Device for preventing ice formation in the transport tunnels
(57) Abstract:(57) the Invention relates to mining and can be used for thermal protection of openings against ice formation. Device for preventing ice formation in tunnels consists of wire mesh, suspended on the support, and heating system of electric conductors and elements. Heating elements made of several turns of a flexible heating cable. Each thread loop has a length corresponding to the height of the heated section. The distance between the individual threads are reduced in proportion to the square of the distance measured from the line passing through the center of the heated section. The coils of the heating cable can be laid attached to the walls of the tunnel clamping device with a heat shield with a narrowed lower part, omitted in the discharge tray. As a result of use of the invention increases the efficiency of thermal protection of rocks and structural elements lining. 1 C.p. f-crystals. 2 Il. The invention relates to the field of mining industry and can be used for thermal protection of structural elements workings education from the store in the education between the surface of rocks and the cold air, moving on mining, static air layer by strengthening the inner side of the lining elements of the polymer film.The disadvantages of this method include:
1. The increase of the equivalent thermal conductivity of air, filling the space between the surface of rocks and plastic film, with a significant temperature differences between the air in the formulation and surface rocks. This leads to rapid loss of static air layers of its insulating properties and formation of ice on the surface of the rocks.2. Low strength of the polymer film, which in the context of transport tunnels may lead to its rupture and complete loss of the insulation of their properties.Known method of thermal insulation of heated mining (ed.St. USSR N 1168720, CL E 21 D 11/10, 1985), including filling the space between the Board develop and polymer film of water-saturated elastic porous material with defined values of active porosity and pore size.The disadvantages of this method include the fact that the period during which water-saturated porous layer will play the role of insulation, t is ristoro layer over the entire thickness. Under conditions of severe climate this time does not exceed 1.5-2 months.Known way to prevent icing (U.S. Pat. Japan N 50-24776, CL E 21 21 D 11/00, 1978), providing for the installation on the inner surface of the lining waterproof corrugated boards made of hard synthetic material or synthetic resin and insulated with spray foam plastic, which is fastened to the casing by bolts. Hollow corrugated sheets are also channels through which penetrating the lining of the water is diverted into the tray of the tunnel.The disadvantages of this method are related to the fact that in the harsh climate of the layer of foamed plastic material deposited on the surface of corrugated boards, quickly loses its insulating properties, which leads to the freezing of water filtered by educated between rocks and shields channels, and, consequently, to the development process deleteoperation.A device for preventing ice formation in tunnels (patent Norway N 126749, CL E 01 G 5/10, 1971), adopted as a prototype, consisting of a mesh lining, suspended from the roof support and the heating system from the electrical conductors and the heating elements.The task of this unit is to increase the effectiveness of thermal protection of rocks and structural elements lining.The task is solved in that the heating elements are made of several turns of a flexible heating cable, each thread of which has a length corresponding to the height of the heated section, and the distance between the individual threads are reduced in proportion to the square of the distance measured from the line passing through the center of the heated section. In addition, the heating elements are covered with a heat shield that attaches to the wall of the tunnel clamping devices, and its lower part is narrowed and lowered into the water stream.The uneven arrangement of the heating elements according to the area of the heated section is due to the fact that heat losses in the massif depend on its width. In the Central part of the heated section they are minimal, and the edges - Maksymalna. This, again, is more dense arrangement of the heating elements on the edges of the heated section. Calculations show that a necessary condition can be achieved when the distance between the individual parts (threads) heating elements (heating cable) decreases proportionally to the square of the distance measured from the line passing the center of the heated section.In turn, pressure devices provide the ability to quickly dismantle the device if necessary, move it to another location or repair.In Fig.1 shows a General view of the device of Fig.2 is a view of the device in section.Device for preventing ice formation in the transport tunnels contains 1 - heat shield, made of foamed polyethylene; 2 - flexible heating cable; 3 - steel mesh; 4 - the power cable to heating cable; 5 - switching box; 6 - rack power and management, located in a recess of the tunnel; 7 - the temperature sensor of thermal control system of the power consumption; 8 - measuring cable connection between sensor 7 with a thermal control system, under Cabinet power and control 6; 9 - SS="ptx2">The mounting device is as follows: the surface area of the wall or arch of the tunnel down from the leak is superimposed reinforcing mesh 3 and is fixed on the wall (arch) with hooks and anchors. Reinforcing mesh 3 in the form of coils is placed the heating cable 2 and is fixed so that the distance between its separate thread loop was decreased in proportion to the square of the distance measured from the line passing through the center of the device. The free ends of heating cable 2 fit (without mounting) vertically downwards along the walls of the tunnel to ground level and removed in the drainage tray 11 for subsequent joining to the switch box 5. Near the leak is attached to the mesh temperature sensor 7 system control and instrumentation cable 8 from the sensor 7 is laid along the walls of the tunnel down to the soil and through the discharge tray 11 is displayed on the wall of the tunnel and then extends up to the rack power and management 6. From the switching box 5 to the power Cabinet and control 6 is laid mains cable 4 for applying voltage to the heating cable 2.The contour of the wire mesh is the current drilling the wedge type. By turning the clamping device 10 180oachieve tightly pressed heat shield 1 to the surface of the tunnel.The proposed device operates as follows.When the air temperature drop between the heat-shielding screen 1 and the surface of the wall (vault) tunnel below the minimum permissible value (for example, +2oC) the temperature sensor 7 through the system control button in the power Cabinet and control 6, causes the heating system to a working state. On the switching box 5 is energized, which is the heating cable 2, as a result he starts to produce warmth. At the same time voltage is supplied and the signal display 9, which fixes the beginning of the heating system. When the temperature of the air between the heat-shielding screen 2 and the wall of the tunnel the temperature at which guaranteed the absence of ice formation, thermal management system using the temperature sensor 7 turns off the power supplied to the heating cable that is fixed signal display 9, which is turned off.Water from leaks, being filtered by the surface of the walls of the tunnel, through the lower narrowed part of the device the VA allows you to avoid the formation of ice in contact with water in the tunnel, reduces energy costs and provides an opportunity to simplify the technology of dismantling the device in case of a fault or move to another location. 1. Device for preventing ice formation in tunnels, consisting of wire mesh, suspended on the support, and heating system of electric conductors and elements, characterized in that the heating elements are made of several turns of a flexible heating cable, and each of the thread loop has a length corresponding to the height of the heated section, and the distance between the individual threads are reduced in proportion to the square of the distance measured from the line passing through the center of the heated section.2. The device under item 1, characterized in that the coils of the heating cable laid attached to the walls of the tunnel clamping device with a heat shield with a narrowed lower part, omitted in the discharge tray.
FIELD: mining industry, particularly to protect mine workings against underground water ingress.
SUBSTANCE: method involves drilling injection wells along pit shaft perimeter; widening cracks by supplying high-pressure water and injecting grouting mortar in the cracks; additionally boring vertical preparation well in pit shaft center. Cracks are widened by feeding water and then air or only water in vertical preparation well. Water and air are supplied under pressure lesser than pressure of hydraulic rock fracturing. Grouting mortar is injected in cracks by forcing thereof through injection wells immediately after finishing of feeding water or air in vertical preparation well. Cryogenic gel is used as the grouting mortar. Cryogenic gel is foamed before injecting thereof in wells and foamed cryogenic gel is forced into cracks beyond the pit shaft perimeter by supplying compressed air in vertical preparation well. After leaving pit shaft as it is for grouting mortar setting time wells are sunk for the next grouting step depth and above operations are repeated up to reaching the lower boundary of pit shaft interval, wherein injection is performed under pressure exceeding that on previous step.
EFFECT: reduced labor inputs and material consumption along with increased efficiency of water suppression.
3 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: mining industry, particularly elimination of emergency situations.
SUBSTANCE: method involves closing borehole cross-section with extendable means; arranging predetermined volume of non-combustible material above the means, wherein the volume is determined from a given relation; discharging all non-combustible material in the borehole at a time and further distributing portions of non-combustible material having volumes of not less than volume of incoming water. Non-combustible material includes clay and pourable components which are laid in layers above the means, wherein clay volume is equal to pore volume of pourable component.
EFFECT: increased reliability of borehole sealing and water burst liquidation.
3 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: water-proofing sheet comprises three layers. The first layer provides mechanical strength of the sheet and is made of elastometer polyethylene of high strength and flexibility. The second layer is intermediate one, represents the connection between the first and second layers, and is made of foam plastic with closed pores. The third layer is made of a impermeable plastic material which possesses high resistance to breaking. The tensile strength, breaking elongation, and thickness of the sheet range from 24 MPa to 39 Mpa, from 550% to 900%, and 3 mm to 50 mm, respectively.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
5 cl, 2 dwg, 3 tbl
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: backfill fibrosolution consists of concrete, argil, fibers and water, as fibers solution contains synthetic filaments with diameter 0,1-0,15 mm and length 10-20 mm in amount of 10-20 kg for 1m3 of argil-cement mixture, subjected to electrification with induction of static electric charge.
EFFECT: possible backfill of extensive fractured systems with active influx of water, increased hardness of backfill material, decreased material costs of reinforcement of fractured rocks, removal of water influxes in mines.
FIELD: mining, particularly mining and pit protection against underground water inflow in the case of open-pit kimberlite pipe and other mineral deposits development in subpermafrost horizon.
SUBSTANCE: method involves discharging water initially contained in deposit section to be developed and precipitation water from said deposit section; drilling injection wells around kimberlite pipe perimeter and performing explosions through regular system from pit bottom to create joined subvertical annular and subhorizontal rock fissured zones which have uniform fissures; supplying plugging materials therein and creating joined solid watertight diaphragms shaped as integral cups.
EFFECT: possibility to create watertight diaphragm, which protects deposit section to be developed against underground water ingress.
FIELD: mining and pit protection against underground water inflow in the case of open-pit kimberlite pipe and other mineral deposits development in subpermafrost horizon.
SUBSTANCE: method involves discharging water initially contained in deposit section to be developed and precipitation water from said deposit section; drilling injection wells around kimberlite pipe perimeter and from pit bottom; performing explosions in wells surrounding kimberlite pipe perimeter and carrying-out hydraulic fracturing from wells drilled from pit bottom to create jointed subvertical and subhorizontal rock fissured zones, which have uniform fissures; supplying plugging materials therein and creating joined solid watertight diaphragms shaped as integral cups.
EFFECT: possibility to create watertight diaphragm, which protects deposit section to be developed against underground water ingress.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises leaving of massifs of minerals 14 between chambers 7-13, driven at extraction of potassium salt bed 1, and filling chambers with backfill material. Bores 6 are drilled from ground surface 5 to chambers; the bores are cased with tubes. Not soluble in water backfill material is supplied into chambers via bores 6 till chambers are filled for their complete height at a point of backfill material supply. The first to be filled are chambers 7 located at proximity to the underground water inrush zone 4 from the side of the bed rise 1 of potassium salt; thereafter filling of chambers 8-10 located below underground water inrush 4 is carried out. Not solved in water, hardening, backfill materials are supplied into chambers 7-13 via bores 6. If filed chambers driven along the course of bed chambers have considerable length, the distance between bores is determined from a calculated expression.
EFFECT: invention facilitates prevention of flooding of potassium mine and hazardous deformation of the earth surface at breaks of water protective strata and underground water inrushes into mine through water permeable cracks generated in water protective strata in areas of geological disturbances.
3 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to strengthening of the lower part of the section of the railroad tunnel and may be employed for strengthening of bases of buildings and constructions. Method includes feeding of mortar with filling agents. A shaft is drilled in the lower part of the section of the railroad tunnel above the detected emptiness for feeding of filling material and a second shaft for feeding of consolidating mortar. Feeding device is installed and filling material is supplied through it in the form of balls of waterproof material, density whereof equals or is greater than water density. Balls are compressed by means of a vibrations generator; entrained water is pressed out from the emptiness by balls either through holes in the rock or through the consolidating mortar feeding shaft. Having filled the emptiness with balls, feeding device is taken away and the shaft is sealed, consolidating mortar is supplied into the second shaft and having filled all the emptiness the shaft is sealed. Should there be no water in the emptiness one shaft is drilled in the lower part of the section of the railroad tunnel; where through emptiness are filled with balls compressed by a vibration generator, after that feeding device is taken away and consolidating mortar is supplied through the shaft. Emptiness been filled the shaft is sealed.
EFFECT: cost reduction of elimination of emptiness.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to mining and is designed for elimination of hazardous situation at instantaneous inrush of water. Massif of rock is bored around with bore holes and outpost blast holes in vicinity of a groove head. Clay material is stacked inside the contour. Explosive substances are inserted in bore and blast holes; and explosion is initiated.
EFFECT: reduced time and material costs for preparation of non-combustible material to simultaneous discharge.
1 ex, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device consists of panels, supports and water intake chute. The panels have U-shaped flanged cross sections. The flanges and ribs of panels are different with regard to the required width and height along the corresponding sides of U-shaped cross section. The upper support to the bearing lining fastener assembly and lower panels to support fastener assembly are spatially distanced and implemented so that canopy panels and effective canopy hanger can be remotely adjusted to the bearing tunnel lining regardless canopy panels width and lining elements width dimensions. The upper fastener assembly is provided with supporting element for assembling pin, for example, pivot block, with one end being fixed to the bearing lining by means of fastening element, for example, bolt and/or threaded pin and/or anchor. The other end is coupled with the assembling pin, by means of, for example, a pair of nuts with spherical surface and beveled washers. The lower panel to support fastener assembly is made from the supporting element and clamping element for panels and installed on the assembling pin. The panels are installed and fastened to ensure the required architectural geometry of arch and overflow conditions in the lower panel fastener assembly for water penetrating through the lining. The position of the lower fastener assembly is adjusted by the upper fastener assembly. The invention provides for different structural implementation of the upper fastener assembly and specific features of U-shaped panel profiles and lower fastener assembly for the includes tunnel and horizontal tunnel.
EFFECT: possibility of spatial assembling pin position adjustment and installation of canopy panels in designed position regardless arch configuration inaccuracies in underground structure; more effective, reliable and simplified hanger for canopy to be attached to bearing lining notwithstanding canopy panel width and lining width ensuring conditions of penetrating through lining water.
15 cl, 20 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to mining industry, namely to devices for tunneling of underground bottomholes. Device comprises tunneling combine, stationary transportation accessory, transmission or bridge transporter arranged between them and installed with the possibility of movement on walker mechanism or frame, accordingly, and ventilation accessory. Ventilation accessory comprises suction pipe, immovable ventilation pipeline and length-variable joint of suction pipe with dust channel of ventilation accessory. Length-variable joint comprises helical ventilation pipe suspended on bearing cord. Bearing cord is stretched between two support parts of walker mechanism or frame, accordingly, displaced in the same direction and tunneling combine, and is directed by means of diverging rollers.
EFFECT: invention provides for reliable installation of ventilation pipe, excluding hogging under action of longitudinal loads.
10 cl, 6 dwg