Method for the production of energy
(57) Abstract:The method can be used for the production of energy from carbon fuels. Partial oxidation of the fuel with oxygen or oxygen-containing gas is produced fuel gas and natural warmth, while physical warmth or most of it passed into the power generation unit together with the combustible gas. The power generation unit is a turbine cycle with humidified air and gives the opportunity to use the same unit combustion turbine and in the case of its use in the turbine cycle with the humidified air, and in the case of integrating it into the gasification plant. 4 C.p. f-crystals, 1 Il. The invention relates to a method of energy production that combines the so-called turbine cycle with humidified air (NAT) scheme with partial oxidation.The method includes the steps of partial oxidation of the fuel with oxygen or oxygen-containing gas (gasification) to obtain the output gas stream containing a combustible gas and vapor, hardening the above-mentioned flow of cooling water and saturated steam, removal of sulfur compounds from the stream and combustion flow (fuel gas) in a gas turbine specia turbine mounted in the turbine cycle with humidified air (NAT), meaning that the physical heat generated in the turbine cycle, is transferred to the saturator air, such as hot water, to hydrate and fuel saturation of the air.Physical heat produced during gasification is transmitted in the NAT-cycle through saturation with water and heating the fuel gas.The main advantage of the present invention is to facilitate the integration of gas-generating part and NAT-cycle and thus simplifying the design and operation of the plant and to minimize the necessary connection between enabled technological sources of supply.An additional advantage of the present invention is that it facilitates the improvement of technology and manufacturing turbines internal combustion engines, and enables you to use the same unit combustion turbine and in that case when it is used as a separate, heated with natural gas NAT-cycle, and in the case where it is integrated to the gasification plant.Used in the present description, the terms mean the following: gasification is the partial oxidation of a carbonaceous fuel with oxygen or oxygen-containing gas with p the gasification and following after it processes the preparation of fuel gas from gasification combustion turbine internal combustion; NAT-cycle - turbine cycle with the humidified air, the principle of which is described in the patent EP 0150990 B1; IGHAT - integration (merging) gasification installation and NAT-cycle; SS - set or block of a combined cycle turbine combustion cycle gas turbine, the last cycle receives heat from the waste heat of combustion turbine; carbonaceous fuel under used here, the term refers to any carbon-containing fuel, such as coal, oil, biofuels and waste used as fuel.When using a combustion turbine for power generation turbine internal combustion often set in the so-called contour combined cycle (CC), including a turbine internal combustion and steam cycle turbine, with the turbine internal combustion engines has an air compressor mounted on the same shaft as the turbine expander, and constructed without intermediate cooling, and the cycle steam turbine receives heat from the hot flue or exhaust gas combustion turbine.The prior art in the field of integrated gasification installation and SS, usually referred to as IGCC, includes CC, universes the diluted) fuel from the gasification installation, the air stream from the air compressor combustion turbine must be reduced in order to maintain the exact temperature at the inlet of the turbine internal combustion engines. This reduction can be performed in CC now, if the air compressor has enough headroom in its peak point.In the patent EP 0150990 B1, Process for Production of Power described an alternative method for CC extraction of chemical energy of fuel to produce electrical energy using turbines internal combustion engines.The physical heat of the exhaust gases combustion turbine and compressed air is used to saturate the compressed fuel air water and heated saturated air and fuel before combustion. In this method of energy production should therefore be excluded steam cycle, and this method is usually known as turbine cycle with humidified air or HAT-cycle.United gasification installation and HAT-cycle, called IGHAT (Integrated gasification installation and turbine cycle with humidified air), studied for many years. The main job of describing the state of the prior art related to the improvement of IGHAT is the report "Comparison tuerkei in the U.S. in March 1991 (1E-7300).Attempt process improvements based on the fact that all the physical heat generated from gasification and from HAT-cycle, is used to generate hot water, which is used to humidify the compressed air in the HAT-cycle before submitting it as a fuel or fuel and air into the turbine combustion. This type of heat integration has two drawbacks.1. The gasification installation and HAT-cycle are highly integrated and will require a strong commercial and technical relationship between two different real objects, which in many cases from a technical point of view it is advantageous to divide. Strong integration also results in a complicated operational procedures or techniques, especially when starting, stopping and load changes.2. The degree of moisture of compressed air and the amount of air flow are very different for independent HAT-cycle using natural gas as fuel, and for the HAT-cycle integrated in IGHAT installation. Therefore, in the unit combustion turbine, you must carry out various mechanical changes to his work was more effective is gorania and works for its manufacture.In U.S. patent 5.117.623 described method of extraction of sensible heat from the partial oxidation of carbonaceous fuel with oxygen or oxygen-containing gas (gasification), using the quenching water for cooling and saturation of the water flow of combustible gas from said gas by passing the stream through a heat exchanger in which the flow is further cooled by heat exchange with the circulating water in order to ensure the condensation of liquid water from the stream, the expansion of steam by reducing the pressure and removing sulfur compounds from the stream before or after lowering its pressure, isatoribine and heat flow and subsequent combustion flow in the turbine internal combustion for energy, while the above-mentioned circulation of water is used to generate heat required for restauratie stream.The method further includes the step transmittance tempered flow through the boiler or boiler to increase steam before passing tempered flow through the said heat exchanger for heating the circulating water.The above method opens a simple way transfer of sensible heat from the gas to the CC using the saturation water cleansing is the expansion of the gas in the gas expander, producing energy.In the patent EP 0259114 B1 describes a method for the production of electricity from carbonaceous fuel, which involves partial oxidation of the fuel with oxygen or oxygen-containing gas (gasification) to produce gas stream containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen (synthesis gas) at a pressure, hardening of stream water to form a saturated water vapor, the expansion of the gas stream for energy and the burning of the extended stream with additional oxygen or oxygen-containing gas for more power characterized in that before the expansion of the gas stream is subjected to the displacement response of carbon monoxide, which, at least part of the carbon monoxide in it turns into carbon dioxide and hydrogen.The method also includes the step of removal of sulfur. The method further includes the step transmittance tempered flow through the boiler to increase steam before passing tempered flow in the reactor displacement of carbon monoxide.The above invention opens the way for the transfer of sensible heat from the gas to the CC using the saturation water purified from serenia carbon monoxide and the expansion of the gas in the gas expander to generate energy.This invention combines or integrates gasification plant and HAT-cycle energy-efficient and technically simple way at the same time, because it simplifies the improvement of the combustion turbine, adapted for the HAT-cycle.The net result of various chemical reactions in the gasification process is exothermic, it is usually 15-30% of supplying energy to birds carbonaceous fuel is converted into physical warmth, 80% of which can be extracted, the rest are thermal losses.The quenching water is used for cooling and water saturation gas production stream containing a combustible gas and possible recoverable physical heat of gasification expressed by the temperature of the gas plus the latent heat of water vapor formed during the quenching water. The invention covers a new way of transfer of the aforementioned extracted or recovered heat in the HAT-cycle.The invention is illustrated in the two examples that use different principles for gas purification from sulfur, namely
Example 1: Known cold gas cleaning (CGCU).Example 2: Hot gas cleaning (HGCU) in commercialism advantage at high pressure gasification, preferably above 60 bar, because at higher pressure water-rich stream will reach equilibrium at a higher temperature, which makes it possible to receive steam from a boiler located downstream in the process from quenching by water at higher pressure.Additional cooling of the gas after the boiler, the expansion of the gas and resaturate purified gas, which is also removed sulfur is carried out at a temperature of 20-40oC either before or after the mentioned extension following process diagram of the process described in U.S. patent 5.117.623.Recoverable or recovered physical heat of gasification are thus obtained in the form of a pair of moderate or medium pressure boiler, steam in the saturated purified gas stream in the form of additional heat in a purified gas stream, resulting in increased temperature total restaurierung purified gas stream.The physical warmth of the intermediate coolers compressors in the air separation plant, generally part of the IGCC or IGHAT complex, can also be introduced into the circuit restauratie cleaned the e invention is particularly advantageous at high pressure gasification, preferably above 60 bar, because at higher pressure water-rich stream will reach equilibrium at a higher temperature, which makes it possible to obtain steam from a boiler located after quenching with water at higher pressure.After that, the control of gas flow should the processing scheme described in the patent EP 0259114 B1, which means that the gas flow from the above-mentioned boiler is subjected to the displacement response of carbon monoxide, after which the flux is cleaned from sulphur in the cleaning process HGCU carried out at a temperature of from 350 to 500oC. the Purified gas stream is then directed to the gas expander that produces electricity, before you send it to the HAT-cycle.Recovered or recoverable physical heat from gasification and from the exothermic reaction of the movement of the carbon monoxide is taken in the form of a pair of medium or moderate pressure from a boiler in the form of water vapor contained in the purified gas stream, and an enthalpy or heat content, obtained from heating the humidified purified gas stream.Examples 1 and 2. A key feature of or on the extraction of sensible heat from the gas is transferred into a HAT-cycle
1. together with clean fuel gas and
2. as pairs of medium or moderate pressure.Alternative physical warmth in a pair of moderate or medium pressure or it may be transferred in the HAT-cycle through additional saturation flow of fuel gas or by injection box pair of moderate-pressure clean fuel gas. The heat of compression from the separation unit the air can be additionally added to a clean fuel gas as a heat saturation or saturation.According to the invention the HAT-cycle thus receives the bulk of the physical heat of gasification by pure saturated fuel gas, while a smaller part is added to the saturated air stream in the form of a pair of moderate pressure after the air saturator in the HAT-cycle. Alternative all received physical warmth is passed through the fuel gas.Hereinafter the invention will be described in more detail with reference to the attached drawing, which depicts a process flow for carrying out the invention according to the two above-described examples.The drawing depicts a complete technological solution method of the present invention with domaination installation.Carbon loading is fed through line 1 into the gasification unit and quenching water 2 together with the oxygen from the separation unit the air 11 is supplied through the supply line oxygen 4A. Unit 2 generates a stream of combustible gas, saturated with water vapor under a process pressure, and gas flow is supplied through the pipe 3 into the process heater 4, which produces steam, which is passed in the HAT-cycle pipeline 31.In example 1, the gas stream is subjected to further cooling in block 5, producing hot water, used to restauratie gas flow in the block 8 and saturation or saturation of pure gas. Between the cooling gas 5 and Restauracja gas 8 gas stream is cleaned from sulphur 6 and extension 7.Additional resaturate clean gas is provided by utilizing the heat of compression from the compressor intermediate and extension of chillers in the plant air separation 11. Mentioned, heat is transferred from air separation plants 11 in block restauratie 8 in the form of hot water through the pipe 12. Clean restaurierung gas is injected in the HAT-cycle through the pipeline 13.In example 2, the gas flow from the boiler 4 is held in blocky stream, containing water vapor, is served in the HAT-cycle through the pipeline 13.The expansion of the gas 7 is carried out using a gas expander, which is equipped with a synchronous AC generator that produces electricity.Gasification system operates at high pressure, preferably above 60 bar, resulting in more favorable data steam for steam produced from a boiler 4, and the increase of energy production from the expansion unit gas 7.The unit combustion turbine in the HAT-cycle includes a turbine internal combustion 15, the air compressor 14 and a synchronous alternating current generator 16, mounted on the same shaft 17.Air is supplied by line 22 in air compressor 14 where it is compressed in the intermediate stages and subsequent cooling, using water as the cooling medium. Mentioned, water is supplied to the unit humidification 18, where hot water together with hot water, heated by the exhaust combustion turbine 27, meets with cold compressed air in vozduhoflotskaya column within the block 18, the said air is introduced into the block 18 through line 23 from vozdushnaya is transmitted in the HAT-cycle through conduit 31 and is additionally heated in the heat recovery unit 19 before the flow through the pipe 24 into the combustion chamber 21 together with fuel gas from the gasification installation, coming into the HAT-cycle through the pipe 13. Hot exhaust or flue gas 30 from the combustion chamber 21 actuates the expander 15 and then is passed in heat recovery unit 19 through the pipe 27.Heat the exhaust gas of the gas turbine is transmitted in block 19 of the humidified air, which through line 24 is directed into the combustion chamber 21, and hot water, which through the pipe 26 serves to block air humidification 18. Cool the exhaust gas and heat recovery unit 19 is vented to the atmosphere through the pipe 28 and the duct 20. The loss of water in the outlet 20 is compensated for by the addition of fresh water in the HAT-cycle through the pipe 29.HAT-turbine internal combustion engines constructed in accordance with the present invention should preferably be turbine, designed for the enrichment of the fuel, for example natural gas.All turbines internal combustion engines, commonly used at the present time, designed for enriched fuel, usually natural gas or straps. When these turbines are tailored to a depleted fuel, as for example, the humidified gas from the gasification installation, the air flow air compressor from the turbine inside the verge manufactured turbines internal combustion engines can provide this without reducing the efficiency of the power plant. This design philosophy should be applied when designing turbines internal combustion engines for the HAT-cycle, which means that when the combustion chamber gets poor gas through a pipeline 13 and when the flow of the humidified air is increased due to the additional flow of steam through the conduit 31, the air flow air compressor through line 22 is reduced in order to maintain the temperature produced from the combustion gas in the pipe 30 at the design temperature at the inlet of the gas turbine.This design enables manufacturers of turbines internal combustion to develop only one new turbine internal combustion engines, usable in a separate HAT-cycle natural gas when used in IGHAT.The heat transfer between the gasification installation and HAT-cycle presented in this invention will also facilitate the development, construction and operation of the IGHAT installation and guarantees of enterprises by major technology stocks, because the limit of the battery between the two main blocks IGHAT can be identified easily. 1. Method for the production of energy from carbon fuels, including OK what begins with receiving a flow of fuel gas and natural warmth, physical warmth or most of it passed into the power generation unit together with the combustible gas and the power generation unit exercise turbine cycle with humidified air.2. The method according to p. 1, wherein the partial oxidation is carried out at a pressure above 40 bar.3. The method according to p. 1, wherein the partial oxidation is carried out at a pressure above 60 bar.4. The method according to any of the preceding items, wherein the steam used to transfer a smaller part of the physical warmth in the power generation block.5. The method according to any of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that the physical warmth of the interim and incremental cooling of at least one vozduhovodnogo compressor unit used for additional humidification of the fuel gas before the said gas is passed into the power generation unit.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed combined cycle plant has boiler 14 for steam production that incorporates furnace for fuel combustion to produce furnace gas and process-gas inlet pipeline 78 passing process gas to furnace; steam turbine 38 that receives steam and is set in motion by means of this steam for energy generation; combustion chamber 52 for burning secondary fuel to produce gaseous combustion products; gas turbine 46 for expanding gaseous combustion products coming from combustion chamber to generate energy and to pass waste gas to process-gas inlet pipeline 78; return pipeline 86 for recirculation of part of furnace gas; first governor of furnace gas circulation speed in return pipeline 86; feeder 80 for fresh air supply to process gas inlet pipeline; second speed governor for fresh air supplied to feeder 80; and control device for first and second governors designed to maintain at least almost optimal performance characteristics of boiler under various operating conditions of combustion chamber.
EFFECT: enhanced energy generation efficiency under various operating conditions of combustion chamber.
24 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to power station and method of power generation basing on principle of combination of cycles providing higher specific capacity and flexibility of operating parameters of power station without corresponding increase of its thermal power rating. Process of improving thermal efficiency of combination cycles can be provided owing to use additional fuel and/or supply of heat. Particularly, gas turbines whose exhaust gases are delivered into steam generator for regeneration of heat can be additionally heated. Proposed system, as a whole, provides high efficiency of power station with combination of cycles mainly owing to Rankine (lower) cycle. Models of implementation of invention include load driven by engine of upper cycle set into action by liquid from upper cycle delivered into heat regeneration device. Said heat regeneration device is heated by additional fuel and/or from additional heat source to form higher energy consuming liquid of lower cycle and/or increase of amount of said liquid used as energy source for engine of lower cycle setting into motion load (potentially the same load as that in engine of upper cycle). Energy of liquid of upper cycle and liquid of lower cycle sets into action engines of upper and lower cycles, respectively, however, said liquids and/or exhaust of corresponding engines can found wide application at combined generation of heat and electric energy.
EFFECT: considerable increased of power rating of steam turbines and total efficiency of power station.
33 cl; 51 dwg
FIELD: heat power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used at building steam-gas plants of increased efficiency by means of gas-turbine unit mounted on steam-turbine plant on operating thermal power station. According to invention, all heating surfaces of boiler required for its operation on previous fuel are preserved, heating surface in additional so similar boiler surfaces are installed in separate convective gas conduit of gas turbine, and consumption of fuel in boiler reduced so that total steam-generating capacity of steam boiler with additional surfaces should be preserved at level of steam generating capacity of steam boiler at its operation with out gas turbine plant.
EFFECT: possibility of use of gas turbine plant on steam turbine power unit with boiler operating on any fuels, without long standstill of power unit for reconstruction and correlation of power of gas turbine and steam turbine operating en-bloc.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: heat power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used at creation and modernization of power-generating gas-turbine plants operating on natural gas as fuel. According to known method of partial substitution of gas-turbine fuel in which air compressed by compressor of gas-turbine plant is heated before delivering into combustion chamber in recuperator by superheated steam generated in steam boiler at combustion of replacement fuel, steam into recuperator is fed directly after steam boiler, and after recuperator at least part of steam and reheated by exhaust gases of gas-turbine plant to temperature required by consumer, for instance, to required temperature of steam to be delivered to turbine. According to invention, steam, before delivery into recuperator, can be superheated to temperature exceeding temperature required by consumer. Moreover, part of reheated steam can be directed into combustion to be used in mixture with combustion products of gas-turbine fuel as working medium of gas-turbine plan.
EFFECT: possibility of use of low-cost ash-bearing fuels, such as coals, which can not be used in other spheres of application instead of natural gas.
5 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: system is proposed in which hybrid cycle of gasification is used where carbon dioxide is recirculated in gas generator for use as gasification reagent and working fluid medium. System includes source of fresh clean oxygen, gas generator particles separator arranged for communication in flow with gas generator, combustion chamber for syngas, gas turbine arranged with communication in gas flow with output of gas turbine and gas compression system putting out flow of compressed outgoing gas. First part of compressed outgoing gas is delivered into gas generator to regulate temperature in gas generator and get carbon dioxide and steam for gasification and decrease requirement of fresh clean oxygen.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of power generation.
21 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: heat power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: according to invention, heat system of gas-turbine plant is communicated with heat system of steam-turbine plant with possibility of changing over heat flows from waste-heat boiled and steam extractions from compartment of steam turbine to optimize heat and energy loads by making waste-heat boiled with possibility of cutting off its system water heaters and delivering feed water into steam generator from condenser through waste-heat boiler. Invention provides cutting off specific capital outlays, high reliability and long service life, reduced exhaust of dangerous nitro gen oxides (NOx) to levels below tolerable ones.
EFFECT: possibility of self-contained operation of gas-turbine plant and steam-turbine plant.
5 cl, 4 tbl, 2 dwg
FIELD: power production.
SUBSTANCE: method of combined heat and power plant operation is proposed by the invention. The considered combined heat and power plant is overbuilt with steam and gas unit with double-circuit steam recovery heat generator. Part of steam generated in steam boiler is replaced with steam generated in the first circuit of the double circuit steam recovery heat generator. Low-pressure steam from the double circuit steam recovery heat generator is supplied to the heat recovery elements of the combined heat and power plant steam turbine with lesser fuel consumption per the produced power unit. The steam remaining from high-pressure regenerative recoveries and heat recoveries is subject to expansion in steam turbine producing additional action.
EFFECT: reduction of specific fuel consumption for electrical and heat power, increase of cycle economy, use of power reserves available in heat steam turbines and increase of their operating power; power generation at combined heat and power plants at lesser additional capital costs.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to steam engines. Suggested engine with heat regeneration uses water both as working fluid and as lubricating material. During operation water is supplied by pump from collecting tray via coil around exhaust opening of cylinder, and as a result water is previously heated by steam exhausted from cylinder. Then preliminarily heated water is supplied to steam generator and is heated by means of combustion chamber to generate superheated high-pressure steam. Air is preliminarily heated in heat exchanger, and then is mixed with fuel from fuel sprayer. Spark plug ignites sprayed fuel, and flame and heat centrifuge is created inside combustion chamber. Speed and torque moment of engine are controlled by system of yoke and cam, which opens needle valve for inlet of superheated high-pressure steam in cylinder, inside of which there is piston of reciprocal travel. Supplied steam expands in explosive action at piston top at high pressure, which makes the piston go down, at that piston with the help of driving force transfer turns joined crank cam and crankshaft. Spent steam is sent via centrifugal condenser, having system of flat plates. Cooling air from air blowers circulates via flat plates to transfer steam into liquid condition. Condensed water is returned into collecting tray for further use with the purpose of steam generation. Method is considered for energy generation in engine.
EFFECT: provides for increased efficiency factor and engine performance, by provision of heat regeneration and engine operation at critical pressure and temperature.
12 cl, 14 dwg