The method of determining the degree of heterogeneity of the polymer in the apparatus with stirrer
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the field of chemical technology of polymers and can be used in the manufacture of chemical fibers and plastics. How is that measured instantaneous values of molecular weight, pumping through the blades of the mixer weight of the polymer, in the apparatus. Define the parameters of the cycles of oscillation of molecular weight, its average value in cycles, speed of its change. Identify the functional dependence of the average molecular weight in cycles and speed of its change in time. Calculate the average molecular weight at any point in time and produce periodic changes in molecular weight over time. Define the integral relative abundance relative molecular mass in the cycle, which is judged on the degree of heterogeneity of the polymer in the apparatus with stirrer. The invention improves the accuracy of the measurements. 5 Il. The invention relates to the field of chemical technology of polymers and can be used in the manufacture of chemical fibers and plastics.Known methods of determining the size of the particles, based on the transformation aparatury.There is a method of determining the relationship of the mass of particles of the desired size to the total mass of the system measured particle .The disadvantage of this method is the impossibility of its application in process conditions, when the polymer mass is in motion, under pressure or under vacuum at a high temperature.The closest analogue is the way to control the uniformity of concrete mixtures, which consists in the fact that they measure the sound vibrations near the body of the mixer, highlight the intensity and spectrum of the measured vibrations, and about the homogeneity of the concrete mix is judged by matching the intensity and spectrum .The disadvantage of this method is the inaccuracy of the control of the homogeneity of the mass of polymer in the apparatus with a stirrer, the impossibility of determination of average molecular mass and speed of its change.An object of the invention is to improve the accuracy of control, the extension of functionality through pumping weight of the polymer through the blades of the mixer, the selection of a unipolar component characterizing the average molecular weight, as a function of reflecting the dependence of the change of power of the motor mesalc CLASS="ptx2">The problem is solved by the proposed method.Mixing is mandatory and an integral part of technological processes in the production of most polymers, plastics in the polycondensation process or other processes.Weight G, which is in the apparatus with stirrer, coming in translational and rotational motion, is pumped through the blades of the mixer L, as shown in Fig. 1.When this friction, collision of particles and molecular weight of the polymer between them, with the blades of the agitator, with the body of the device takes the power of the motor D agitators.A certain amount of mix mass in contact with the blades of the stirrer at a certain point in time1having a molecular weight M1, corresponds to the required power P1 of the motor agitators.In the next moment2on the blades of the mixer gets the amount of polymer with a molecular mass of M2, for example, greater than M1, so the power of the motor of the mixer is increased to P2.The direction of movement of the mass G of the polymer of Fig. 1 is shown by an arrow. The process of pumping the weight G of the polymer through the blades of the mixer is continuously tsiklicheskaya in the process of mixing power oscillations of the electric motor stirrer, depending on the magnitude of the molecular weight of the polymer, analyze the intensity and spectrum, determine the amplitude and frequency of the harmonics, duration (periods) cycles T1, T2, Tn-1...,Tn, Tn+1their half-periods t1, t2,... tn-1, tn, tn+1average per cycles values of molecular weight MC1, MC2,..., MCn-1, MCn, MCn+1corresponding moments in timeC1,W2,..,CPU-1,CPU,CPU+1average values of the velocity V changes, such as increase of molecular weight equal to
V1,2= 2(T2- MC1)/(T1+ T2);
Vn-1,n= 2(Tn- MCn-1)/(Tn-1+ Tn);
Vn,n+1= 2(Tn+1- MCn)/(Tn+ Tn+1);
according to average values of molecular weight MC1, MC2, MCn-1, MCn, MCn+1the periods of cycles T1, T2... Tn-1, Tn, Tn+1and average values of the rate of change of molecular weight of V1,2,...Vn-1,nVn,n+1identify the functional dependence of the average molecular weight MC of time MC= f() and the average speed of its change in time
V = (),
calculate the average molecular weight in localarray mass from time M = M = f() (curve 1) subtract the dependence of the average molecular weight in time MC= f() (curve 2), thus obtaining the periodic component of Mlane= () changes in molecular weight with time (Fig. 3).For each time point in each cycle, for example, in cycle n, calculate the ratio of receiving the dependence of the relative values of molecular weight with time (Fig. 4).Considering that during the cycle, in this case, Tnthrough the blades of the mixer is pumped through the whole mass of polymer (G, occupying a volume Q of the device, determine the integral relative abundance relative molecular mass value in the volume Q of the apparatus, and the relative volume of the total weight of the polymer is equal to unity (Fig. 5). On the integral relative content relative molecular mass value judgments about the heterogeneity of the polymer in the apparatus with stirrer.Thus, the proposed method allows to determine the end of the process, to intensify and optimize it, to determine the causes of heterogeneity and suggest ways in which influence.Bibliographic list
1. Patent 510165 (USSR). The method of determining the ratio of the mass of particles of the desired size to the total mass of the IP system is idealisti 1629205 (USSR) Way to control the homogeneity of the concrete mix / Blaivas and other Publ. in B, 1991, No. 7. The method of determining the degree of heterogeneity of the polymer in the apparatus with stirrer, including the selection intensity and spectrum of the measured fluctuations of the molecular weight, characterized in that the measured instantaneous values of molecular weight by pumping through the blades of the mixer weight of the polymer, in the apparatus, determine the parameters of the cycles of oscillation of molecular weight, its average value in cycles, the rate of its change, identify the functional dependence of the average molecular weight in cycles and speed of its change in time, calculate the average molecular weight at any point in time, produce periodic changes in molecular weight over time, define the integral relative abundance relative molecular mass in the cycle, which is judged on the degree of heterogeneity of the polymer in the apparatus with stirrer.
FIELD: method and apparatus for measuring viscosity of liquids, namely "in vivo" measurements of blood viscosity of living beings in wide range of shear coefficients.
SUBSTANCE: system and methods provide monitoring of change of height of two moving in opposite directions blood columns of circulating blood of patient at known size of capillary tube in which blood flows and determination of blood viscosity in certain range of shear coefficients, namely at small shear coefficients. System includes set of tubes (for single or multiple use) having pair of rising tubes and one predetermined-size capillary tube mutually coupling two rising tubes and arranged between them (or forming part of one rising tube), valve mechanism for controlling flow of circulating blood from patient to rising tubes. Respective pickups provide monitoring of blood column motion in each rising tube. Microprocessor connected to said pickups performs analysis of said motions while taking into account size of capillary tube in order to determine viscosity of circulating blood of patient. In variant of invention only one blood column is monitored and simultaneously certain point along height of other blood column is detected. According to such data and size of capillary tube, viscosity of blood is determined.
EFFECT: improved design of apparatus, enhanced accuracy of measuring blood viscosity.
115 cl, 30 dwg
FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.
SUBSTANCE: viscosimeter comprises the system for loading and supplying the fluid to be tested, which is made of injector for supplying precisely batched air to the cylindrical sleeve through the tree-way cock, which is connected to the capillary pipe via the three-way cock, and volumetric flask connected with the differential pressure gauge through the three-way cock. The injector, cylindrical sleeve, and volumetric flask have equal diameters and volumes. The fluid to be tested is displaced from the cylindrical sleeve through the capillary pipe to the volumetric flask.
EFFECT: simplified structure and method of making.
FIELD: technology for measuring purposeful changes of physical-chemical properties of water and water solutions, subjected to energy-information effect, can be utilized for measuring of activation level of broad class of liquids (distillate, any water solutions, physical solutions), processed by any energy-information sources.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method for determining level of activation of liquid includes performing comparison of speeds of let-through of activated and non-activated liquids through a system of capillary with diameter d≤10 micrometers and length l, satisfying conditions in expression 10d ≤ l ≤ 1000d.
EFFECT: realization of capability for measuring level of activation of liquids under effect from any energy-information sources, not only magnetic field; possible measurement of any liquids (distillate, physical solutions and etc) without preliminary preparation.
FIELD: measuring technique.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises pumping the liquid crystal from one tank to another under the action of the excess pressure through a flat capillary whose walls orient the molecules of the liquid crystal with respect to the direction of the flow, which is different for measuring different values of viscosity, measuring intensity of light passing through the layer of liquid crystal in crossed polaroids, finding the time dependence of the phase lag, determining the characteristic time of the flow from the results obtained, and calculating the viscosity. To obtain four different values of viscosity, the procedure is repeated four times for four different capillaries. The device comprises four flat capillaries with various initial orientations in the basic part of the capillary and homeotropic orientation in the remainder part of the capillary which is used for precise measurements.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy and reduced sizes.
4 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method is performed in two capillaries, viscosity of an investigated liquid is determined according its movement against reference one. Preliminary place capillaries at an angle to horizon and define height of a capillary raising of a reference liquid in the field of gravity and height of a capillary raising of an investigated liquid in the field of gravity. Then place the case horizontally, measure the length of simultaneous spread of reference and investigated liquids along the horizontal capillaries using the measuring tape. Define relative kinematic viscosity from mathematics.
EFFECT: augmentation of a range and rising of reliability of measurements, possibility of an estimation of liquid tension factor.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises capillary fastened at the bottom of intake vessel comprising piston with rod, two limit switches, DC reversing motor and power supply. Cylindrical intake vessel comprises additionally movable platform coupled with piston rod and fixed platform. The latter accommodate force pickups and shutter that close the limit switch contacts representing hermetic contacts, DC motor RPM control unit. The latter incorporates nut arranged between taper plain bearings and set of gear wheels. One of the latter accommodates optocoupler, force pickup with universal data control and processing unit comprising RPM control circuit. Proposed device comprises also viscosity display and power supply.
EFFECT: high-accuracy viscosimetre.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: method involves sampling and thermostatting of oil sample, lowering of calibrated capillary sample, measurement of oil rise height per fixed time period on calibrated capillary, determination of age of oil spill by comparing oil sample rise height on this capillary per fixed time with calibrated height level for specimens of fresh oil of the same kind.
EFFECT: development of simple, reliable and cheap method for determining the age of spilt oil, which is applied both in stationary laboratory conditions, and as a part of movable laboratories, and in field conditions.
2 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: vibration metre of flow for determination of viscosity of flow material consists of metering unit, of replaceable diaphragm in first pipeline of flow and of electronics of metre configured for reception of first vibration output signal and second vibration output signal, determination of density (ρ), determination of first and second mass flow rate from first and second vibration output signal and for determination of viscosity of flow material from density (ρ), first mass flow rate (m1) and second mass flow rate (m2). The metering unit includes a common drive, the first pipeline of flow and the second pipeline of flow. Also, the common drive is configured to generate simultaneous vibration of the first pipeline of flow and second pipeline of flow to form the first vibration output signal in the first pipeline of flow and simultaneously to form the second vibration output signal in the second pipeline of flow, to form density (ρ) of material of flow, to form the first mass flow rate (m1) for the first pipeline of flow and the second mass flow rate (m2) for the second pipeline of flow.
EFFECT: expanded range of viscosities with facilitation of accurate measurement.
32 cl, 10 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of determining viscosity of non-Newtonian liquids, involving their pumping through a channel, calculating flow per second and stream average velocity based on measured data, characterised by that viscosity of non-Newtonian liquids is determined using the expression where: ηw is the viscosity of water (Newtonian liquid), Pa·s; ηs is viscosity of a suspension (non-Newtonian liquid), Pa·s; is the stream average velocity of water (Newtonian liquid), based on measurements, m·s-1; is the stream average velocity of the water suspension (non-Newtonian liquid), based on measurements m·s-1. Viscosity of water (Newtonian liquid) is used based on reference data.
EFFECT: simple method of determining viscosity by using input data in form of widely known rheological parameters of water, which is the basic component of analysed suspensions.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: method to measure anisotropic coefficients of viscosity of liquid crystals, includes a procedure of measured substance pumping from one reservoir to another one under action of excessive pressure via a flat capillary, to the walls of which there are transparent electrodes applied, and aligning layers from a light-sensitive material, which may set for molecules of liquid crystals (LC) serially 3 different orientations relative to direction of the flow, when the light-sensitive material is exposed to actinic linearly polarised light with three directions of the polarisation plane (PP). The fourth orientation of LC required to measure the fourth viscosity coefficient is created by application of electric voltage. When excessive pressure is developed in one of reservoirs, the LC flow arises, slowly dropping exponentially. The LC meniscus height reduction speed is measured related to time under various orientations, the exponential curve is built, the characteristic time of flow is found under one of LC orientations, and using it, one of viscosity coefficients is calculated. For measurements of other viscosity coefficients, light sensitive layers are exposed to light with other PP directions without removal of the LC from the capillary. Again excessive pressure is created, new drop curves are built, new characteristic times are found, and other viscosity coefficients are calculated.
EFFECT: increased accuracy of measurements and reduced consumption of a measured substance.
2 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: fur industry, in particular, method for evaluating pickling quality of leather web in tanning of fur and sheepskin raw material.
SUBSTANCE: method involves providing testing on parallel groups of fur sheepskin after pickling on three topographic portions of sheep skin surface: skirt, spine and neck portions; processing samples of each group with acid-salt solution for 24 hours; withdrawing sheepskins of each group from acid-salt solution in predetermined time intervals; removing excessive liquid; placing said samples into tensile testing machine and stretching lengthwise of spine line by 40% relative to initial length thereof; holding samples in stretched state for 1 min and withdrawing from tensile-testing machine; leaving samples in free state for 10 min; determining residual elongation value in mm.
EFFECT: reduced time for determining quantitative pickling characteristic of skin web.
2 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: fur industry, in particular, method for evaluating pickling quality of leather web in tanning of fur and sheepskin raw material.
SUBSTANCE: method involves determining quantitative pickling characteristic of leather web of semi-finished product by using time of solving thereof in alkaline solutions, said time depending on number and kind of intermolecular bindings destructed during pickling. Solving of collagen in alkaline solutions depends upon nature of preliminary acidic preparing procedure. Solving is provided in aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide having concentration of 150 g/l and temperature of 18-20 C. Derma solving time is found after preliminary thermal processing at temperature of 60-65 C during 1.5 hours. Method may be employed both in production of fur and sheepskin products and in fur processing.
EFFECT: wider operational capabilities and reduced time for determining quantitative pickling characteristic of skin web.
1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: methods and devices for determination of an alcohol concentration in solutions.
SUBSTANCE: the invention presents a method of determination of an alcohol concentration in solutions (versions) and a device for its realization (versions). The first version of the method provides for placement of a bath with the reference and investigated solutions on the path of the optical beam, measuring and introduction into the memory of the computation unit of intensity of the light absorption by the reference solutions, measuring of the intensity of the light absorption of radiation of the investigated solution, processing the data of the measurements of the light absorption. The investigated solution is transilluminated within the range of the wavelengths of 1250-1350 nanometers. Simultaneously with the measurement of the light absorption by the investigated solution measure the concentration of alcohol in it. In compliance with the received values determine a concentration of alcohol in the investigated solution. The second version of the method provides for placement of a bath with the reference solutions and investigated solutions on the path of the optical beam, measurement and introduction into the memory of the calculation device of intensity of the light absorption of radiation by the investigated solution, processing of the received values of the measurements of the light absorption. The investigated solution is transilluminated within the range of the wavelengths of 1250-1350 nanometers, measure the values of density of the reference solutions and the investigated solution, using which determine the concentrations of alcohol and sugar in the investigated solution. The device for the first version contains a computation unit, a conjunction unit, optically coupled a radiating unit, a bath for solution, a measuring photoreceiving device, the output of which is connected through the conjugation unit with the computation unit and the input of which is optically connected through the bath with the radiating unit. The device for measurement of a concentration of sugar in a solution consists of a beam splitter plate and an additional photoreceiving device, the output of which is connected through the conjugation unit with the computation unit. The input of which is optically connected through the beam splitter plate mounted at Brewster's angle to a axis of radiation and the bath with by a radiation unit. And the radiation unit has the wavelength of radiation laying within the range of 1250-1350 nanometers. The device for determination of a concentration of alcohol in the solutions consists of the computation unit, the conjugation unit, the optically connected radiation unit, the bath for solution, the measuring photoreceiving device, output of which is connected through the conjugation unit with the computation unit, the density gage connected with the bath by means of the pipe duct. The output of the density gage is connected through the conjugation unit with the computation unit. The radiation unit has the wavelength of radiation laying within the range from 1250 to 1350 nanometers. The invention allows to improve accuracy of measurements.
EFFECT: the invention ensures an improved accuracy of measurements.
12 cl, 5 dwg