The method of dehydration of the oil
(57) Abstract:The invention will otnositsa to the oil industry and can be used to clear the water motor and other oils. For dewatering of flooded engine oils heated to 65-70oWith the oil centrifuged at disc separator and then assembled in an open tank, the oil is again heated to a temperature 100-108oC to achieve a desired water content in the oil. The proposed method is much simpler and more effective known. 1 Il. The invention relates to the refining industry and can be used in the dewatering of flooded engine oils containing additives, as well as other oils.There is a method of dehydration of oils by water precipitation during heating oil up to 80o(Rules of technical operation of the tank farms. - M.: Nedra, 1986; ed. St. USSR N 1260387, CL 10 G 33/06, 1988). As a result of sedimentation, the water settles and is then drained from the tank through the lower discharge pipe.The disadvantages of this method are as follows.Dissolved water in the oil contained in the oil in a monomolecular state, cannot be deleted.Emulsion water in oil, the train in the mechanical crushing suck water pumps, having a particle size of several microns or less, also almost is not removed. To mineral and synthetic oils to improve or maintain for a long period of their operational properties add additives - viscous, depressant, corrosion and oxidation inhibitors, detergents, anti-wear and others. The total amount of additives contained in the oil, depending on its brand reaches 5-7% and more.For example, in the oil M-8B according to is the following additive composition: 4% VNII NP-360, 2% of PMS, 0,9% DF-11, 1-1,5% AFK and 0.003% PMS-200A ('products, their properties and application. The Handbook. Edited by N. He Puchkova. - M.: Chemistry, 1971). The total content of additives from 7.9 to 8.4%. Some of the additives are soluble in water, others are typical surfactants to the system maslovoza. In the presence of water in oil, the formation of colloidal systems, hydration additives, the formation of micelles consisting of water, additives and oils.Linked so the water gets properties other than free water, and remove its way to defend the impossible. At the same time, the amount of bound water in the oil may be superior compared to eMule and storage (Japan Patent N 1-S, CL 10 G 177/00; 105/40, 107/34, 1989). For this purpose, the oil is brought into contact with the zeolite having a particle diameter of 0.1-10 μm, such as molecular sieve 3A or 4A. The lubricating oil is brought into contact with the zeolite, in microporous bag, and kept in a vessel at 15-40oC for 5 h to 1 month. The disadvantages of this method are as follows: required disposal watered zeolite, the inability to remove the water in the oil in the bound form, i.e. in the form of crystalline.The method of dehydration of recoverable oil and a device with a blowdown drum for water evaporation is the evaporation of water from the oil at a temperature above the dew point temperature of the water in the drum (U.S. Patent N 5223-152, CL 10 G 33/00, 1993). Thus it is possible to evaporate pure water emulsion and water dissolved in oil, but it is impossible to remove bound water of crystallization.The method of dehydration of the bitumen is heated bitumen to a temperature not lower than the boiling temperature of the contained water (ed. St. USSR N 1273376, CL 10 G 33/00, 1985). The method of thermal dehydration of bitumen consists in evaporation of moisture from the mixture watered and dewatered bitumen in the presence of additives surfactants (ed. with oil without substantial degradation of the engine oil during prolonged heating it to a temperature of 150oC.Method of destruction of the emulsion type water in oil refers to the dehydration and desalting of the emulsion type water in oil) in strong electric fields (ed. St. USSR N 1353802, CL 10 GG 33/02, 01 D 17/06, 1986). This method is used to remove water from oils, additives which are missing or in a small amount.Other ways to remove water from oil and oil products involve the use of volatile hydrocarbons (U.S. patent N 4762609, CL 10 G 33/00, 1988), the hydrocarbon diluent (ed. St. USSR N 1609824, CL 10 G 33/04, 1988) and demulsifier (ed. St. USSR 1397473, CL 10 G 33/04, 1986, N 1361169, CL 10 G 33/00, 1986, N 1288617, CL 10 G 33/004, 1984, N 1273384, CL 10 G 34/04, 1984), alkalizing means and hydrocarbon diluent (U.S. patent N 4466885, class C 10 G 33/04, 1984, other chemical compounds (U.S. patent N 4477337, CL 10 G 33/04, 1984). Disadvantages of these methods as applied to motor oils lies in the fact that the oils are introduced chemical compounds that can alter the characteristics of the oils.A known method of purification of processed oils from water and light fractions by author. St. USSR N 1616980, CL 10 M 175/02, 1988 prototype. Original oil pre-dispersed with water and contact in cyclone camshow average droplet size of the oil to about 600 microns. The temperature of the oil 20oWith the water content in experiments 2%, flashpoint 100oC. Modifying the fuel consumption down to 26.6 23.3 kg per ton of oil, the consumption of additional water from 240 to 120 l/h, when the supply of oil in the amount of 600 l/h, the following relevant characteristics of the refined oil: temperature of the refined oil was changed from 117 to 175oWith the temperature of the gas mixture was changed from 190-220 to 350oWith water in the oil was absent, the flash point was changed from 140 to 196oC. Disadvantages of this method are as follows. Original oil pre-dispersed in water, and therefore part of the additive is dissolved in the water. In the cyclone chamber dissolved additives can go together with gas-vapor mixture. When the temperature of the flash 196oWith, indicating almost complete removal of the oil light fractions and water, the temperature of the gas mixture is equal to 350oC. At this temperature, the chemical composition of the oil may change as a result of its oxidation.The aim of the invention is to develop a method of removing water from flooded oils containing additives, and first removing water from flooded engine oils.is his centrifuged for separation maslootdelitelnogo installing PSM 2-4 (mobile macroeconomically PSM 2-4. Passport 08.00.00.00=04 PSM. - M.: Westergeest, 1991), working in the mode of purification. The rotational speed of the drum of the separator 110-1(6600 rpm), the diameter of the drum 346 mm, the number of separation plates 78. When the centrifugation in the large shear stress changes the state of a colloidal system - micelles dissolved hydrated water is allocated in its pure form. The oil passing centrifugation on a plate separator is heated to the evaporation temperature of water. While heating oil at a constant speed, the oil temperature at the beginning of the linearly increasing to a temperature of about 100oWith, then when the temperature reaches 105-108oSince it remains constant despite further heating oil. In this case, the heat supplied to the oil consumed in the evaporation of water. Heating is carried out up until the water content will not meet the requirements on oil. Is the method in the following way. In the tank with heaters, such as prepodavatel, the oil is heated to 65-70oWith, and bottom drain connection connect the pipe or hose to the inlet side of the separator. The oil is treated at a temperature of 65-70oWith on disc separator and sent to the free Renaut, thus the top hatch of the tank is opened to remove water vapor. Water is evaporated by heating oil. During the evaporation of the water, the oil analyzed for water content and other indicators. Upon reaching the desired results on the water content of the heat off.In this way was dehydrated 1000 kg engine oil MV. The initial water content in oil, as determined by the method of Dean-stark was 0.25 per cent. The oil was opaque, light brown color.After heating to 70oWith oil was processed in the separator-oil cleaner PSM-4 mode of purification at atmospheric pressure. During centrifugation of the oil was allocated to 5 l of water, what is 0.5% of the original water-cut oil. The water content in oil, as determined by the method of Dean-stark was 0.3%. These results on the water indicate that by centrifugation separator bound water becomes free water, in the form of fine droplets. Part of the released water removes the separator. The original oil had a light brown color, but opaque. After processing on the separator color changes to yellow, the oil also remained opaque.After that theoC. the oil Temperature rose to 105oWith temperature variation was within 103-108oC. the Oil was heated up until the water content in the oil was below 0.03% of traces of water. The apparent evaporation of water began in the 90oC.After processing the oil by heating to 105oWith oil in appearance has changed - it became transparent and acquired color characteristic of oil MV.The original water-in-oil MV and the same oil treated in the separator-oil cleaner without subsequent heating to 105oWith, were subjected to additional testing.The drawing shows the dependence of the temperature of the source water-cut oil MV from time to time at a constant heating rate, and the same oil after centrifugation separator PSM-4 mode of purification. The experiments were conducted as follows. 400 g butter, pour in one litre chemical beaker was heated on the stove-top, without changing the power of the heaters. At the same time was measured oil temperature to determine the dependence of temperature on time. From the drawing it is seen that when the heat source watered oil on the curve, there are two grounds - first at a temperature of 168-166oWith, when the second temperature is division-free water. When water evaporates heat is spent on its evaporation, and the oil temperature is not growing. After centrifugation of the oil plate separator dependence is different. Oil temperature above 108oLong time never rises - is the evaporation of water. Water is formed during the destruction of micelles and crystalline with a strong shear stresses arising in the oil during processing in the disc centrifuge separator - oil cleaner PSM 2-4.The proposed method can be applied in various industrial sectors of the economy, for example, in petroleum refining, petroleum, petrochemical and other industries. The method of dehydration of the oil when heated, wherein a temperature of 65-70oWith water-in-oil centrifuged at disc separator and then assembled in an open tank the oil is heated to a temperature 100-108oWith in a period of time to achieve a desired water content in the oil.
FIELD: machine-building, automotive, and oil refining industries, rail transport, and agricultural sector.
SUBSTANCE: proposed installation has heat-insulating evaporator incorporating spent motor oil feeders and dewatered motor oil outlet pipe; condenser connected to evaporator and to vacuum pump; heater; tandem-connected transfer pump and heater communicating with spent motor oil feeder; installation also has tank holding original spent motor oil whose space communicates with suction pipe of gear-type transfer pump and through heated barometer tube, with dewatered motor oil outlet pipe; heater is made in the form of steam jacket of original spent motor oil tank; reheater is made in the form of tubular heat exchanger whose tube space communicates with delivery pipe of gear-type pump and tube-to-tube space, with heating steam supply; evaporator is made in the form of horizontal heated cylinder accommodating at its ends spent motor oil feeders in the form of nozzles with filtering barriers at inlet; disposed in central part of evaporator space against nozzles are oil jet deflectors whose concave surface faces nozzles; bottom part of evaporator is provided with dewatered motor oil collector provided with its outlet pipe and heated tube disposed between jet deflectors; upper end of heated tube carries oil spray trap and its bottom end is joined to condenser case enclosed by cooling jacket and accommodating cooling coil that passes through its interior along condenser axis cooling medium discharge pipe; condensed water outlet pipe running from condenser is connected to this water collecting tank communicating with vacuum pump; installation is also provided with additional heat-insulated and heated evaporator, condenser, heater, reheater, gear-type and vacuum pumps, and heated barometer tube, which are physically identical to main evaporator, condenser, heater, reheater, gear-type and vacuum pumps, heated barometer tube, and tank for collecting fuel-containing dewatered motor oil that communicates with original spent motor oil pipeline connected to delivery pipe of main gear-type pump; additional heater is made in the form of steam jacket of fuel-containing dewatered motor oil tank whose space communicates with suction pipe of additional gear-type pump; tube space of additional heater communicates with delivery pipe of additional gear-type pump and with nozzles of additional evaporator whose collector is designed to accumulate clean motor oil; additional heated barometer tube is connected to pipe delivering clean motor oil from collector and to fuel-containing dewatered oil tank; pipe designed for discharging condensed fuel from additional condenser communicates with oil collecting tank communicating with additional vacuum pump.
EFFECT: enhanced degree of cleaning spent motor oil from water and fuel; enhanced safety and economic efficiency of process.
1 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: petrochemical industry; methods of production of the polyolefin bases of the synthetic oils.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method of production of the polyolefin bases of the synthetic oils by cationic oligomerization of the olefinic raw and may be used in petrochemical industry. The developed method contains: the stages of preparation of the olefinic raw, preparation and batching in the reactor of the solutions and suspensions of the components of the catalytic system Al(0)-HCl-(CH3)3CCl (TBX), isomerization of alpha-olefins and oligomerizations of the highest olefins and their mixtures under action of the catalytic system Al (0)-HCl-TBX, extractions of the dead catalyst, separation of the oligomerizate for fractions and hydrogenation of the extracted fractions under action of the catalytic agent Pd (0.2 mass %)/Al2O3+NaOH. The invention ensures improvement of the stages of the developed method. For prevention of the corrosion activity of the products the method additionally contains the stage of dechlorination of the present in the oligomerizate chlorine-containing oligoolefins by the metallic aluminum, triethylaluminum, the alcoholic solutions of KOH or using the thermal dehydrochlorination of the chlorine-containing polyolefins at the presence or absence of KOH. For improvement of the technical-and-economic indexes of the method at the expense of the increase of the output of the target fractions of polyolefins with the kinematic viscosity of 2-8 centistoke at 100°C the method additionally contains the stage of the thermal depolymerization of the restrictedly consumable high-molecular polyolefins with the kinematic viscosity of 10-20 centistoke at 100°C into the target polyolefins with the kinematic viscosity of 2-8 centistoke at 100°C.
EFFECT: the invention ensures improvement of all the stages of the developed method.
1 cl, 15 tbl
FIELD: petroleum processing.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to processes of dehydration of watered petroleum products, which are formed during preparation for repairs or for change of loads in oil-loading and oil-transportation equipment. Petroleum product is preliminarily heated to temperature above water boiling temperature and applied by thin layer onto mobile surface moving it forcibly. Evaporation is effected using heat which product obtains in superheating step. Removal of product from mobile surface is also effected forcibly, after which product, if necessary, is intensively heated and sent to next evaporation step or product is discharged if its moisture content does not exceed allowed values. Dehydration process is accomplished in one, two, or more cycles, each comprising following steps: superheating, applying product onto mobile surface, spreading product across mobile surface in thin layer, and forcibly removing product from the surface. Distilled off vapors are condensed, condensate is collected and processed by a known way, while non-condensed vapors are heated and returned to distillation zone.
EFFECT: enabled dehydration of high-viscosity petroleum products (mazut, bitumen) with any initial moisture while preventing solidification thereof and "arching" during processing, which is thereby shortened as compared to conventional procedures.
5 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of increasing of quality of heavy or/and extra-heavy hydrocarbon, and mainly for release and increasing of hydrocarbon quality in wastes of drilling fluids. Invention describes method of increasing heavy hydrocarbon grade, which includes the following stages: use of heavy hydrocarbon; contacting of heavy hydrocarbon with solvent in conditions of grade increasing, due to which first product is obtained, which includes mixture of hydrocarbon of increased grade and solvent, and second product which includes asphaltenic waste, water and solvent, where conditions of grade increasing include gauge pressure in range from approximately 100 to approximately 350 pounds/square inch and temperature in range from approximately 30 to approximately 100°C; and supply of first product into separator for separation of hydrocarbon of increased grade from solvent.
EFFECT: invention also relates to system for increasing grade of heavy hydrocarbon.
16 cl, 4 ex, 6 tbl, 2 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: method involves sampling and preparation of sample with thermostatting at temperature of 50-70°C with simultaneous extrusion of sulphurated hydrogen and light mercaptans with inert gas or air to in-series located absorbing solutions; at that, as absorbing solution for determining sulphurated hydrogen, there used is sodium carbonate solution, and as absorbing solution for determining light mercaptans there used is sodium hydrate solution, quantitative estimation of sulphurated hydrogen and light mercaptans by method of iodimetric titration. At that, before mixture of vapours of light hydrocarbons with sulphurated hydrogen and light mercaptans, which is extruded from the sample with air or inert gas, enters in-series located absorbing solutions, it is cooled to the temperature of more than 15°C to 20°C.
EFFECT: improving accuracy and reliability, and speeding-up the analysis.
5 ex, 3 tbl, 1 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: oil is treated by heating in fee heat exchanger with further division of thermally treated oil flow into two parts, one part is sent to thermal cracking while the other is mixed with thermal cracking products, then the received raw mixture is cooled down up to temperature fit for transportation through a pipeline. Thermal cracking products are subject to division into gas and vapour-liquid phase and liquid phase in an evaporator, at that liquid phase from the evaporator is fed as heat medium to heat exchangers with further division of the cooled down liquid phase into two parts, one part is fed for quenching of thermal cracking products before delivery to the evaporator while the other one is fed for mixing with thermally treated part of oil, whereat gas and vapour-liquid phase of thermal cracking products is cooled and sent to division at a gas separator into gas used as fuel gas in the thermal cracking oven and distillate fed for mixing with the received raw mixture to the pipeline.
EFFECT: reduced oil viscosity with simultaneous reduction in power consumption by operations on high-viscosity oil treatment for transportation through a pipeline.
8 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: oil industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of operation of a device for treatment of crude oil containing a treatment section and an evaporation section connected to each other and an evaporative valve. Method involves the following steps: water containing crude oil is fed into the said treatment section; in this section, water is separated from crude oil containing water; there is obtained partially dehydrated crude oil containing 5 or more volumetric % of water; the partially dehydrated crude oil is ducted through the specified pipe and evaporative valve into the specified evaporation section of the said device; partially dehydrated crude oil is heated upstream in relation to the evaporation section and downstream in relation to the evaporative valve by means of heat exchange with the above mentioned water separated from crude oil in the treatment; thus, the water contained in partially dehydrated crude oil is heated to a temperature above the water boiling point and there is obtained dehydrated crude oil from the specified evaporation section. Invention also relates to a device for implementation of the specified method.
EFFECT: use of this invention makes it possible to reduce the size of the treatment section.
12 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to a method for reducing the paraffin content in mineral oil compositions, wherein the composition of mineral oils is provided with a dewaxing aid, which is a copolymer mixture obtained in a single polymerisation step, wherein the copolymers differ in the composition of the repeat units; it is cooled to form a paraffin precipitate and the paraffin precipitate is at least partly removed, where a copolymer mixture comprising at least four copolymers is used; the said four polymers have repeated units which are derived from alkylmethacrylates having 16-18 carbon atoms in the alkyl radical and repeat units that are derived from alkylacrylates with 18-22 carbon atoms in the alkyl radical, wherein the said repeat units are derived from at least one acrylate and one methacrylate. Present invention also relates to a dewaxing aid for reducing the paraffin content in mineral oil compositions, which includes is a copolymer mixture obtained in a single polymerisation step, wherein the copolymers differ in the composition of the repeat units; where the copolymer mixture is a mixture of at leat four polymers, which have repeated units which are derived from alkylmethacrylates having 16-18 carbon atoms in the alkyl radical and repeat units that are derived from alkylacrylates with 18-22 carbon atoms in the alkyl radical, wherein the said repeat units are derived from at least one acrylate and one methacrylate.
EFFECT: reduce the content of paraffins in mineral oil compositions.
9 cl, 5 tbl, 10 ex
FIELD: oil industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of controlling process and list of produced oil products during oil refining. Method comprises the most complete physical separation into fractions and is characterised by that to increase output of most valuable light fractions, oil is subjected to cryolysis at temperature not higher than -15 °C for not less than 20 hours with preliminary addition of a donor additive (water) in amount of not less than 1 % at different processing steps: before fractionation, instead of vacuum distillation at oil fields, where simultaneously with increase in content of fuel fractions in oil fractions there is its dewatering and desalination (partial or complete), as well as in various combinations of processing steps, for example before fractionation and instead of vacuum distillation or at oil fields and instead of vacuum distillation.
EFFECT: use of disclosed method makes it possible to increase number of extracted fuel fractions.
1 cl, 1 dwg, 5 tbl
FIELD: oil-and-gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of high viscous oil preparation for pumping through a pipeline, the method can be used in oil industry. The method comprises oil heat treatment by heating in heat exchangers and thermal cracking oven, further separation of the thermal cracking products to gas/vapour/liquid and liquid phases in an evaporator, the later phase use as heating medium in the heat exchangers with further separation of the cooled liquid phase to two parts, one part is delivered for quenching cooling of the thermal cracking products prior to delivery to the evaporator, and another part after additional cooling is used as oil component pumped in the pipeline, further separation of gas/vapour/liquid phase of the thermal cracking products in a gas separator to hydrocarbon gas used as fuel of the thermal cracking oven and distillate. Wherein the distillate is subjected to additional separation to the hydrocarbon gas and stable distillate in a stabilization column having a nozzle, the hydrocarbon gas from the stabilization column is mixed with the hydrocarbon gas from the gas separator, and stable distillate after heating in heater is partially used as hot jet delivered to the bottom part of the stabilization column, and partially after cooling in cooler is used as live reflux delivered to the top part of the stabilization column, and balance quantity of the stable distillate is mixed with the cooled liquid phase of the evaporator and delivered for transfer.
EFFECT: method of high viscous oil preparation reducing losses during transport and storage by its physical stability increasing.
5 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method is used for cleaning oil contaminated with weighed particles using a centrifugal separator. The liquid separation medium, which is denser than the cleaned oil and insoluble in it, is put into a separation chamber in such a quantity that the layer of this medium forms a liquid valve in the rotating centrifugal rotor, covering the output opening for the heavy phase. After this, the oil and the liquid separation medium are put into the separation chamber of the rotating centrifugal rotor. The cleaned oil is output through a central output opening for the light phase of the separation chamber, and the liquid separation medium and the separated particles are output through the output opening for the heavy phase. Heavy polymer is the preferred separation medium.
EFFECT: increased degree of purity of the oil contaminated with hard-to-remove small dispersed particles.
7 cl, 1 dwg, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: present method is intended for utilisation of waste oil resources. Method consists in that non-refined waste motor oil is added to Diesel fuel, then centrifugal purification of the obtained mixture is carried out with its separation into fractions as follows: heavy liquid, light liquid and hard. Before centrifugal purification fuel-oil mixture can be subjected to the action of ultrasound field with frequency of 20÷28 kHz during a time period necessary for obtaining homogenous structure. Fuel and oil are preferably taken in ratio of 3:1 to 100:1. In the device for waste oil utilisation, unit of dosed supply is connected with ultrasound mixer, and unit of separation into fractions is made as acentrifugal purifier capable of separating mixture into three fractions, i.e. heavy liquid, light liquid and hard. Unit of separation into fractions contains the second centrifugal purifier connected with the first one. The first purifier is made with a cone insert, which ensures coarse purification, the second one being made with a cylinder insert, which ensures fine purification.
EFFECT: simplification of technology and construction of device for waste oil utilisation, increase in purification quality with reduction of time.
8 cl, 2 tbl, 1 dwg.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of cleaning diesel fuel and is meant to improve quality of both standard and sub-standard fuel. The invention relates to a method which involves mixing diesel fuel with 0.1-0.5% of 10% aqueous carbamide solution. The mixture is settled for 2-3 hours. The aqueous carbamide solution is distributed in the entire volume of the fuel. Resin trace constituents are enlarged and precipitate. At the next step, the top part of the mixture is decanted, heated to 90±5°C, followed by centrifuging, where carbamide is dispersed in the fuel when coming out of the nozzle and the remaining resins, mechanical impurities and water are removed. Centrifuging is carried out for 10-20 minutes.
EFFECT: improved lubricating properties of the cleaned diesel fuel.
1 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method for the separation of catalyst fragments from the fuel oil stream comprises: separating catalyst dust from entering the fuel oil flow in a centrifugal separator to generate a stream of purified fuel oil; obtaining NMR-response signal from the NMR-device related to the amount of catalyst dust in the stream of purified fuel oil and/or in the incoming stream of fuel oil and to the top of adding or increasing the amount of separation additive to the incoming stream of fuel oil, when NMR-response signal indicates an increased amount of catalyst dust in the stream of purified fuel oil and/or in the incoming stream of fuel oil.
EFFECT: improved performance of dust separating catalyst from a fuel oil stream.
17 cl, 1 dwg