Method for the production of leather from fish skins

 

(57) Abstract:

The method applies to leather manufacture, and can be used in the formulation of the skin of the fish with a high content of natural oils, such as carp. Skins soaked, Mezdra, is subjected to liming, pickling and tanning, then degrease, paint, it is greased and trim. After surgery ashing conduct a two-phase operation of obessolivanija. At the first stage in the solution of ammonium sulfate at 15-25oC for 40-60 min, and the second with the addition of softener in the 30oC for 1-2 hours Tanning is carried out in a combination of vegetable and synthetic tanning agent with the use of aluminum compounds. Dyeing produce dyes for leather combined with textile dyes and greasing - fat mixture containing a repellent. The method allows to improve the quality tanned leather.

The invention relates to leather manufacture, and can be used mainly in the production of leather from the skins of fish with a high content of fatty substances, such as carp.

There is a method of making leather from the skins of fish, including: soaking off, meskene, liming, degreasing, pickling, tanning and finishing, where OPE is followed by the ashing process or after it before pickling and tanning (see for example C-ku Germany N3534353 in class. C 14 C 13/00, 1/00, 3/00 for 1987).

In the processing described by way of the skins of fish with a high content of natural oils, such as carp, crucian carp, etc., the degree of degreasing semi-finished product is insufficient, which affects the quality of leather.

Closest to the proposed technical solution to the technical essence is a method for the production of leather from the skins of fish, including: soaking off in saline solution with added emulsifier, meskene, liming, pickling, tanning, degreasing and dyeing and finishing operations, the degreasing is carried out in aqueous solution degreasing agents in two steps: in: soaking off and after tanning (see, for example, Europatent N 0285738, CL C 14 C 13/00 for 1988).

The disadvantages of the described method include low quality leather from carp, due to the peculiarities of the skin of common carp (deep and numerous scaly pockets), influencing processes ashing, tanning and dyeing.

The invention aims to remedy these shortcomings and improve the quality tanned leather with increasing such organoleptic properties of semi-finished leather industry, as mascouche a: soaking off, meskene, liming, pickling, tanning, degreasing, dyeing, greasing and finish, characterized in that after ashing implementing a two-stage obessolivanie semi-finished product, and the first stage of obessolivanija in a solution of ammonium sulfate is carried out at 15-20oC for 40-60 min, and the second stage process is carried out with the addition of softener for 1-2 h at 30oC, the tanning is carried out in a combination of vegetable and synthetic tanning agent using aluminum compounds, dyeing produce dyes for leather combined with textile dyes and greasing carried out by a fat mixture containing a repellent.

The solution of this problem is indeed possible, since confirmed by the authors experimentally conduct after ashing step obessolivanija with these modes and the use of softener allows the best to save the intermediate product from the excess of lime and improve the quality of the skin, and holding tanning in combination vegetable and synthetic tanning agent using aluminum compounds contributes to more efficient use of tandav and increase the softness of the leather, the use of a combination of tannins allows you to get the s with dyes for leather combined with textile dyes and greasing with application of water-repellent allows you to get different skin colors with hydrophobic properties, does not require coating of the polymer coating.

The sequence of operations of the proposed method can be illustrated by the example of the production of leather from the skin of carp. The above formulas satisfy the following LCD (liquid ratio - the ratio of the weight of the processing solution to the weight of the processed product).

1. A: soaking off. Preserved in a saturated solution of sodium chloride with additives antioxidants skins soaked in pure water at LC=2-3 and a temperature of 10-25oC for 1-3 h with a change of water, then washed with flowing water for 20-30 minutes

2. The liming. In pure lime ash at a temperature of 15-25oC, LC= 1.5-3 and the concentration of calcium hydroxide 10-20 g/l within 36-72 hours

3. Obessolivanie:

the 1st stage. In the solution of ammonium sulfate 3-5% by weight mestrenova raw materials, LC=1.5-3 and a temperature of 15-25oC for 40-60 minutes

the 2nd stage. In a fresh solution of ammonium sulfate 3-5% by weight mestrenova raw materials with the addition of 0.15 to 0.4% softener (It G-3) at 30oC for 1-2 h

4. Pickling. When LC= 1-3 in solution containing 40-50 g/l of sodium chloride, 0.4 to 0.7% sulfuric acid and 0.3 to 0.6% by weight of the raw materials of sodium formiate within 2-is entrale of tandav from 5 g/l to 4.5 to 12.5% by weight of the raw materials and the use of plant extract (Mimosa, quebracho, willow, and others). The duration of the process 24-72 h depends on the nature of the raw materials. For 6-8 h before the end of the tanning solution are added aluminum alum in the amount of 2-5 g/l and the temperature of the solution to the 40oC.

6. Degreasing. In a solution of trichloroethylene at a temperature of 45-50oC and LC=10-12 3-5 min operation was repeated three times with drying of raw materials between obesserivaniya until no odor of solvent.

7. The dyeing. In one processing solution containing dyes for leather (direct, acid, etc.,) with a flow rate of 0.1 to 1.0% by weight of semi-finished textile dyes for cotton, wool) with LC=3 and a temperature of 40-60oC for 60-90 minutes For 30-40 minutes until the process is finished, the solution is injected to 0.5% by weight of the semi-product acetic acid.

8. Greasing. Exercise namesnik way or the spent dye bath (depending on subsequent finishing). The consumption of fat, 1.5 to 5% by weight pressed leather. For skin, produced without finishing dyeing drug use Gidrofob up to 70% by weight of the fat mixture.

9. Drying and humidification processes are performed in a known manner with an intermediate breakdown of the semi-finished product and required drying at pixaround the produce Ironing at the entrance roller machine at 55-65oC, grinding flesh side and dedusting. Leather produced with a polymer coating, processed acrylic copolymer emulsion VKM-65/1, kiln-dried and pressed at 70oC and pressure up to 10 kN.

Method for the production of leather from fish skins, mainly cyprinids, including: soaking off, meskene, liming, pickling, tanning, degreasing, dyeing, greasing and finish, characterized in that after ashing implementing a two-stage obessolivanie semi-finished product, and the first stage of obessolivanija carried out in a solution of ammonium sulfate at 15 - 25oC for 40 - 60 min, and the second stage process is carried out with the addition of softener for 1-2 h at 30oC, the tanning is carried out in a combination of vegetable and synthetic tanning agent using aluminum compounds, dyeing spend dyes for leather combined with textile dyes and greasing - fat mixture containing a repellent.

 

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2 tbl, 5 ex

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