The method of fastening the mouth of the mine shaft in permafrost

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to mining and can be used when attaching and supporting shaft. The method of fastening the mouth of the mine shaft includes drilling, maintaining the contact posts - rock the phase transition temperature, the formation of seasonal freezing Laporte cylinder around the trunk. The casing of lead composite insulating layer, satisfying the requirement of strong fastening shaft, mounting shaft furniture and insulation. thermal resistance for the composite insulating layer is not less than 2 m2K/W. Drilling for installation of cooling devices are at a distance of 2 - 3 m from each other, and it should not exceed twice the distance from the cooling device to contact the support - breed. With the circuit arrangement of cooling devices are drilling wells and installing piles for tower erection and building copra education ventilated underground between the winter surface and the bottom part of copra. The invention allows for reliable operation at full life. 3 C.p. f-crystals, 11 ill.

The invention relates to mining, namely oderjanie shaft, covered in permafrost rocks, for example, in underground development of Yakut diamonds.

The upper part of the kimberlite pipes of the Yakut diamond fields passes through the thickness of sedimentary rocks, represented by marls, siltstones, limestones, clayey dolomite, mineral salts and other rocks of sedimentary origin. The rocks are highly fractured. To a depth of 300 m and more can be traced permafrost. Ice content is estimated at 10-20%. The natural state of permafrost in rock strength up to 6 MPa.

When thawed, the majority of rocks breaks up Gruss, which greatly reduces the strength of the array, in addition it contains a lot of water in the form of brine with a salinity 25-35 g/l, predetermining its instability.

Modern technology requires, in underground development of deposits, opening to make trunks with a diameter of 5-9 m, which are equipped with high-speed cutting and heavy crates, large-diameter pipelines for drainage, compressed air, backfill material, etc., All of the above is mounted on the reinforcement of the trunk, mounted on the support, that is certainly the particular guide elements of lifting equipment.

According to the rules of operation of the shaft, provided with lifting equipment, to avoid freezing rails and lifting vessels shall be operated at temperatures below +2oC. Usually, these trunks are the air supply for ventilation of the mine. And through the auxiliary and the ventilation shafts is the issue of exhaust air, which due to the heat of the earth and manufacturing processes for the extraction of the mineral is heated to +5oC and more.

Due to the movement of warm air in the shaft is rock thawing around the lining of the shaft.

In addition, be aware that over the mouth of the mine shaft is mounted the engine with lifting mechanisms and support building with auxiliary devices. From the stability of the fastening of copra and support the building above the mouth of the shaft depends on safe and trouble-free operation of mining enterprises in General.

When designing fastening the mouth of the mine shaft in permafrost is especially necessary to take into account all the above.

There is a method of shaft sinking operations, including drilling freezing of wells (see and.with. N 1011864, CL E 21 D 1/12), installation in wells zi the casing, and when the rock excavation and the casing on the contour of the barrel keep the temperature from 0oC to -4oC.

A disadvantage of the known technical solution is the lack of techniques and processes maintain the temperature on the contour of the shaft.

As well known method of thermal insulation of the mine workings, including the application of insulation in the lining or wall framing (see and.with. N 1412407, CL E 21 D 11/38), starting from its mouth, and part of the insulating layer as a filler injected expanded perlite sand, the content of which as the distance from the mouth of the production decrease with a corresponding increase in the maintenance of normal sand, besides the content of the filler in the insulating layer varies along the perimeter of production is proportional to the temperature rocks from the excavation contour.

The disadvantage of this technical solution is the limited capability of securing mining.

Expanded perlite sand and concrete, obtained on its basis, have a significant conductivity, which causes the need for large temperature differences can have a large thickness of the insulating layer. Furthermore, the method does not sushnosti is a method of construction of the shaft unstable in water-saturated rocks.with. N 804838, CL E 21 D 1/12, bull. 6, 1981), including zonal frosting, driving and fastening of the barrel, the thawing of frozen rocks, sinking and erecting tower copra, equipping him for sinking and regulation of verticality, and at first erect the tower Koper, then simultaneously with the freezing of water-saturated rocks Koper equip for shaft sinking, and after completion of shaft sinking, in the process of thawing of frozen rocks, adjust the vertical position of the trunk and, in addition, the adjustment of the vertical position of copra can make feed brine in places uneven settlement of Foundation copra.

The disadvantage of this method is the unresolved issue of maintaining the trunk in working condition during operation in severe climatic conditions with respect to location of the Yakut diamond deposits in permafrost.

The objective of the proposed technical solution is the creation of a method of construction fastening the mouth of the mine shaft in mnogoletnemerzlyh rocks and ensuring reliable operation at full life.

The problem is solved as follows.

The casing of lead composite teploizol efficient thermal resistance for the composite insulating layer should be not less than 2 m2K/W.

< / BR>
where

h is the layer thickness, m;

- coefficient of thermal conductivity layer, W/m K.

Drilling for installation of cooling devices (OS) are at a distance of 2-3 m from each other and it should not exceed twice the distance from the shelter to contact the support-breed. The freezing using OS form a continuous ldapsortkey cylinder around the shaft. For the path location of the shelter drilling of wells for placement of Foundation piles and set the piles on which are mounted bearings and building copra education ventilated underground between the earth's surface and the lower part of the building copra. In addition to the contact posts of the breed can be installed temperature sensors control the operation of the shelter. And yet what additional path the OS can enclose the support copra tent type. In addition to the fact that the additional circuit of the shelter wall total pile field under the building copra tower.

Significant differences of the proposed technical solutions are:

- The casing of lead composite insulating layer, satisfy the strong demand of its fixing, mounting shaft furniture and insulation.

This t is the tubing, monolithic reinforced concrete, etc. with a good solid backing and connection with rocks and thereby provide a reliable basis for the installation of this lining reinforcement of the trunk with the guide cages and skips, as well as fixing various pipelines. All this will ensure reliable operation of the trunk from the point of view. Secondly, the composite insulating layer has elements of thermal insulation. Moreover, the elements of the insulation does not deteriorate from the point of view of strength, workability lining and carry only the load of the insulation of the shaft and can be made of special insulation material, not missing the heat for thawing of the permafrost around the lining.

- The total thermal resistance of the composite insulating layer should be not less than 2 m2K/W.

This solution allows through engineering calculations for specific operating conditions to determine the size of the elements, insulation materials and the overall dimensions of the composite insulation layer to ensure reliable heat insulation permafrost in the 2-3 m from each other and it should not exceed twice the distance from the shelter to contact the support-breed.

This solution is obtained on the basis of analysis of experience of the use of freezing devices and thermal calculations. The minimum number of wells is determined from the maximum distance between the shelter within 2-3 m in which is formed a continuous ldapsortkey cylinder around the trunk, fully absorbent pile field Foundation copra. Recommended distances 2 and 3 m between the OS in a row obtained on the basis of special thermophysical calculations, from which it follows that a homogeneous temperature field between the OS is obtained at the temperature of freezing of the liquid-10-15oC at the distance of 2 m and at a temperature of 20-25oC - 3 m

To prevent hard temperature effects on the lining of the trunk at a distance of contour lining-rock should not exceed twice the distance between the shelter.

- Freezing form a continuous ldapsortkey cylinder around the shaft.

This solution allows with minimal expenditure of energy to freeze the soil through the seasonal freezing device (SDA). Work only during the period when the temperature of atmospheric air is cooled below the temperature of the soil. Work mineralnych and organic salts. Air SDA preferable for the following reasons: because of the potential operational impact on the quality Pomorski (due to the increase in fan power) and ecological purity, which is especially important for the mouths of the intake trunks.

For the path location of the shelter drilling of wells for placement of Foundation piles, installing piles, which are mounted bearings and building copra.

This solution allows you to place the pile field, shielded from passing along the shaft of thermal air flow through the insulating layer to contact the support-breed and solid Laporte cylinder created by the OS that ensures the integrity of the permafrost and reliable operation of pile Foundation supports copra and under the building copra.

In addition, to reduce the effect of seasonal thawing under the building copra are ventilated underground. Observations have shown that the depth of summer thawing under buildings with ventilated basements typically 20-40% less compared to the depth of thawing on open platforms, OS increases this figure to 60-80%.

- Contact support-breed ustanovke monitor zone temperature phase transition, Tf= 0oC to -2oC, thawed soil in frozen sediments. Temperature -2oC is caused by water, presents saturated solutions of mineral salts. When the temperature deviation from setpoint, according to the indications of the sensors, produce respectively enable or disable the OS, which can be ensured automatically by the system or can be performed manually, directly from the remote control. Temperature, to some extent, the same can be adjusted by changing the heat passing through the mine air.

Surgery in the state of temperature of the breed about lining ensures reliable operation during operation of the mine.

- Additional path from the shelter can protect piles each support copra tent type.

It is known that for SDA air type maximum depth is 15 m Temperature phase transition for saline rocks equals -2oC zone with higher temperature respectively are melted.

Studies have found that when one ring OS, surrounding the barrel, to keep in working condition mineralized rocks supports copra not Udet the pile continues to grow at the expense of reduced reliance on the part of the Foundation piles. For mineralized rocks need additional Primorska soil below the pile base supports copra, i.e. you want to install additional ring OS around bushes pile supports copra tent type.

This solution and ensures reliable operation of pile foundations supports copra tent type in mineralized rocks.

Additional contour OS can protect a total pile field under the building copra tower.

Studies found that this solution is only necessary when permafrost is impregnated with a solution of saturated mineral salts (see the explanation of the previous paragraph).

Additional contour OS provides reliable operation of the piles under the building copra tower in permafrost, soaked in a solution of mineral salts.

The essence of the proposed technical solutions

The method of fastening the mouth of the mine shaft in permafrost soils takes into account the diffusion of heat from the movement of warm air to the shaft, with the influence of the free surface in the presence of cooling devices, installed in the rock mass around-ear, closed Rovaniemi them in the shelter, because their diameter is much less than the diameter of the shaft, are point sinks of heat, are located at the same distance from the axis of the barrel and "smeared" on some cylindrical surface. Above are the conditions and assumptions in calculations, justification of parameters of elements of the technical solution designs and processes.

The surface of the shaft is fixed composite insulating layer. Composite insulating layer provides mechanical strength of fixing the walls of the barrel supports on which are mounted the reinforcement of the trunk with the necessary strength and resistance with insulation elements. Due to the elements of the insulation lining has the required thermal resistance.

Engineering method of calculation of composite insulation layer under the given operational parameters allows you to get on the path lining-rock temperature phase transition pore moisture from the 0oC to -2oC.

Around the trunk at a certain distance from each other in wells instal the OS with the formation of Laporte cylinder. A specific radius host and the inclusion mode OS provides minimal is ur OS drilling of wells, where are the piles for support of hip copra and building copra. Additionally piles for support of Koper and building copra in permafrost rocks soaked in brine mineral salts, fenced additional circuit OS. And so the fact that an additional path shelter shield total pile field under the building copra tower, when permafrost is soaked in brine mineral soy.

All the above allows to securely fix the mouth of the mine shaft and to maintain it in working condition full life.

Thus, the proposed method of fastening the mouth of the mine shaft in permafrost has elements of industrial novelty and usefulness.

An example of using the method of fastening the mouth of the mine shaft shown on concepts: Fig. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10, where

Fig. 1 - schematic diagram of the method of fastening the mouth of the mine shaft in permafrost - vertical section (use case copra tent type);

Fig. 2 - the same, the plane of the surface of the mouth of the mine shaft;

Fig. 3 - the same, the plane of the surface of the mouth of the mine shaft, the option of using copra tower type;

Fig. 4 - the heat-insulating concrete tubing and backing concrete (keramzitobetona);

Fig. 5 - node a (Fig. 1), embodiment of monolithic reinforced concrete, filling keramzitobetona (concrete), with the inner surface of the reinforced concrete covered with pangasianodon, protected by a metal mesh, shotcrete;

Fig. 6 - node a (Fig. 1), embodiment of a reinforced tubing with backing by keramzitobetona (concrete), with the inner surface of the reinforced concrete covered with pangasianodon (foam), protected by a metal mesh, shotcrete;

Fig. 7 - node a (Fig. 1), a variant of the fastening iron tubing and filling keramzitobetona (concrete);

Fig. 8 - node a (Fig. 1), a variant of execution of monolithic concrete and rubble of keramzitobetona;

Fig. 9 - node a (Fig. 1), embodiment of a monolithic keramzitobetona with the reinforcement metal inner shell lining;

Fig. 10 is a schematic diagram of the mouth of the barrel with a map of isotherms.

The mouth of the shaft 1, the wall, fasten the composite insulation layer 2, the contact posts of-breed 3 installing the temperature sensor 4 (Fig. 1). Around the shaft 1, on the ring, at a distance of 2-3 m from each other drilling of wells with diameter of 0.3 m to accommodate cooling devices (OS) 5. For circuit PRA tent type 9 and piling of the building. When the shaft is equipped with Koper tower type, with circuit 6 obrivaetsa series of wells, forming a pile field 10 (Fig. 3).

On pile Foundation building mounted copra 9 education ventilated underground 11 (Fig. 1) between the surface and the bottom part of the drop-hammer building.

When the water in permafrost presents brines with a high content of mineral salts, to increase the reliability of the 2 piles each foot must be surrounded by additional circuit 12 from the shelter (Fig. 2).

When the equipment shaft tower Koper in the rocks, with mineralized brines, additional circuit 13 is protected all pile field (Fig. 3).

Composite insulating layer 2 (Fig. 1) provides the mechanical strength of the fixing barrel walls a support on which is mounted the reinforcement of the trunk with the necessary strength and resistance with insulation elements, due to which it has the required thermal resistance.

Fig. 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 shows embodiments of the composite insulating layer.

In Fig. 4 embodiment of the special insulation of zhelezobetonich 14 consists of a supporting body 16, made of reinforced concrete with a thickness of 100-200 mm, which perceives (when the movement of lifting vessels, mountain blows) all static and dynamic loads. Corps of sixteen adjacent tubing rigidly interconnected and form a solid monolithic glass, the Foundation supports mine.

On the housing 16 by means of reinforced concrete ribs 17 and the outer sheath 18 is formed by the cavity 19, which fill insulating material, for example, pangasianodon.

The thickness of the concrete ribs 17 and the outer sheath 18 is small (about 15-25 mm). The size of the cavity 19 and is filled with insulation material are the main thermal resistance and can be calculated.

In Fig. 5 shows an embodiment of a monolithic glass 20 which receives the static and dynamic loads on the lining.

The inner surface of a monolithic glass 20 is covered with pangasianodon 21, protected by a metal mesh, shotcrete 22.

Penghasilan 21 may be made in the form of special tubing that when mounting the fixed mesh and anchor bolts. The main thermal resistance in this embodiment is a coating of penobetonnye tubing 23 with the backing keramzitobetona 15 (concrete), the internal surface is covered with foam 24 (pangasianodon), protected by a metal mesh and shotcrete 22. The main thermal resistance in this case is the layer of foam 24, the thickness of which is determined by calculation.

In Fig. 7 shows the embodiment of a cast-iron tubing 25 with the backing expanded clay 15.

The main thermal resistance in this case is limited layer zabudovaneho clay 15. For reliable operation of the glass lining, made of iron tubing 25, the rigid connection between itself and the reliable backing between the breed. The clay due to its porosity does not provide a secure backing, especially at large thicknesses.

In Fig. 8 shows an embodiment of a monolithic concrete 20 with the backing keramzitobetona 15. This version also limited the possibility of creating thermal resistance.

In Fig. 9 shows the embodiment of a monolithic keramzitobetona with the reinforcement metal inner shell lining 26.

In this embodiment, there are limited possibilities of the bearing capacity of the lining, so it can be used for ventilation shafts, where Eint execution of the composite insulating layer.

The total thermal resistance for the composite insulation layer should not be less than 2 m2K/W.

The lower limit of 2 m2K/W due to a minimum value of insulation where possible the use of this lining to reduce heat around the barrel of the rocks.

The upper limit is determined only by economic considerations at the expense of insulating material, reducing the diameter of the trunk when driving, etc.

Fig. 10 and 11 show a deep Primorsko grounds in winter (Fig. 10) and keep his frozen state during the summer.

The formulas and nomograms developed in the report on the research to optimize the parameters of the seasonal cooling devices, providing increased bearing capacity of the foundations koprov mine "World". - IGDS SB RAS. 1995", calculate the ratio and justification of the sizes of the elements included in the composite insulating layer.

As a seasonal cooling devices 5 (SDA) can be used in devices with forced and natural Convention of the refrigerant, and the phase condition of air, liquid and liquid pumps, and natural - due to the temperature difference between ambient air and the cooling of the array. The working substance in the air installations serve directly the atmospheric air, in a liquid - kerosene solutions of mineral salts, and vapor-liquid - boiling liquid (ammonia, freon, propane).

The greatest distribution to strengthen the frozen grounds finds application automatically operating kerosene refrigeration plants.

Compared with other methods of cooling the strengthening of frozen grounds are automatically applicable in winter cooling equipment is more cost effective because it allows during operation of installations in the winter time to accumulate cold in the earth's crust that does not require additional costs. It should however be noted that due to possible leakage of kerosene from cooling devices, this method is not environmentally safe. The use of air SDA, in which the coolant is cold atmospheric air, is environmentally friendly, which is especially important at the mouth of the shafts. The ground is frozen through coaxial speakers immersed in the drilled hole. Separate columns are connected with a duct through which Venia reliability freezing air systems applied design (schema) ducollectionneur system. Dvukhkoridornye system ensures uniform distribution of air ravnosilen columns without special adjustment, which distinguishes it from odnokletochnoi installation, in which each column set special regulating dampers. In addition, dvukhkoridornye system easier and more reliable sealed in the summer, because for this purpose it is necessary to mute only the inlet of the reservoir and does not require sealing of each column.

To assess thermal state of a rock mass around the mouth of the mine shaft, covered in permafrost soil, developed a mathematical model of the process of heat distribution around the shaft (which moves the flow of heated air +2oC and 7oC to 15oC taking into account the influence of the surface with a continental cold climate, during operation of the cooling device placed in the rock surrounding the shaft, which allows you to set the temperature distribution around the trunk at the respective values of the input parameters at any point in time and coordinates. As shown by a practical test with any degree of accuracy.

Due to the complexity of the occurring heat the Ana program MIRSIF" on the algorithmic language FORTRAN-77" computer type IBM PC AT/XT.

The implementation of the method of fastening the mouth of the mine shaft in permafrost is as follows.

Trunk light radius Ro=4 m covered in permafrost, for the following operating conditions:

coefficient of thermal conductivity of frozen rocks 2,34 W/moC;

the ratio of the heat capacity of frozen rocks 21,0 Vtst/m3oC;

the initial temperature of the rock - 0,6oC;

the air temperature TB= A + Bsin(wt + ), where A is the ratio of mean annual air temperature; AB= -7,4oC; B - coefficient of the amplitude of annual fluctuations. BB= 24,1oC; ratio of WB= 2P/365,2 = 0,01720242, the heat transfer coefficient of air in the barrel with the shield 6 W/m3oC;

- diameter wells to accommodate SDA - dk= 0,3 m

Pre-select run-composite heat-insulating layer - Fig. 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 (for example, a variant of the Fig. 5) determine the geometric dimensions of all incoming items and layer thickness at pre - (pre) specified thermal resistance 2 m2K/W. Knowing the thickness of the composite layer obtained from thermal resistance, find rasmita specific thermophysical data of the area of the trunk, on the well-known formulas produce thermophysical calculations and determine the distance between wells dkin which place of shelter, and is equal to 2 or 3 m, depending on coolant temperature.

In order to reduce the gradient of temperature in permafrost between the outer diameter of the barrel (contact the support-breed), and circuit 6 location of wells 5, under mounting SDA, this distance is taken equal to twice the distance between the wells 5. (Twice the distance was determined by analysis of the experimental and theoretical data).

The above allows to determine the radius of the path 6. Rk, location of wells 5, in this example, Rk= 8,2 m Well 5 to host OS Buryats diameter 0.3 m When used as SDA air thermosyphons drilling depth up to 15 m, as at a depth of more than 15 m of the air sow not effective.

When using liquid and hydroidolina shelter depth of the wells is determined by the depth of freezing of the array.

For circuit 6 host OS 5 drilling of wells for placement of piles under 7 support and the building of copra. The distance between the pile wells 7 and is of ujani on long-term permafrost known technical solutions.

If permafrost is mineralized, the temperature of the phase transition, taking into account the salinity is set -1,8oC zone with higher temperature gradient are thawed. Research has shown that using the same OS, around the barrel, to keep in a healthy state the grounds under the pile supports copra 8 fails: the frozen core is too high, increasing the length of the piles pierce a kernel; bearing capacity of the pile continues to grow by reducing the resistance on the base of the piles. Calculations show the need for additional Pomorski soil under the pile supports copra, which impose additional circuit 12 (Fig. 2), i.e. drilled wells and installed additional OS.

When over the mouth of the mine shaft is mounted tower Koper, to perform these works being an integer field 10 wells (Fig. 3). When drilling field wells 10 in saline frozen soils to ensure reliable operation of the Foundation drilled wells additional circuit 13 (Fig. 3) to accommodate freezing of the OS.

When a positive thermal conditions being pumped into the mine air during operation of the trunk condition, fully warranty the ω space. This is ensured by maintaining the frozen state of the rocks around the shaft and the contact of the composite insulation layer and rocks near the phase transition temperature (T).

The parameters of the composite insulation layer, its heat resistance, the radius of the location, number and mode on-off shelter provide minimum deviation of the temperature at the contact posts of the breed, that is, the phase transition temperature of the pore water.

In the winter about circuit 6 OS covered ldapsortkey cylinder with low temperature (see Fig. 10). OS 5 works in the automatic mode. For example, the trunk moves air with a temperature of +5oC, the temperature on and off the OS -1oC mode is set by calculation on the basis of mathematical models, and can also be obtained experimentally during operation). Thus the temperature of thermal sensor 4 should be close to the transition temperature T = 0o.C.

In the practical work of the JMA aircraft type should be measured the temperature of the charge air and air to the exhaust. JMA operates in the correct mode, if the temperature wihle the ode is supported by "cold", accumulated during the winter period (Fig. 10). If thermal resistance of the lining below 2 m2K/W for normal operation during the summer period it is necessary to start the OS with artificial receiving refrigerant freezing setting), which significantly increases and complicates maintenance costs.

If you have additional freezing circuits 11, 13 and they also work in the winter and not disabled during shutdown OS 5 circuit 6.

The use of composite insulation layer and the shelter provides a firm hold and maintain in operating condition during the operation of the mouth of the mine, held in permafrost.

1. The method of fastening the mouth of the mine shaft in permafrost, which includes the drilling of wells, maintaining the contact posts-rock temperature phase transition, characterized in that the casing of lead composite insulating layer, satisfying the requirement of strong fastening shaft, mounting shaft furniture and insulation, and thermal resistance for the composite insulating layer should be not less than 2 m2K/W, and drilling for installation Oia from the shelter to contact the support-breed and seasonal freezing form ldapsortkey cylinder around the shaft, and the path location of the shelter drilling of wells and installing piles, on which are mounted bearings and building copra education ventilated underground between the winter surface and the bottom part of the drop-hammer building.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the contact posts of - breed set of temperature sensors monitor and control the operation of the shelter.

3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the additional circuit OS protect each support copra tent type.

4. The method according to p. 1 or 3, characterized in that the additional circuit of the shelter wall total pile field under the building copra tower type.

 

Same patents:

The invention relates to the field of mining, and in particular for the fastening of the vertical and inclined mine workings circular cross-section

The support shaft // 2110689
The invention relates to mining, namely for the construction of mine shafts in difficult mining and geological conditions

The invention relates to mining, namely, to mount mine workings, including vertical shafts precast reinforced concrete, covered in forever frozen rocks

The invention relates to a power clamping devices, providing a reliable connection details, the simple structure of the device and connected elements, reducing the complexity of installation and dismantling, reusability in different environments and can be used in different sectors of the economy, pipeline transport, construction, call it, mine and underground construction, shipbuilding, etc

The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used for fastening itself workings when designing a powerful layers steep fall

The invention relates to mining, namely the fastening of the vertical shafts monolithic reinforced concrete in difficult geological and mining conditions

The invention relates to the mining industry, and in particular to methods of construction of vertical shafts at their mount monolithic concrete

The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used when attaching rising mines, exploration wells, ventilation shafts, mine shafts, etc

The invention relates to mining and construction, in particular for the protection of vertical mine workings from the fracture pressure of the massif

The invention relates to the field of construction and is designed to prevent the ingress of groundwater into the transport tunnels

The invention relates to the field of mining and can be used for the protection of the quarries from groundwater

The invention relates to mining and can be used in the construction of the grout curtain

The invention relates to mining and can be used to create a favourable geological conditions during the construction and operation of mines
The invention relates to a method of recovering water resistance and improving the strength of the enclosing structures of concrete and reinforced concrete, mostly buried structures

The invention relates to mining, particularly coal mine construction

The invention relates to the construction and can be used in the construction of waterproofing lining of underground chambers and tunnels built in an open way

The invention relates to mining, in particular for plugging watered fractured rocks to create a waterproofing curtains at low and subzero temperatures of the rocks

The invention relates to mining and underground construction using freezing rocks in complicated hydrogeological conditions

The invention relates to the field of mining and construction, designed to protect against water production shafts and other mining capital, built in flooded unstable ground, and can also be used to prevent filter (leakage) from the sedimentation tanks, sludge tanks and t
Up!