Method for the production of leather from fish skins
(57) Abstract:The method applies to leather manufacture, and can be used in the formulation of the skin of the fish with a high content of natural oils, such as carp. Skins soaked, Mezdra, is subjected to liming, pickling and tanning, then degrease, paint, it is greased and trim. After surgery ashing conduct a two-phase operation of obessolivanija. At the first stage in the solution of ammonium sulfate at 15-25oC for 40-60 min, and the second with the addition of softener in the 30oC for 1-2 hours Tanning is carried out in a combination of vegetable and synthetic tanning agent with the use of aluminum compounds. Dyeing produce dyes for leather combined with textile dyes and greasing - fat mixture containing a repellent. The method allows to improve the quality tanned leather. The invention relates to leather manufacture, and can be used mainly in the production of leather from the skins of fish with a high content of fatty substances, such as carp.There is a method of making leather from the skins of fish, including: soaking off, meskene, liming, degreasing, pickling, tanning and finishing, where OPE is followed by the ashing process or after it before pickling and tanning (see for example C-ku Germany N3534353 in class. C 14 C 13/00, 1/00, 3/00 for 1987).In the processing described by way of the skins of fish with a high content of natural oils, such as carp, crucian carp, etc., the degree of degreasing semi-finished product is insufficient, which affects the quality of leather.Closest to the proposed technical solution to the technical essence is a method for the production of leather from the skins of fish, including: soaking off in saline solution with added emulsifier, meskene, liming, pickling, tanning, degreasing and dyeing and finishing operations, the degreasing is carried out in aqueous solution degreasing agents in two steps: in: soaking off and after tanning (see, for example, Europatent N 0285738, CL C 14 C 13/00 for 1988).The disadvantages of the described method include low quality leather from carp, due to the peculiarities of the skin of common carp (deep and numerous scaly pockets), influencing processes ashing, tanning and dyeing.The invention aims to remedy these shortcomings and improve the quality tanned leather with increasing such organoleptic properties of semi-finished leather industry, as mascouche a: soaking off, meskene, liming, pickling, tanning, degreasing, dyeing, greasing and finish, characterized in that after ashing implementing a two-stage obessolivanie semi-finished product, and the first stage of obessolivanija in a solution of ammonium sulfate is carried out at 15-20oC for 40-60 min, and the second stage process is carried out with the addition of softener for 1-2 h at 30oC, the tanning is carried out in a combination of vegetable and synthetic tanning agent using aluminum compounds, dyeing produce dyes for leather combined with textile dyes and greasing carried out by a fat mixture containing a repellent.The solution of this problem is indeed possible, since confirmed by the authors experimentally conduct after ashing step obessolivanija with these modes and the use of softener allows the best to save the intermediate product from the excess of lime and improve the quality of the skin, and holding tanning in combination vegetable and synthetic tanning agent using aluminum compounds contributes to more efficient use of tandav and increase the softness of the leather, the use of a combination of tannins allows you to get the s with dyes for leather combined with textile dyes and greasing with application of water-repellent allows you to get different skin colors with hydrophobic properties, does not require coating of the polymer coating.The sequence of operations of the proposed method can be illustrated by the example of the production of leather from the skin of carp. The above formulas satisfy the following LCD (liquid ratio - the ratio of the weight of the processing solution to the weight of the processed product).1. A: soaking off. Preserved in a saturated solution of sodium chloride with additives antioxidants skins soaked in pure water at LC=2-3 and a temperature of 10-25oC for 1-3 h with a change of water, then washed with flowing water for 20-30 minutes2. The liming. In pure lime ash at a temperature of 15-25oC, LC= 1.5-3 and the concentration of calcium hydroxide 10-20 g/l within 36-72 hours3. Obessolivanie:
the 1st stage. In the solution of ammonium sulfate 3-5% by weight mestrenova raw materials, LC=1.5-3 and a temperature of 15-25oC for 40-60 minutesthe 2nd stage. In a fresh solution of ammonium sulfate 3-5% by weight mestrenova raw materials with the addition of 0.15 to 0.4% softener (It G-3) at 30oC for 1-2 h4. Pickling. When LC= 1-3 in solution containing 40-50 g/l of sodium chloride, 0.4 to 0.7% sulfuric acid and 0.3 to 0.6% by weight of the raw materials of sodium formiate within 2-is entrale of tandav from 5 g/l to 4.5 to 12.5% by weight of the raw materials and the use of plant extract (Mimosa, quebracho, willow, and others). The duration of the process 24-72 h depends on the nature of the raw materials. For 6-8 h before the end of the tanning solution are added aluminum alum in the amount of 2-5 g/l and the temperature of the solution to the 40oC.6. Degreasing. In a solution of trichloroethylene at a temperature of 45-50oC and LC=10-12 3-5 min operation was repeated three times with drying of raw materials between obesserivaniya until no odor of solvent.7. The dyeing. In one processing solution containing dyes for leather (direct, acid, etc.,) with a flow rate of 0.1 to 1.0% by weight of semi-finished textile dyes for cotton, wool) with LC=3 and a temperature of 40-60oC for 60-90 minutes For 30-40 minutes until the process is finished, the solution is injected to 0.5% by weight of the semi-product acetic acid.8. Greasing. Exercise namesnik way or the spent dye bath (depending on subsequent finishing). The consumption of fat, 1.5 to 5% by weight pressed leather. For skin, produced without finishing dyeing drug use Gidrofob up to 70% by weight of the fat mixture.9. Drying and humidification processes are performed in a known manner with an intermediate breakdown of the semi-finished product and required drying at pixaround the produce Ironing at the entrance roller machine at 55-65oC, grinding flesh side and dedusting. Leather produced with a polymer coating, processed acrylic copolymer emulsion VKM-65/1, kiln-dried and pressed at 70oC and pressure up to 10 kN. Method for the production of leather from fish skins, mainly cyprinids, including: soaking off, meskene, liming, pickling, tanning, degreasing, dyeing, greasing and finish, characterized in that after ashing implementing a two-stage obessolivanie semi-finished product, and the first stage of obessolivanija carried out in a solution of ammonium sulfate at 15 - 25oC for 40 - 60 min, and the second stage process is carried out with the addition of softener for 1-2 h at 30oC, the tanning is carried out in a combination of vegetable and synthetic tanning agent using aluminum compounds, dyeing spend dyes for leather combined with textile dyes and greasing - fat mixture containing a repellent.
FIELD: leather industry.
SUBSTANCE: semifinished product is degreased, neutralized, dyed, and lubricated. Dyeing is performed in two washing-interrupted steps with anionic black dye consumed in amount 0.5-0.6% of the weight of semifinished product in each dyeing step. Lubrication is followed by retannage with chrome tanner in amount 0.6-1.0% of the weight of semifinished product (calculated for chromium oxide) and treatment with 0.8-1.0% of spindle oil.
EFFECT: achieved deep black color and high performance characteristics.
1 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: polymer materials.
SUBSTANCE: sheet porous collagen-containing material, suited to be used in footwear, furniture, and vehicle manufacture, comprises water-soluble plasticizer and particles of hydrophilic filler in the form of fibers with length-to-diameter ratio between 5 and 500. At least 50% of fibers are parallel to sheet sides with largest surface areas. This sheet is characterized by rupturing relative elongation when stretched in one direction in planes of the largest sides equal to 10-30%, modulus of compression elasticity for thickness equal to 50-300 kPa, and coefficient of thickness restoration after 70% compression for 5 h equal to 0.90-0.95 at 8-12% moisture. Also described is method of manufacturing such material including following operations: mixing hydrophilic fibers having length-to-diameter 5-500 with aqueous collagen solution and multifunctional cross-linking agent to form homogenous mass containing 1-20% fibers, 1-5% collagen, and 0.2-20% cross-linking agent; freezing liquid sheet and unfreezing it followed by pressing resulting porous sheet; softening with water-soluble plasticizer; second pressing; and drying.
EFFECT: enhanced damping ability of sheet and simplified manufacturing technology.
8 cl, 2 tbl, 10 ex
FIELD: production of agricultural manufacturing.
SUBSTANCE: the present innovation deals with obtaining fur coats from birds' carcasses. A fur coat includes a bird skin and a fluff coat on it. Bird skin should be taken in cold period of the year, moreover, at first, the skin is manufactured and then - a fluff coat. In peculiar case, fur coat is obtained from water birds, for example, from goose.
EFFECT: broadened assortment of consumer's goods.
FIELD: leather industry.
SUBSTANCE: material and manufacturing procedure relate to macroporous collagen-containing materials accessible via processing of collagen-containing slurries showing complex of physico-mechanical and hygienic properties usually being characteristic of leather made from animal skins and which can be used in leather industry. Leather-like macroporous material contains collagen, tanned leather fibers, and polymer possessing capability of joining collagen fibers into one indivisible structure, amount of said polymer corresponding to 3-30% based on the summary weight of collagen and leather fibers. Method for manufacturing leather-like macroporous material envisages use of freezing followed by vacuum drying to residual moisture no higher than 12%, ageing at room temperature for 1 day period, treatment with aqueous polymer dispersion providing joining of collagen fibers into indivisible structure, and additional vacuum drying at temperature no lower than polymer film-formation temperature and no higher than temperature of the beginning of thermal shrinkage of collagen fibers.
EFFECT: improved physico-mechanical properties of leather-like macroporous sheet material and simplified manufacturing procedure.
4 cl, 4 ex
FIELD: polymer materials.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technology of synthetic fibers, in particular to producing composite bicomponent fibers of the islands-in-sea type and deerskin-type materials, in blends and stripped. In its island, polyethylene-terephthalate component, fibers comprise diol comonomer of formula I and formula II and, while its sea component is made from polyester copolymer easily soluble in alkali. Linear density of fiber varies from 0.001 to 0.5 denier. Deerskin-type materials is made completely or partly from ultrafine fibers with specified density and including indicated diol comonomer of formula I and II. Blended material and stripped material are manufactured using some parts of indicated islands-in-sea bicomponent fiber. Lower are formulas I and II: wherein R1 and R2 are С1-С3-alkyl groups and X aliphatic ring with 5-8 carbon atoms.
EFFECT: enhanced color saturation.
14 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: leather industry; treatment of collagen-containing raw material of fish skin formed in the course of dressing.
SUBSTANCE: waste of fish skin treatment process in leather and fishing industries is frozen, ground in pieces of 20x20 mm, defrosted by washing with tap water which is changed for two or three times; washing is continued for 2 hours at temperature of 18-20 C. Then pieces of waste are treated with solution containing 2-4-% CH3OOO at volume ratio equal to 5 and are kept in solution at regular mixing for 12 hours at temperature of 18-20 C. After treatment, solution is drained. Collagen thus obtained is washed with running water for 30 minutes at temperature of 18-20 C. After washing, collagen is dissolved in alkaline salt bath for 4 hours: 2-3-% NaOH and 6-7-% Na2SO4 at volume ratio equal to 5 and temperature of 18-20 C. Then homogenization is carried out through capron cloth. In the course of homogenization, undissolved scale is removed from capron cloth.
EFFECT: enhanced dissolving of collagen; reduced duration of technological cycles; reduced consumption of reagents; low contamination of waste water.
SUBSTANCE: method involves chrome tanning and post-tanning a semi-finished product through chrome tanning in the presence of a product of reaction of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and glycidylmethacrylate in molar ratio of 1:2 and consumption of the chrome tanning agent and reaction product of 3-4% and 2-3% of the weight of the semi-finished product respectively. Neutralisation and hydrophobisation with a polymer tanning agent are then carried out for 30-40 minutes with consumption of the tanning agent equal to 8-10% of the weight of the semi-finished product. After that dyeing is carried out in the presence of a synthetic tanning agent in amount of 3-4% of the weight of the semi-finished product. Post-tanning is carried out with a plant-material tanning agent and the semi-finished product is also treated for 20-30 minutes with a product of reacting hexamethylenediamine with phosphoric acid and urea in the presence of glycerin in molar ratio of 1:3:3:0.5 respectively, in amount of 3-4% of the weight of the semi-finished product and for 20-30 minutes with organic acid in amount of 0.5-1.0% of the weight of the semi-finished product. Further, the semi-finished product undergoes greasing and re-treated for 40-50 minutes with a product of reacting hexamethylenediamine with phosphoric acid and urea in the presence of glycerin in molar ratio of 1:3:3:0.5 and consumption of 7-8% of the weight of the semi-finished product, volume ratio of 0.8-1.0 and temperature of 20-22°C. Hydrophobisation with a polymer tanning agent, dyeing in the presence of a synthetic tanning agent, post-tanning with a plant-material tanning agent, further treatment with a product of reacting hexamethylenediamine with phoshoric acid and urea in the presence of glycerin in the said molar ratio and with organic acid is carried out in one bath. Separation and drying are carried out after all operations.
EFFECT: higher water-, fungus- and heat-resistance of leather under high moisture and temperature conditions, and wide range of special types of leather.
2 cl, 3 tbl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: method involves tanning a semi-finished product with a chrome tanning agent, neutralisation, washing, dyeing and tanning with organic tanning agents twice. The first tanning is carried out with a polymeric tanning agent, while the second is carried out with a mixture of synthetic and vegetable tanning agents. Hydrophobicising greasing, treatment with an organic acid and re-tanning with a chrome tanning agent are then carried out. Additional washing is carried out before neutralisation. Dyeing is carried out after the second tanning. Neutralisation, tanning twice and dyeing are carried out at water-to-goods ratio of 0.5-0.7. Hydrophobicising greasing is carried out in the presence of a 20% solution of the product of reacting amino alcohol with fatty acids of vegetable oils of the C12-C22 fraction and boric acid in molar ratio of 2:1:1 in mineral oil in amount of 0.5-1.5% of the weight of the semi-finished product.
EFFECT: good hygienic properties of hydrophobic leather and prolonged fungus resistance of the leather in high humidity and temperature conditions.
2 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: collagen containing composition consists of tanned collagen containing waste and products of solution of not tanned collagen. Additionally composition contains a surface active substance. As tanned collagen containing waste there is used tanning powder produced from waste of leather of chrome tannage of shoe industry. This waste is preliminary crumbled in air-dry state to size of fibres to 0.7-0.9 mm. The composition has the following ratio of components, wt %: tanning powder 12-15; products of collagen solution 1.5-2.5; SAS 0.02; water - the rest. The advantage of produced material is simple content of collagen containing composition including mainly collagen containing waste, which facilitates production of material similar to natural leather by chemical contents.
EFFECT: natural and ecologically safe fibrous porous material of increased strength.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: fish skin is soaked in solution containing sodium chloride and antiseptic agent at 18-20°C for 4.0-6.0 hours. Then, fish skin is degreased by 0.8-1.0%-solution of enzyme preparation Liporesin "ГЗх" for 1.5-2.0 h at 37-40°C and intermittent mixing. Then, degreased fish skin is treated by 0.3-0.6%-solution of enzyme preparation Protosubtiline "ГЗх" for 1.5-2.0 h at 37-40°C and intermittent mixing. Fish skin treated by Protosubtiline "ГЗх" is flooded by 0.3-0.6%-solution of enzyme preparation Collagenase and treated for 1.5-2.0 h at 37-40°C and intermittent mixing. After every said treatment, fish skin is carefully rinsed by cold running water to remove residues of enzyme ppreraiton. Scales are remove from skin to be fleshed and, then, pickled for 8-12 h at 18-20°C. Now, fish skin is tanned by willow bark broth for 12-20 h at 18-20°C, aromatised, dubbed and dried.
EFFECT: perfected process.
1 dwg, 1 tbl, 3 ex