The method of dredging in rocky soil
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to hydraulic construction and can be used in the manufacture of blasting dredging and formation of slopes. Drilling and blasting method loosen the soil outside the project profile in the band, covering the slopes and the adjacent area and the bottom area. Loosened soil layer has a constant thickness on the bottom and a variable thickness along the height of the slope. Then remove the soil within the project profile, occiput layer on the bottom area at a greater depth and/or erect a structure for absorbing wave energy. The thickness of the soft layer at the base of the slope and at the bottom should not be less than the estimated height of the waves on the approach slope. The method of dredging can reduce the wave height and wave pressure on slopes, to reduce the speed of currents. 2 C.p. f-crystals, 6 ill. The invention relates to the field of hydraulic engineering construction and can be used in the manufacture of blasting in the rock and half-rock soils with subsequent dredging the waters and canals, accompanied by the formation of slopes with high volnovasya ability.The known is s, equipped with pneumatic hammers, each of which is supplied with a chisel (see, S. 58-61, Fig. 26-28).By this way the hammer is lowered so that the bit has rested its tip into the bedrock at the bottom of the reservoir, after which the start of the air hammer include in the work. From the blow of the hammer on the chisel rocky soil is destroyed. Crushing rock material produced below the design bottom of the stock in the rough framing. Then hammer move to a new place. After loosening the rocky soil in one area skeletally the projectile is then sequentially rearrange the following sections, in which the process of loosening of rock soil perform similarly (see  S. 153-156, Fig. 94).Remove the loosened rock soil produce floating mnogozachatkovye or rod projectiles, and grab the shells (see , 156-158 C., Fig.95).The disadvantage of this method is that in its application due to the gradual increase of the friction forces at the contact between the outer surface of the bit and razrehseniem rocky soil as dip the bit in his column hindered the penetration of the bit in the destroyed column rock Cu excluded in the zone of variable water level and above this level, require other mechanisms for loosening of the rocky ground.Also known traditional method of dredging used to create in rocky soil water areas with depths that meets the requirements of navigation, which involves the destruction of rock soil drilling and blasting method within the project profile with subsequent removal of the loosened rock soil, for example, using floating mnogoshipovyh shells, feed it into barges for onward transportation to the underwater dump ( , S. 11-14, 53-57, taken as a prototype).The disadvantage of the prototype method and other known methods of dredging in rocky soil, is that after dredging, as a rule, it is necessary to solve the task of providing the desired wave mode in the waters, as the bottom and the banks of such waters are ideal reflecting surface due to the high density of the rocky ground. For large wave heights in the place of the creation of artificial water area to ensure acceptable wave mode it requires the construction of effective and usually expensive artificial waterworks.is Ogloblina, in underwater stockpile, where this soil is in any way cannot be used for practical purposes.The objective of the invention is to develop a cost-effective way of dredging in the rocky ground, when in the course of dredging in areas where you need to carry out intensive quenching energy of water, automatically generated slopes of the specified profile, with increased volnovasya ability.To solve this problem, the known method of dredging in the rocky ground, including loosening of the drilling and blasting method of the rocky soil slopes along the perimeter of the basin and the bottom of the waters on the project depth with subsequent removal of the loosened rock soil, according to the invention in the manufacture of blasting additionally in the band, covering the slopes and the adjacent territory and bottom waters outside the project profile on the slopes loosen the layer of variable thickness along the height of the slope and constant thickness on the bottom, then remove all of the soil within the project profile. At the same time on the slopes loosen the layer having the perpendicular line of the slope, at the point corresponding to the base of the slope, thickness T, which is not what s in the water, with a line of slope - 5T, and loosen the bottom layer, having a thickness SoNext, the extracted during dredging loosened rocky ground occiput layer on the bottom area at a greater depth and/or from the soil erected a structure intended to absorb the energy of waves and currents, for example, an underwater breakwater.When determining the thickness of a layer of loosened rock soil outside the project profile on the bottom and on the slopes, should be guided by the following considerations.From consideration of cross-sections of protective structures slope profile can be set that the thickness T of riprap, forming a berm, which is located on the sea side of the structure, equal to the height h of the calculated wave on the approach slope or slightly above it (see , S. 293-296, Fig. 13.1.d).When implementing the proposed method of dredging in the rocky ground, by analogy with the specified example of the cross-section of the protective structure, the thickness T of the layer of loosened rock soil located on the site near the slope bottom waters should not be less than the height h of the calculated wave on the approach to the slope.and this thickness T is measured in the direction perpendicular to the line of the slope.To determine the required thickness of the layer of loosened rock soil, changing the height of the slope, were analysed data on the interaction of waves with slopes, with particular attention was paid to the question of the distribution of wave pressure at the height of the slope.Character outlines the plot of the wave pressure at fracture irregular waves on slopes, reinforced slabs, suggests that the wave pressure at the height of the slopes vary from minimal values in the lower part of the slope to a maximum value at a point near the point of intersection of the slope with the horizon of the water, with the greatest amount of wave pressure about five times greater than the lowest its value (see , S. 302-304, Fig. 9.5).Based on the above data it is accepted that a layer of loosened rock soil at the point of intersection of the slope with the horizon of the water should have a thickness 5T. When this layer of loosened rock soil will have a variable thickness along the height of the slope, which can be followed, for example, the linear law.A layer of loosened rock soil of variable thickness on the slopes of sposobem the LASS="ptx2">Thus, due to the presence of a layer of loosened rock soil left on the slopes after dredging, they have increased volnovasya properties.A known method of construction of hydropower waterworks face type, which includes palaivana natural coastal slope by cutting and then attaching the base of the slope of the riprap (see , S. 573-577, Fig. 24.2.a).The disadvantage of this method is the necessity of delivery of the stone to the site of erection of the mounting base of the slope, which requires large additional costs.In the proposed method of dredging the slope protection structures are formed in the manufacturing process of complex drilling and blasting and dredging. After completion of these works will not be required palaivana slopes, as their surface layer will consist of loosened in place of rocky ground, with a large siteplease ability (see , S. 320-323). Thus, the proposed method of production is more economical in comparison with the known method.In addition, in case of realization of salaeratus around the perimeter of the waters, provides no additional cost given the area its design depth, which is determined based on the requirements of navigation.Based on the foregoing, it can be input on the conformity of the proposed technical solution the criteria of "novelty" and "industrial applicability".Technical appraisal and economic benefits of the invention are as follows.Additional loosening of soil strata deeper, beyond the project profile in the band, covering the slopes and the adjacent territory and bottom waters allows after dredging to maintain a layer of loosened rock soil, covering the slopes and the bottom of the waters, and great voidness and significant roughness of its surface. In the loosened rock degree of fragmentation that characterizes the degree of increase blown soil, increases to a value equal to 1.5 (, S. 202).Voidness (porosity) and the coefficient of voidness (porosity) soft rock soil that meet the specified value of the coefficient of loosening, becoming respectively the values of 0.33 and 0.5. During the formation of the river proof and structural elements, resulting in greatly reduced the cost of construction.In addition, dredge spoils loosened rocky soil used for backfill at great depths; however, the optimal solution would be the establishment of a "zero balance", when the volume of the recess is equal to the volume filling.Achieved as a result of implementation of the proposed method of dredging in rocky soil increased the voidness of a layer of loosened rock soil, covering the slopes and bottom waters, as well as increased surface roughness of this layer increases the efficiency of the damping wave energy and currents. When conditions improve navigation on the approaches to the port and on its waters, the conditions of the ships in the port, as well as the operating conditions of the port of hydraulic structures: protective, berthing and shore.In the shipping channels incomplete and complete profile, irrigation and other canals reduced the flow of water, which facilitates the operation of these channels and placed them on the device.In addition, on the slopes of navigable canals performed by the proposed method, there is a damping of the energy with the procedure of dredging in rocky soil, in comparison with the known method is that, upon implementation of this method is automatically forming slopes to the specified profile, with increased volnovasya ability.Implementation of the proposed method in practice is not particularly difficult.It can be implemented using known hardware. In addition, it does not require the application of artificial building materials.Implementation of the proposed method of dredging in the rock shown in the example of the construction of the port.The proposed method is illustrated by a drawing, in which Fig.1 presents the results of dredging performed by the proposed method (plan); Fig.2 - the natural ground surface prior to commencement of work (section a-a) of Fig. 3 - surface slope and bottom waters after loosening the soil drilling and blasting method outside of the project profile section a-a) of Fig.4 - the ground surface after completion of the work, when a portion of the loosened soil extracted in the volume limited project profile, filled with a layer of bottom area in greater depth and from this soil erected underwater breakwater (section a-a) of Fig.5 - cross section approach the incision channel full profile performed in the same way.Construction of the port has access navigable channel 1 incomplete profile. The water area of the port 2 is limited converging breakwaters 3, between the heads of which are the gates of the port. For the reception of vessels 4 in the port of an internal pool 5, the perimeter of which there are berths of 6.Is the proposed method of dredging in the rock during the construction of the port in this order:
Pre-given the need to improve the wave regime and meet the conditions of safety of navigation in the approach of the shipping channel 1 to the area of the 2 calculated establish their project profile 7 with depths: at the approach of the shipping channel 1 Htowhen its length Ltoand waters 2 Handwhen its length Landand, based on the requirements of navigation, provided that the depth of Htoalways greater than the depth Hand.For loosening of rock soil drilling and blasting method initially produce the drilling of boreholes or wells and bookmark them in charge in those areas where the natural surface of the bottom 8 is located above project profile 7 construction (design pros charges produced in the band, covering the new facility and adjacent to its slopes 9 area 10 and the bottom 8 of the water area 2, and along the approach channel 1. These works are in the thick of the rocky ground, going back outside project profile 7, and the power of specified thickness in the area of slopes 9 buildings, which extinguished most of the energy waves that exceed the capacity of this column within the boundaries of the area of the bottom 8.The required average particle size of the crushed stone produced by the loosening of rock soil drilling and blasting method, and depend on this voidness loosened soil, are achieved by varying the distances between the pits or wells and facilities, put them in charge.Work on loosening of the rock material produced sequentially on separate sections of the hook.Drilling is performed with floating funds, which are used, for example, the court catamaran base type. Drilling operations can also be conducted with ice.After completion of the installation of explosive network on the prepared site make loosening of rock soil explosive method. Then similar blasting perform to the following is Radharani of the water environment from the harmful effects of explosions and first of all, for the protection of the fish fauna of the reservoir. To achieve this goal can be applied to air-bubble curtain formed along the contour of each section, which is intended to produce loosening of the rock soil drilling and blasting method. Air-bubble curtain is generated by a compressor through a system of perforated pipes or hoses are laid on the bottom along the slope 9 or ring around the charge or group of charges. Next remove the layer 11 are loosened and the rocky soil, which is above project profile 7. Remaining produced blasting layer 12 soft rock soil located at a depth ranging from project profile 7 to its lower boundary 13.On the slopes of the 9 surrounding waters (see Fig. 1, 2, 4), as well as on the slopes of 9 channels full profile (see Fig.6) the required thickness of 12 soft rock soil, measured perpendicular to the line of slope 9 varies according to the law a straight line from the value of T at the point corresponding to the base of the slope, up to size 5T - at the point of intersection of the estimated level of water in the water area 2 with a line of slope 9. On the bottom 2 layer 12 soft rock soil should have a thickness SoOn's leadership is poured as follows.First, at the point corresponding to the base of the slope 9, perpendicular to the line of slope 9 is delayed ordinate SoNext, at the point of intersection of the estimated level of water in the water area 2 with the extension of the line of slope 9 perpendicular to the line of slope 9 is delayed ordinate 5T.Then the vertices of both y are connected by a straight line, for determining the thickness of the layer 12 are loosened and the rocky soil, the height of the slope 9.In all cases, the required thickness T of the layer 12 are loosened and the rocky ground should not be less than the height h of the calculated wave on the approach slope 9. If necessary, the value of T can be adjusted on the basis of the results of experimental investigations of the interaction of clearing waves with slopes of 9.Layer 12 are loosened and the rocky soil, covering the slopes 9, has a high porosity, and its surface has considerable roughness. Under these conditions, the slopes 9 gain increased vologases ability.To delete a layer 11 of soft rock soil use, along with floating mnogozachatkovye shells, also the rod and grab odnochipovyie shells, with which this Grun the config loosened rocky ground through a self-propelled barges delivered to the sites, located at greater depths, where occiput layer 14 on the bottom area and/or from the soil erected a structure intended to absorb the energy of waves and currents, for example, an underwater breakwater 15. Dumping loosened rock soil in all cases produce only to the design of the profile 7.During the construction of the inventive method of shipping channels 1 full profile, irrigation canals and open water hydropower plants are guided by the above method of manufacturing operations. In those cases, when the work is done dry, removing the loosened rock soil is the usual career excavation autohosting technique, and for export loosened rock soil use land vehicles.Damping of wave energy on the approaches to the port and within his area created in the rock by using the proposed method of dredging will be performed in the following way (see Fig.1).On the approaches to the port energy source waves caused by wind excitement, partially extinguished due to the roughness of the bottom, covered area layer 14 are loosened and the rocky soil, which Jednoho channel 1. In the presence of an underwater breakwater 15, filled from this loosened rock soil, a significant portion of the wave energy is extinguished within it. Next part of the wave energy is extinguished on the slopes 9 approach channel 1.After passing wind waves through the gate port is further damping of wave energy due to the expansion area, and the greater roughness of the layer 12 are loosened and the rocky soil, preserved after dredging the waters 2.The main part of the remaining wave energy is extinguished on the slopes of 9 buildings, carrying out Bank protection functions and performed around the perimeter of the waters of the 2 ports of the rocky soil loosened by drilling and blasting method.Thus, the damping of the wave energy within the water area of port 2 is largely on the slopes of 9 buildings, due to the presence of specially loosened rock soil in their surface layer and partially in the water area of 2, due to the increased roughness of the bottom 8.The increase in roughness and permeability of the slopes 9, framing the water area of port 2, is a consequence of the fact that loosened the bedrock and the s this is a significant reduction in height formed on the water 2 of the reflected waves.Also decreases the wave pressure acting on the slopes 9 at the time of the collapse of the wave, thus increasing the degree of their resistance.In addition, by reducing the splash of the waves when they roll on the slopes 9, decreases the possibility of Bryzgalova, and in the condition of low temperatures is prevented significant icing adjacent territory 10.When using the proposed method of dredging in the rocky soil by increasing the friction of the water flow on the bottom of the water area 2 and the slopes of 9 to decrease the speed of currents, which is beneficial to the operating conditions of the waters of the 2 courts 4.In addition, it should be noted that when there is insufficient length of the mooring front port for berthing of vessels 4 increase may be effected through the use of slopes 9, located on the perimeter of the water area 2, for the construction of new berths 6. Newly constructed waterfront structures can be performed, for example, in the form of embankments-racks on cylindrical supports, which are drilled into the bedrock. In the berthing facilities slopes 9 will serve as podpisali slopes, which will help in the procedure of dredging during the construction of navigable canals 1 full profile irrigation and other channels, due to the increased roughness of the slope 9 and the bottom 8 channels and culverts can reduce their rate of flow of water, and in navigable channels 1 full profile in addition to avoid the harmful effects of ship waves arising from the passage of vessels 4, the operating conditions of the channels 1.It should also be noted that implementation of the proposed method of dredging in rocky soil, contributes to the conservation of natural aquatic environment.However due to the considerable voidness loosened rock soil in the layer 12 that is located outside of the project profile 7, creates favorable conditions for the existence of aquatic organisms.Sources used
1. Gorbunov D. I. Dredging. -M.: Transport, 1984, 232 S.2. Protsenko, P. C., Prozorov Century Century Technology and military construction. Part III. Technology marine hydraulic engineering works. -L.: LVIVSKA 1976, 242 S.3. G. N. Smirnov, B. F. Goryunov, E. C. Kurlovich and other Ports and port facilities. The textbook. for universities. /Ed. by G. N. Smirnova. 2nd ed., revised and enlarged extra-M.: stroiizdat, 1993, 639 S.4. Lappo D. D., Strekalov S. S. Zavyalov C. K. Load and exposure to wind waves n is a, 1990, 432 S.5. G. C. Zheleznyakov, Y. A. Ibad-zadeh, P. L. Ivanov and other Hydraulic structures. /Under the General editorship of C. P. Niedrige. -M.: stroiizdat, 1983, S. 543 1. The method of dredging in the rocky ground, including loosening of the drilling and blasting method of the rocky soil slopes along the perimeter of the basin and the bottom of the waters on the project depth with subsequent removal of the loosened rock soil, characterized in that in the production of blasting additionally in the band, covering the slopes and the adjacent territory and bottom waters outside the project profile on the slopes loosen the soil layer of variable thickness along the height of the slope and constant thickness on the bottom, then remove the layer of soil within the project profile.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that on the slopes loosen the layer having perpendicular line slope at the point corresponding to the base of the slope, thickness T, which should not be less than the height h of the calculated wave on the approach slope, and the point of intersection of the estimated level of water in the water area with a line of slope - thickness 5T, and loosen the bottom layer, having a thickness So3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that izvlecheny the th soil erected structure, designed to absorb the energy of waves and currents, for example the underwater breakwater.
FIELD: hydraulic engineering, particularly for cleaning river, channel beds and other structures of sediments.
SUBSTANCE: method for bed cleaning by sequential transversal bulldozers movement involves coarse planning river bed with the use of bulldozer with flat blade; cleaning river bed by moving bulldozers having comb-like blades with different gaps between knives thereof and forming afflux dams along river banks, wherein river bed cleaning is initially carried out by bulldozers having greater gaps between knives of comb-like blades and then by bulldozers having lesser ones. Dam bodies are formed by sequential moving bulldozers with comb-like blades so that upstream dam face comprises coarse fractions, dam top and downstream face thereof has fine fractions. After that silt free from coarse fractions are moved by bulldozers with flat blades to river bed axis to provide following carry-over thereof by high flood.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and economy.
FIELD: hydraulic engineering, particularly to prevent river or channel bottom erosion.
SUBSTANCE: method involves dividing river bed by overfalling weirs into several parts along river length, wherein the parts have design slopes of id=(21.16*(d2/3)*(h1/3))/(C2*R), here C is Shesi's coefficient, C=(1/n)+((0.45*lgR)/n), R is hydraulic radius, R=ω/λ, d - maximum diameter of 60% particles by weight in ground, h-flow depth with design supply flow rate, ω is effective flow cross-section, λ is wetted perimeter length, n is roughness coefficient, n=0.025. Overfalling weirs are formed by moving and sedimentation of bottom alluvion ground with taking into consideration of ground composition. Distance between overfalling weirs is determined from the following formulae: lw=H/(i-id), wherein number of overfalling weirs N=i/iw, where i is specific hydraulic slope which is actually equal to river bottom slope, H is overfalling weir height, l is total river length.
EFFECT: reduced cost and increased efficiency.
FIELD: hydraulic engineering, particularly in fish industry, for cleaning fish-breeding pools in fish rearing stations.
SUBSTANCE: method of deepening pool bottom and removing silt and algae with the use of special device connected to tractor, wherein the special device is scraper provided with two blades involves installing anchor in pool center in the deepest pool area, wherein the anchor is provided with pulley installed on vertical pin so that pulley may rotate in all directions about the pin; passing cable around the pulley to create closed loop and connecting the loop to tractor winch; connecting scrapper to one loop branch so that scraper blades may move in one direction to perform work and in another direction to perform idle motion; changing scraper direction after each 2-3 working travels thereof. Scraper direction is changed by moving tractor along arch having radius equal to loop length to the right or to the left along with continuing bottom deepening operation.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of water pool cleansing, reduced cost of fish growing and increased environmental safety.
FIELD: hydraulic equipment, particularly to clean channels of silt.
SUBSTANCE: method involves cutting down unnecessary trees, bushes and weed vegetation along irrigation channel berms and slopes; removing the cut down trees, bushes and weed vegetation; treating stubs of the trees and bushes and stubble remaining after weed vegetation removing. The stubs and stubble treatment is performed after hydraulic cut down trees, bushes and weed vegetation washing down to channel bottom. The stubs and stubble are trimmed for maximal possible height, the grinded fraction, silt, mineral and other waste is washed down to channel bottom. Water level in the channel is raised for height equal to 1/4-1/3 of channel depth and then decreased. Coarse fractions are removed from blocking grid surface. Fine fractions are trapped by meshed networks.
EFFECT: reduced power and labor inputs for channel cleaning and increased channel throughput.
FIELD: hydraulic equipment, particularly means for stream regulation, for instance breaking up subaqueous rock, cleaning the beds of waterways, directing the water flow.
SUBSTANCE: method involves cutting saplings, bushes and weed vegetation in area along irrigation channel berms and slopes; removing the cut saplings, bushes and weed vegetation and treating stumps and stubble; washing off the cut saplings, bushes and weed vegetation with water to bed bottom before stumps and stubble treatment; milling stumps and stubble so that final stumps and stubble have heights of 4-6 cm; washing off grinded fraction, silt, mineral and other rubbish with water to bed bottom; elevating water level in channel to height equal to 1/4-1/3 of channel depth; lowering water level in channel; removing coarse fractions from protective grid surfaces; gathering fine fractions by cellular meshes.
EFFECT: increased channel throughput and pumping installation capacities.