# Method of monitoring the surface of the wheel when driving rail vehicles and device for its implementation

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the field of measurement technology and can be used to control the technical condition of rolling stock. Method of monitoring the surface of the wheel when driving rail vehicles based on the raster formation of M spaced along the direction of motion of the wheel of the fan of rays N rays in each fan, the reception of the reflected beams with M x L photodetectors, the measurement of time intervals between the M x N x L responses of the photodetectors and dimensioning Tolerancing wheelset from the reference shape by comparing the measured interval with a known distribution of values of the intervals for the reference form and is implemented using a device, which contains the measuring rail installed on it identical optical measuring units and electronic signal processing unit, each of the optical measuring unit includes a light source, a diffraction grating. The invention allows to obtain more complete information about the shape of the tread surface of the wheel, including various surface defects. 2 S. p. f-crystals, 5 Il. The invention relative to the th rolling stock.Known methods and devices for monitoring the technical condition of the wheels of railway rolling stock (A. C. the USSR N1066866, class B 61 K 9/12, patent DE N3611795, CL G 01 B 11/24, 11/14).However, the method of detecting defects wheelset (A. C. N1066866, class B 61 K 9/12) based on measurements of the vertical acceleration of the rail is sensitive to the speed of the rolling stock and does not work at speeds below 50 km/h.Closest to the claimed invention is a control device wheelset and implemented by this device the way (DE, N3611795, CL G 01 B 11/24, 11/14).This method of control wheelset, implemented by this device is in the coverage at the time of measuring the tread surface of the wheel during rotation, Desk with photodetectors of the reflected light at specific points in the space and processing signals of the photodetectors, and is fixed illumination of the first light source of a given point of the surface and the scanning using the second source and the associated mirror drum optical beam of a sequence of points of a surface perpendicular to the direction of the nicks, located in fixed relative to the axis of rotation of the wheel points in space at right angles to the running surface of the wheel.The control device wheelset on patent DE, N3611795, CL G 01 B 11/24, 11/14 contains an optical measuring unit, and an electronic signal processing unit, and an optical measuring unit includes two light source, the spatial position of which is fixed relatively to the axis of rotation of the wheel, the mirror drum mounted between one of the light sources and the rolling surface of the wheel, and two are located at right angles to the running surface of the wheel the same receiving and recording system, each of which consists of lenses, optical fibers and sensors, moreover, the input ends of the optical fibers placed in the focal plane of the lens and form columns and lines, and the output ends of the optical fibers collected in the columns connected to the corresponding photodetectors, the outputs of which are input electronic signal processing unit.The disadvantage of this device and control method implemented by the device, is the need for rigid fixation of the optical measuring unit relative to sitelike car or locomotive, which significantly complicates the process control wheel structure.The task of the invention is to reduce the time of inspection when inspecting the wheels of rail vehicles in the process of the motion.To solve the problem in the way of control wheelset when driving rail vehicles based on the lighting at the time of measuring wheelset, Desk with photodetectors of the reflected light at the points of space and processing signals of the photodetectors, new signs, namely, that form a static raster of M spaced along the direction of the rays fans, with each fan form N rays emanating from the same point from different angles, record the reflected rays using M N photodetectors, all rays from the same fan sequentially register each of the L photodetectors, measure the time intervals between M N L responses of the sensors and calculate the parameters of the deviation of the surface shape of the wheel from the reference by comparing the measured time intervals with known distribution of time intervals for the reference form.On the rolling stock, containing the optical measuring unit comprising a light source and photodetectors, and electronic signal processing unit, connected to the outputs of photodetectors, introduced the following characteristics: measuring rail, at least one identical to the first optical measuring unit, and the optical units mounted on the measuring rail and the maximum distance between them is less than the length of the circle skating wheels on the optical axis of each light source mounted diffraction grating, the strokes of which is perpendicular to the measuring rail, and the angular field of view of each of the photodetector of the optical measuring unit covers a continuous range of angles of arrival of the rays, formed diffraction grating and reflected from the surface of the wheel, and an electronic signal processing unit contains connected in series measuring time intervals and computing device.The formation of static raster M N rays in the form of a set of rays fans, check the reflected beams using M L photodetectors, the measurement of the intervals between M N L responses of the photodetectors allow to determine the deviations of the angular positions of the normals is pouring deviation of the tangent to the surface at different points from the tangent to the surface of the reference form, and these deviations to calculate the parameters of the deviations from the reference that will allow you to determine the type of defect and its value, and, if necessary, to restore the shape of the defect wheelset in M N L points.The invention is illustrated in Fig. 1-5, where Fig.1 presents an explanation of the example implementing the inventive method of control; Fig.2 presents a graph of the dependence of the radius of the tread surface of the wheel angular position of the points of its surface, and Fig.3 shows a drawing explaining the dependence of the angular position of the reflected beam on the shape of the roll surface, and Fig.4 shows the trajectory of the reflected rays in the process of moving wheels and the signals of the photodetectors in the absence and in the presence of defects; Fig.5 shows a device for implementing the method.Consider the example of an implementation of the proposed method and explain its basic operation:wheel 1 rail rolling stock rolling in the Z-direction (Fig.1) and at some time t=z/v, where v is the linear velocity of the wheel, is in the range of optical raster;

raster 2 is formed in the form of M fans 3 ray, N outgoing from each m-th (m=1,M) points of rays 4;

_{0}is the radius of the wheel, i.e., the slope () of the tangent, and the position (l,m)-th beam along the z axis, the Reflected (n,m)-th beam falls consistently on all L photodetectors 5, the respective m-th fan beams, resulting in a sequence of pulses

< / BR>

where

t

_{mnl}=z

_{mnl}/v;

z

_{mnl}the position of the wheels on the Z-axis in the time of the fall of the reflected (m,n)-th beam on the 1st receiver.The sequence of pulses (1) carries information about the shape of the surface of the wheel. In order to reveal this information:

measure the time intervals between the pulses at time t

_{mnl};

then carry out the calculation of the parameters of variation wheelset from the sample by comparing the measured interval with a known distribution of values of the intervals for the reference form.Explain the principle of calculation by means of Fig. 2-4.In accordance with Fig.2 the radius r() wheelset has a dependence on the angular position that is the group

< / BR>

From (3) it follows that the measured () can be recovered r()

< / BR>

In Fig. 3 presents the explanation of the dependence of the angular position of the reflected beam from the shape of the wheel 1 on the roll surface which decreases the beam 4 at the point of incidence = z/r

_{0}while the reflected beam 7 impinges on the X-axis at an angle

_{2}which is determined by the slope of the

_{2}normal 8 to the surface, and normal forms a right angle with the tangent line 9 to the roll surface.It is evident from Fig.3 it follows that the deviation () of the tangent to the real surface from the tangent to the ideal form leads to the deviation of the normal

_{2}to the surface from normal

_{n}to the ideal surface and thereby to the deviation (x) of the beam on the Z-axis, while the dependence of the algorithm is

< / BR>

where

Y

_{0}(z)

_{n}(z) - current beam position to the ideal shape of the surface.Substituting (5) into (4), we obtain the desired shape of the wheelset

< / BR>

moreover, the magnitude of x(z/r

_{0}) is found from the expression for the signal (1) using the calculated trajectories of the beam x

_{r}(z).In Fig.4 presents the calculated trajectory 10 rays m-th fan for a ideal shape of the surface of the wheel, and tractor and X locations L photodetectors. Figure 13 corresponds to the sequence of pulses photodetectors for the case of perfect shape and figure 14 for the case of a defect on the surface of the ski, and time intervals between pulses of graphs 13, 14 are determined uniquely by the intersection points of the curves 10, 11 with direct X=x

_{i}(l) determining the position of the photodetectors.For detecting surface defects of a known type the entire recovery procedure of the surface shape by the formulas (5), (6) is not mandatory and can be significantly simplified. In particular, for the surface in the absence of defects, the sequence (1) pulse sensors, Fig.4, item 13, is a comb almost equidistant pulses. Entering the measurement area of the defect type of slider leads to a local change of the pulse repetition rate (almost twice), i.e. the problem of detecting of the slide is reduced to the detection of a pulse packet of double frequency, and the length of the stack determines the magnitude of the defect.The recall accuracy of the surface shape by the formula (6) is determined by the information capacity of the signals of the photodetectors, i.e., precision measurement of time intervals and the number of points on the surface of the wheel, in which OS the inspection of defects z = 8 mm, that is sufficient to identify the defect.For implementing the inventive method it is advisable to use the device for controlling the running surface of the wheel shown in Fig.5.The device includes a measuring rail 15, which moves the wheel 1, is identical to the optical measuring units 16, each of which contains a light source 17 and the photodetector 5, the optical axis which intersect the optical axis of the corresponding source 17 at different points of this axis. On the optical axis of each light source 17 is installed diffraction grating 18, the strokes of which is perpendicular to the rail 15, and the angular field of view of the photodetectors comprises a continuous range of angles of arrival of all beams generated by the grating 18 and reflected from the surface of the wheel 1.Included in the electronic device, the signal processing unit 19, with its input connected to the outputs of the photodetectors 5, contains connected in series measuring time intervals 20 and the computing device 22 analysis of signals and displaying information.The inventive device operates as follows. The light sources 17 emit M parallel light beams of the bogie angles to the rail 15, equal =

_{0}+n, n=N/2, N/2, where is the diffraction angle defined by the array spacing, and all rays fans lie in the plane of movement of the wheel 1. Thus a static raster consisting of NM beam, and the length of the raster along the rail 15 is equal to the perimeter of the circle skating wheels 1.During the movement of the wheel 1 along the rail 15 each (n, m)-th beam raster is reflected from the corresponding area of the tread surface of the wheel 1 and is consistently falls on the photodetector 5 corresponding optical block 16, because the trajectory of the reflected rays pass through the aperture of the photodetector, and their angular field of view covers a continuous range of angles of arrival of all beams generated by the grating 18. The output signals of the photodetectors 5, described by expression 4, come on measuring time intervals 20 of the electronic unit 19, the signal from which is fed to the input computing device 21. The computing device 21 calculates the surface shape in accordance with the expression (6), or performs the signal analysis in order to identify its parameters corresponding to a particular defect.The claimed device can be implemented using standard lamentablemente 5 - photodiodes type LFD-256 in combination with optical elements, first of all, lenses and electronic components - amplifiers and power supplies. As the diffraction grating 18 can be used multipliers that are designed to receive up to N=11 diffraction orders equal intensity. These gratings are fabricated on glass using standard technology. As an electronic signal processing unit 19 can be used computer type IBM PC software for calculation by the formula (6) is connected to the electronic circuit Board of measuring time intervals of 20 based on chip counters.Measuring rail 15 on which are mounted the optical units 16 can have holes in the rail head for the passage of the rays, you can use the rail head with a fully or partially so removed the side surface in the field of optical blocks.Thus, the task of reducing the time of inspection when inspecting the wheels of the rolling stock in motion by using information about the defects of the wheelset, which is manifested in the deviation of the surface shape of the roll surface of the wheel when driving rail vehicles, based on the lighting at the time of measuring wheelset, Desk with photodetectors of the reflected light at the points of space and processing signals of the photodetectors, wherein the static form of raster M spaced along the direction of the rays fans, with each fan form N rays emanating from the same point from different angles, record the reflected rays using M L photodetectors, all rays from the same fan sequentially register each of the L photodetectors, measure the time intervals between M N L responses of the sensors and calculate the parameters of the deviation of the surface shape of the wheel from the reference by comparing the measured time intervals with known distribution of time intervals for the reference form.2. Device for controlling the running surface of the wheel when driving rail vehicles containing optical measuring unit comprising a light source and photodetectors, and electronic signal processing unit, connected to the outputs of photodetectors, characterized in that the device has entered the measuring rail, at least one identical to the first optical Izberite less than the length of the circle skating wheels on the optical axis of each light source mounted diffraction grating, the strokes of which is perpendicular to the measuring rail, and the angular field of view of each of the photodetector of the optical measuring unit covers a continuous range of angles of arrival of all beams formed by the diffraction grating and reflected from the surface of the wheel, and an electronic signal processing unit contains connected in series measuring time intervals and computing device.

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