Device for preventing ice formation in the transport tunnels

 

(57) Abstract:

(57) the Invention relates to mining and can be used for thermal protection of openings against ice formation. Device for preventing ice formation in tunnels consists of wire mesh, suspended on the support, and heating system of electric conductors and elements. Heating elements made of several turns of a flexible heating cable. Each thread loop has a length corresponding to the height of the heated section. The distance between the individual threads are reduced in proportion to the square of the distance measured from the line passing through the center of the heated section. The coils of the heating cable can be laid attached to the walls of the tunnel clamping device with a heat shield with a narrowed lower part, omitted in the discharge tray. As a result of use of the invention increases the efficiency of thermal protection of rocks and structural elements lining. 1 C.p. f-crystals. 2 Il.

The invention relates to the field of mining industry and can be used for thermal protection of structural elements workings education from the store in the education between the surface of rocks and the cold air, moving on mining, static air layer by strengthening the inner side of the lining elements of the polymer film.

The disadvantages of this method include:

1. The increase of the equivalent thermal conductivity of air, filling the space between the surface of rocks and plastic film, with a significant temperature differences between the air in the formulation and surface rocks. This leads to rapid loss of static air layers of its insulating properties and formation of ice on the surface of the rocks.

2. Low strength of the polymer film, which in the context of transport tunnels may lead to its rupture and complete loss of the insulation of their properties.

Known method of thermal insulation of heated mining (ed.St. USSR N 1168720, CL E 21 D 11/10, 1985), including filling the space between the Board develop and polymer film of water-saturated elastic porous material with defined values of active porosity and pore size.

The disadvantages of this method include the fact that the period during which water-saturated porous layer will play the role of insulation, t is ristoro layer over the entire thickness. Under conditions of severe climate this time does not exceed 1.5-2 months.

Known way to prevent icing (U.S. Pat. Japan N 50-24776, CL E 21 21 D 11/00, 1978), providing for the installation on the inner surface of the lining waterproof corrugated boards made of hard synthetic material or synthetic resin and insulated with spray foam plastic, which is fastened to the casing by bolts. Hollow corrugated sheets are also channels through which penetrating the lining of the water is diverted into the tray of the tunnel.

The disadvantages of this method are related to the fact that in the harsh climate of the layer of foamed plastic material deposited on the surface of corrugated boards, quickly loses its insulating properties, which leads to the freezing of water filtered by educated between rocks and shields channels, and, consequently, to the development process deleteoperation.

A device for preventing ice formation in tunnels (patent Norway N 126749, CL E 01 G 5/10, 1971), adopted as a prototype, consisting of a mesh lining, suspended from the roof support and the heating system from the electrical conductors and the heating elements.

The task of this unit is to increase the effectiveness of thermal protection of rocks and structural elements lining.

The task is solved in that the heating elements are made of several turns of a flexible heating cable, each thread of which has a length corresponding to the height of the heated section, and the distance between the individual threads are reduced in proportion to the square of the distance measured from the line passing through the center of the heated section. In addition, the heating elements are covered with a heat shield that attaches to the wall of the tunnel clamping devices, and its lower part is narrowed and lowered into the water stream.

The uneven arrangement of the heating elements according to the area of the heated section is due to the fact that heat losses in the massif depend on its width. In the Central part of the heated section they are minimal, and the edges - Maksymalna. This, again, is more dense arrangement of the heating elements on the edges of the heated section. Calculations show that a necessary condition can be achieved when the distance between the individual parts (threads) heating elements (heating cable) decreases proportionally to the square of the distance measured from the line passing the center of the heated section.

In turn, pressure devices provide the ability to quickly dismantle the device if necessary, move it to another location or repair.

In Fig.1 shows a General view of the device of Fig.2 is a view of the device in section.

Device for preventing ice formation in the transport tunnels contains 1 - heat shield, made of foamed polyethylene; 2 - flexible heating cable; 3 - steel mesh; 4 - the power cable to heating cable; 5 - switching box; 6 - rack power and management, located in a recess of the tunnel; 7 - the temperature sensor of thermal control system of the power consumption; 8 - measuring cable connection between sensor 7 with a thermal control system, under Cabinet power and control 6; 9 - SS="ptx2">

The mounting device is as follows: the surface area of the wall or arch of the tunnel down from the leak is superimposed reinforcing mesh 3 and is fixed on the wall (arch) with hooks and anchors. Reinforcing mesh 3 in the form of coils is placed the heating cable 2 and is fixed so that the distance between its separate thread loop was decreased in proportion to the square of the distance measured from the line passing through the center of the device. The free ends of heating cable 2 fit (without mounting) vertically downwards along the walls of the tunnel to ground level and removed in the drainage tray 11 for subsequent joining to the switch box 5. Near the leak is attached to the mesh temperature sensor 7 system control and instrumentation cable 8 from the sensor 7 is laid along the walls of the tunnel down to the soil and through the discharge tray 11 is displayed on the wall of the tunnel and then extends up to the rack power and management 6. From the switching box 5 to the power Cabinet and control 6 is laid mains cable 4 for applying voltage to the heating cable 2.

The contour of the wire mesh is the current drilling the wedge type. By turning the clamping device 10 180oachieve tightly pressed heat shield 1 to the surface of the tunnel.

The proposed device operates as follows.

When the air temperature drop between the heat-shielding screen 1 and the surface of the wall (vault) tunnel below the minimum permissible value (for example, +2oC) the temperature sensor 7 through the system control button in the power Cabinet and control 6, causes the heating system to a working state. On the switching box 5 is energized, which is the heating cable 2, as a result he starts to produce warmth. At the same time voltage is supplied and the signal display 9, which fixes the beginning of the heating system. When the temperature of the air between the heat-shielding screen 2 and the wall of the tunnel the temperature at which guaranteed the absence of ice formation, thermal management system using the temperature sensor 7 turns off the power supplied to the heating cable that is fixed signal display 9, which is turned off.

Water from leaks, being filtered by the surface of the walls of the tunnel, through the lower narrowed part of the device the VA allows you to avoid the formation of ice in contact with water in the tunnel, reduces energy costs and provides an opportunity to simplify the technology of dismantling the device in case of a fault or move to another location.

1. Device for preventing ice formation in tunnels, consisting of wire mesh, suspended on the support, and heating system of electric conductors and elements, characterized in that the heating elements are made of several turns of a flexible heating cable, and each of the thread loop has a length corresponding to the height of the heated section, and the distance between the individual threads are reduced in proportion to the square of the distance measured from the line passing through the center of the heated section.

2. The device under item 1, characterized in that the coils of the heating cable laid attached to the walls of the tunnel clamping device with a heat shield with a narrowed lower part, omitted in the discharge tray.

 

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