greece, which after oxidation (n) had a pH of 5.6, produced planting tomatoes, as in example 1. The following results are obtained (table. 4).

Example 4

On lignite soil of Ptolemais, which after oxidation (n) had a pH of 6.8, were placed plants of lettuce (salad) and in the greenhouse, and in the ground frame at a temperature of 30oC, which were irrigated every 2 days (table. 5).

Example 5

In the greenhouse of example 4 investigated the conditions of water saving. After 12 days of growing plants the last irrigation was stopped. The plants were wilted on day 42. In between these days, the plant growth was normal, without distinction between plants. As a result, there is a possibility of water saving more than 7 times without affecting growth.

1. The method of cultivation of coal or lignitic mine fields containing dump GRU ability to hold water and a reduced ability to grow plants compared with the original soil before the development of, including the treatment of waste soil by mixing the dump soil with absorbent polymers increase the capacity of the dump soil to hold water, the introduction of fertilizers, increasing its fertility, and cultivation of plants in treated soil, characterized in that the polymers are chosen so that when they are mixed with the soil in sufficient quantities they include molecular water and substantially prevent water evaporation or infiltration into the soil, retain water in an amount of about 200 to 300 times their weight, and promote the involvement of fertilizers in the soil by ion exchange and sorption-desorption fertilizers.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the plants grown in treated soil in the greenhouse.

3. The method according to p. 2, characterized in that in the greenhouse keep the temperature necessary for the cultivation of plants, at least partially, through the use of thermal cooling water of thermal power plants.

4. The method according to p. 3, characterized in that the use of polymers helps you conserve water and biologically controlled power plants, while the polymers increase the savings of the treated soil up to 10 times with the utmost efficiency is the fact that when processing the dump soil by mixing with an absorbent polymers that improve the fertility of the field, treated soil acts as a framework and does not degenerate or not contaminated, making the treated soil is suitable for cultivation of plants in the greenhouse over a large period of time.

6. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that waste soil containing sulfur in an amount of about 0.5 to 3 wt.% before the introduction of powdered calcium carbonate, it is introduced into the soil in an amount of about 1 to 2%.

7. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that use fertilizers containing water-insoluble shell, which biologically breaks down and released into the treated soil gradually.

 

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