Method for the production of energy

 

(57) Abstract:

The method can be used for the production of energy from carbon fuels. Partial oxidation of the fuel with oxygen or oxygen-containing gas is produced fuel gas and natural warmth, while physical warmth or most of it passed into the power generation unit together with the combustible gas. The power generation unit is a turbine cycle with humidified air and gives the opportunity to use the same unit combustion turbine and in the case of its use in the turbine cycle with the humidified air, and in the case of integrating it into the gasification plant. 4 C.p. f-crystals, 1 Il.

The invention relates to a method of energy production that combines the so-called turbine cycle with humidified air (NAT) scheme with partial oxidation.

The method includes the steps of partial oxidation of the fuel with oxygen or oxygen-containing gas (gasification) to obtain the output gas stream containing a combustible gas and vapor, hardening the above-mentioned flow of cooling water and saturated steam, removal of sulfur compounds from the stream and combustion flow (fuel gas) in a gas turbine specia turbine mounted in the turbine cycle with humidified air (NAT), meaning that the physical heat generated in the turbine cycle, is transferred to the saturator air, such as hot water, to hydrate and fuel saturation of the air.

Physical heat produced during gasification is transmitted in the NAT-cycle through saturation with water and heating the fuel gas.

The main advantage of the present invention is to facilitate the integration of gas-generating part and NAT-cycle and thus simplifying the design and operation of the plant and to minimize the necessary connection between enabled technological sources of supply.

An additional advantage of the present invention is that it facilitates the improvement of technology and manufacturing turbines internal combustion engines, and enables you to use the same unit combustion turbine and in that case when it is used as a separate, heated with natural gas NAT-cycle, and in the case where it is integrated to the gasification plant.

Used in the present description, the terms mean the following: gasification is the partial oxidation of a carbonaceous fuel with oxygen or oxygen-containing gas with p the gasification and following after it processes the preparation of fuel gas from gasification combustion turbine internal combustion; NAT-cycle - turbine cycle with the humidified air, the principle of which is described in the patent EP 0150990 B1; IGHAT - integration (merging) gasification installation and NAT-cycle; SS - set or block of a combined cycle turbine combustion cycle gas turbine, the last cycle receives heat from the waste heat of combustion turbine; carbonaceous fuel under used here, the term refers to any carbon-containing fuel, such as coal, oil, biofuels and waste used as fuel.

When using a combustion turbine for power generation turbine internal combustion often set in the so-called contour combined cycle (CC), including a turbine internal combustion and steam cycle turbine, with the turbine internal combustion engines has an air compressor mounted on the same shaft as the turbine expander, and constructed without intermediate cooling, and the cycle steam turbine receives heat from the hot flue or exhaust gas combustion turbine.

The prior art in the field of integrated gasification installation and SS, usually referred to as IGCC, includes CC, universes the diluted) fuel from the gasification installation, the air stream from the air compressor combustion turbine must be reduced in order to maintain the exact temperature at the inlet of the turbine internal combustion engines. This reduction can be performed in CC now, if the air compressor has enough headroom in its peak point.

In the patent EP 0150990 B1, Process for Production of Power described an alternative method for CC extraction of chemical energy of fuel to produce electrical energy using turbines internal combustion engines.

The physical heat of the exhaust gases combustion turbine and compressed air is used to saturate the compressed fuel air water and heated saturated air and fuel before combustion. In this method of energy production should therefore be excluded steam cycle, and this method is usually known as turbine cycle with humidified air or HAT-cycle.

United gasification installation and HAT-cycle, called IGHAT (Integrated gasification installation and turbine cycle with humidified air), studied for many years. The main job of describing the state of the prior art related to the improvement of IGHAT is the report "Comparison tuerkei in the U.S. in March 1991 (1E-7300).

Attempt process improvements based on the fact that all the physical heat generated from gasification and from HAT-cycle, is used to generate hot water, which is used to humidify the compressed air in the HAT-cycle before submitting it as a fuel or fuel and air into the turbine combustion. This type of heat integration has two drawbacks.

1. The gasification installation and HAT-cycle are highly integrated and will require a strong commercial and technical relationship between two different real objects, which in many cases from a technical point of view it is advantageous to divide. Strong integration also results in a complicated operational procedures or techniques, especially when starting, stopping and load changes.

2. The degree of moisture of compressed air and the amount of air flow are very different for independent HAT-cycle using natural gas as fuel, and for the HAT-cycle integrated in IGHAT installation. Therefore, in the unit combustion turbine, you must carry out various mechanical changes to his work was more effective is gorania and works for its manufacture.

In U.S. patent 5.117.623 described method of extraction of sensible heat from the partial oxidation of carbonaceous fuel with oxygen or oxygen-containing gas (gasification), using the quenching water for cooling and saturation of the water flow of combustible gas from said gas by passing the stream through a heat exchanger in which the flow is further cooled by heat exchange with the circulating water in order to ensure the condensation of liquid water from the stream, the expansion of steam by reducing the pressure and removing sulfur compounds from the stream before or after lowering its pressure, isatoribine and heat flow and subsequent combustion flow in the turbine internal combustion for energy, while the above-mentioned circulation of water is used to generate heat required for restauratie stream.

The method further includes the step transmittance tempered flow through the boiler or boiler to increase steam before passing tempered flow through the said heat exchanger for heating the circulating water.

The above method opens a simple way transfer of sensible heat from the gas to the CC using the saturation water cleansing is the expansion of the gas in the gas expander, producing energy.

In the patent EP 0259114 B1 describes a method for the production of electricity from carbonaceous fuel, which involves partial oxidation of the fuel with oxygen or oxygen-containing gas (gasification) to produce gas stream containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen (synthesis gas) at a pressure, hardening of stream water to form a saturated water vapor, the expansion of the gas stream for energy and the burning of the extended stream with additional oxygen or oxygen-containing gas for more power characterized in that before the expansion of the gas stream is subjected to the displacement response of carbon monoxide, which, at least part of the carbon monoxide in it turns into carbon dioxide and hydrogen.

The method also includes the step of removal of sulfur. The method further includes the step transmittance tempered flow through the boiler to increase steam before passing tempered flow in the reactor displacement of carbon monoxide.

The above invention opens the way for the transfer of sensible heat from the gas to the CC using the saturation water purified from serenia carbon monoxide and the expansion of the gas in the gas expander to generate energy.

This invention combines or integrates gasification plant and HAT-cycle energy-efficient and technically simple way at the same time, because it simplifies the improvement of the combustion turbine, adapted for the HAT-cycle.

The net result of various chemical reactions in the gasification process is exothermic, it is usually 15-30% of supplying energy to birds carbonaceous fuel is converted into physical warmth, 80% of which can be extracted, the rest are thermal losses.

The quenching water is used for cooling and water saturation gas production stream containing a combustible gas and possible recoverable physical heat of gasification expressed by the temperature of the gas plus the latent heat of water vapor formed during the quenching water. The invention covers a new way of transfer of the aforementioned extracted or recovered heat in the HAT-cycle.

The invention is illustrated in the two examples that use different principles for gas purification from sulfur, namely

Example 1: Known cold gas cleaning (CGCU).

Example 2: Hot gas cleaning (HGCU) in commercialism advantage at high pressure gasification, preferably above 60 bar, because at higher pressure water-rich stream will reach equilibrium at a higher temperature, which makes it possible to receive steam from a boiler located downstream in the process from quenching by water at higher pressure.

Additional cooling of the gas after the boiler, the expansion of the gas and resaturate purified gas, which is also removed sulfur is carried out at a temperature of 20-40oC either before or after the mentioned extension following process diagram of the process described in U.S. patent 5.117.623.

Recoverable or recovered physical heat of gasification are thus obtained in the form of a pair of moderate or medium pressure boiler, steam in the saturated purified gas stream in the form of additional heat in a purified gas stream, resulting in increased temperature total restaurierung purified gas stream.

The physical warmth of the intermediate coolers compressors in the air separation plant, generally part of the IGCC or IGHAT complex, can also be introduced into the circuit restauratie cleaned the e invention is particularly advantageous at high pressure gasification, preferably above 60 bar, because at higher pressure water-rich stream will reach equilibrium at a higher temperature, which makes it possible to obtain steam from a boiler located after quenching with water at higher pressure.

After that, the control of gas flow should the processing scheme described in the patent EP 0259114 B1, which means that the gas flow from the above-mentioned boiler is subjected to the displacement response of carbon monoxide, after which the flux is cleaned from sulphur in the cleaning process HGCU carried out at a temperature of from 350 to 500oC. the Purified gas stream is then directed to the gas expander that produces electricity, before you send it to the HAT-cycle.

Recovered or recoverable physical heat from gasification and from the exothermic reaction of the movement of the carbon monoxide is taken in the form of a pair of medium or moderate pressure from a boiler in the form of water vapor contained in the purified gas stream, and an enthalpy or heat content, obtained from heating the humidified purified gas stream.

Examples 1 and 2. A key feature of or on the extraction of sensible heat from the gas is transferred into a HAT-cycle

1. together with clean fuel gas and

2. as pairs of medium or moderate pressure.

Alternative physical warmth in a pair of moderate or medium pressure or it may be transferred in the HAT-cycle through additional saturation flow of fuel gas or by injection box pair of moderate-pressure clean fuel gas. The heat of compression from the separation unit the air can be additionally added to a clean fuel gas as a heat saturation or saturation.

According to the invention the HAT-cycle thus receives the bulk of the physical heat of gasification by pure saturated fuel gas, while a smaller part is added to the saturated air stream in the form of a pair of moderate pressure after the air saturator in the HAT-cycle. Alternative all received physical warmth is passed through the fuel gas.

Hereinafter the invention will be described in more detail with reference to the attached drawing, which depicts a process flow for carrying out the invention according to the two above-described examples.

The drawing depicts a complete technological solution method of the present invention with domaination installation.

Carbon loading is fed through line 1 into the gasification unit and quenching water 2 together with the oxygen from the separation unit the air 11 is supplied through the supply line oxygen 4A. Unit 2 generates a stream of combustible gas, saturated with water vapor under a process pressure, and gas flow is supplied through the pipe 3 into the process heater 4, which produces steam, which is passed in the HAT-cycle pipeline 31.

In example 1, the gas stream is subjected to further cooling in block 5, producing hot water, used to restauratie gas flow in the block 8 and saturation or saturation of pure gas. Between the cooling gas 5 and Restauracja gas 8 gas stream is cleaned from sulphur 6 and extension 7.

Additional resaturate clean gas is provided by utilizing the heat of compression from the compressor intermediate and extension of chillers in the plant air separation 11. Mentioned, heat is transferred from air separation plants 11 in block restauratie 8 in the form of hot water through the pipe 12. Clean restaurierung gas is injected in the HAT-cycle through the pipeline 13.

In example 2, the gas flow from the boiler 4 is held in blocky stream, containing water vapor, is served in the HAT-cycle through the pipeline 13.

The expansion of the gas 7 is carried out using a gas expander, which is equipped with a synchronous AC generator that produces electricity.

Gasification system operates at high pressure, preferably above 60 bar, resulting in more favorable data steam for steam produced from a boiler 4, and the increase of energy production from the expansion unit gas 7.

The unit combustion turbine in the HAT-cycle includes a turbine internal combustion 15, the air compressor 14 and a synchronous alternating current generator 16, mounted on the same shaft 17.

Air is supplied by line 22 in air compressor 14 where it is compressed in the intermediate stages and subsequent cooling, using water as the cooling medium. Mentioned, water is supplied to the unit humidification 18, where hot water together with hot water, heated by the exhaust combustion turbine 27, meets with cold compressed air in vozduhoflotskaya column within the block 18, the said air is introduced into the block 18 through line 23 from vozdushnaya is transmitted in the HAT-cycle through conduit 31 and is additionally heated in the heat recovery unit 19 before the flow through the pipe 24 into the combustion chamber 21 together with fuel gas from the gasification installation, coming into the HAT-cycle through the pipe 13. Hot exhaust or flue gas 30 from the combustion chamber 21 actuates the expander 15 and then is passed in heat recovery unit 19 through the pipe 27.

Heat the exhaust gas of the gas turbine is transmitted in block 19 of the humidified air, which through line 24 is directed into the combustion chamber 21, and hot water, which through the pipe 26 serves to block air humidification 18. Cool the exhaust gas and heat recovery unit 19 is vented to the atmosphere through the pipe 28 and the duct 20. The loss of water in the outlet 20 is compensated for by the addition of fresh water in the HAT-cycle through the pipe 29.

HAT-turbine internal combustion engines constructed in accordance with the present invention should preferably be turbine, designed for the enrichment of the fuel, for example natural gas.

All turbines internal combustion engines, commonly used at the present time, designed for enriched fuel, usually natural gas or straps. When these turbines are tailored to a depleted fuel, as for example, the humidified gas from the gasification installation, the air flow air compressor from the turbine inside the verge manufactured turbines internal combustion engines can provide this without reducing the efficiency of the power plant. This design philosophy should be applied when designing turbines internal combustion engines for the HAT-cycle, which means that when the combustion chamber gets poor gas through a pipeline 13 and when the flow of the humidified air is increased due to the additional flow of steam through the conduit 31, the air flow air compressor through line 22 is reduced in order to maintain the temperature produced from the combustion gas in the pipe 30 at the design temperature at the inlet of the gas turbine.

This design enables manufacturers of turbines internal combustion to develop only one new turbine internal combustion engines, usable in a separate HAT-cycle natural gas when used in IGHAT.

The heat transfer between the gasification installation and HAT-cycle presented in this invention will also facilitate the development, construction and operation of the IGHAT installation and guarantees of enterprises by major technology stocks, because the limit of the battery between the two main blocks IGHAT can be identified easily.

1. Method for the production of energy from carbon fuels, including OK what begins with receiving a flow of fuel gas and natural warmth, physical warmth or most of it passed into the power generation unit together with the combustible gas and the power generation unit exercise turbine cycle with humidified air.

2. The method according to p. 1, wherein the partial oxidation is carried out at a pressure above 40 bar.

3. The method according to p. 1, wherein the partial oxidation is carried out at a pressure above 60 bar.

4. The method according to any of the preceding items, wherein the steam used to transfer a smaller part of the physical warmth in the power generation block.

5. The method according to any of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that the physical warmth of the interim and incremental cooling of at least one vozduhovodnogo compressor unit used for additional humidification of the fuel gas before the said gas is passed into the power generation unit.

 

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