Modular power to obtain mainly of hydrogen from solar energy and the way to generate electricity

 

(57) Abstract:

The basic design includes a module for converting solar energy into biomass, gasification module in the form of a gasification reactor for biomass gasification, a storage module, which stores hydrogen. The transformation module contains a block for biomass harvesting and processing unit for processing biomass with the formation of the preliminary product for gasification. The gasification module connected to the processing unit using the boot device. The storage module is connected to the gasification module by using the fuel gas cleaning. The output module gasification so agreed with the capacity of the installation that the flow of the fuel gas can be used to generate steam, and the flow of another part and/or the waste heat from the modular plant can be used for drying the biomass harvested. The way of generating electricity based on the modular plant of this type. The invention allows decentralized to convert solar energy in a simple way. 8 C.p. f-crystals, 3 ill.

The invention relates to a modular power to obtain mainly of hydrogen from solar energy. The term "jus is. The term "modular power plant" means the plant contains a number of modules that perform different functions, and from which power can be collected by using the construction system of unified modules, if she was. The modules are mass manufactured items. Of course, they are connected to load lines and control lines. The invention also relates to a method of power generation by means of this modular plant.

Known modular power to obtain mainly of hydrogen from solar energy does not exist. However, the known solar power plants contain some similar elements or solar collectors to capture solar energy, which is converted into electricity using the photoelectric effect or by means of thermal effect in the use of heat engines. Other notable plants contain at least one reactor for the gasification of fossil fuels and biomass to produce fuel gas, which is used, for example, by circulating through heat engines.

"Biomass" is a generic term, oboznachaya the problem essentially - with predictable receive rate-dependent vegetation period in the region. Therefore, biomass is different from fossil raw materials, which are formed much more slowly than used. You can purchase biomass, essentially, with intact cellular structure or destroyed structure, for example in the form of fine powder. Biomass is mainly composed of such elements as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen, and contains a small amount of protein and sulfur. When the description of the invention, the term "biomass" is used in particular to denote C 4 plants classification of plants according to the type of photosynthesis (Approx. translat.) and plants that are rich in lignin. In the invention for producing biomass use, in particular, perennial plants.

Molecular hydrogen as raw material for the production of electricity is not available, so it has to get from the hydrogen-containing raw materials. When obtaining hydrogen from water by conventional electrolysis consumes more current than can be produced by hydrogen, so it should be deleted from the outset. Catalytic splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen, the process is very E unattractive for industrial applications. It has long been known about the use of coal for generation of synthetic gas consisting mainly of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Well-known and required for this installation. This process called coal gasification. When the reaction ratio of carbon monoxide and hydrogen carbon monoxide in the synthetic gas can be converted to hydrogen and carbon dioxide by introducing water vapor at elevated temperatures. Carbon dioxide can be removed easily. The resulting hydrogen can be used for a variety of purposes, in particular for electricity generation through fuel cells or for the operation of internal combustion engines.

Up to the present time, hydrogen was produced centrally in large factories, usually on the basis of the use of fossil fuels.

The invention is based on the technical problem of decentralized solar energy conversion in a simple way, mainly hydrogen. In order to solve the technical problem, the invention relates to a modular power to obtain mainly of hydrogen from solar energy, and modular power plant contains:

a) a transformation module for Preobrazhenskoye cultivation for growing plants, in particular, C4-plants that can be converted into biomass;

b) module gasification in the form of reactor for biomass gasification in the presence of water vapor with the aim of obtaining a hydrogen-containing fuel gas at temperatures and for time processing products of gasification in the gasification zone of the reactor in order to suppress condensation resin in the areas of modulation of the gas downstream from the zone of the gasification and/or located downstream module; and

b) a storage module, which stores the obtained fuel gas or hydrogen,

moreover, the transformation module contains a block for biomass harvesting and processing unit for converting biomass into advanced product for gasification, the gasification module is connected with a loading device with a processing unit, a storage module connected to the module gasification using cleaner fuel gas outlet of the gasification module and the storage module are coordinated with each other in relation to the throughput of the installation and adjusted so that the flow of the fuel gas used to generate steam, and the flow of another part and/or the waste heat from the modular plant is used for drying the biomass harvested, the size of the mod is awn installation in each case, the transformation module includes a processing unit in the form of at least one machine biomass harvesting and in the form of a shredder or tabletting tools and contains a storage device for processed biomass in order to compensate for variations in the number of processed biomass due to growth conditions, the main elements of the transform module, the module gasification and storage module made in advance in the form of elements of the modular power plant that can be transported in an assembled or disassembled state. Of course, in accordance with the invention can be installed and a number of modular power plants specified design next to each other, and the transformation module may also be designed to serve a certain number of modular power plants. The resulting hydrogen can be used on site or sold.

The invention is based on the discovery, namely, that solar energy can be obtained and stored in large quantities and in accordance with the growing period of the geographical area with little technical complexity, using natural solar collectors, i.e., plants that can be converted into biomass. Stored so the use in this form. For this individual modules are made centrally and transmitted to the storage location or, if necessary, disassemble other items for transport. At the setup module conversion prescribed way agree with the power to develop which are the gasification module and the storage module, and which to this extent is a given. The invention combines the natural process of conversion of solar energy with the elements of the hardware module of the result of the conversion with the tested blocks production of fuel gas and hydrogen, also called modules.

Specifically, according to the invention, there are various possibilities for further development and design. The preferred embodiment of the invention differs in that the gasification module is designed to allosterically gasification and its uses so that the fuel gas has a hydrogen-biomass greater than one. Mainly, the gasification module is equipped with a gasification reactor operating under pressure, and it uses steam as the gasification and pseudoviruses substance, which is in itself known for the case of the ia of the invention, module gasification is so adapted to allosterically gasification at the lowest possible temperature that the fuel gas contains at least about 50% hydrogen.

Hydrogen can be extracted from the fuel gas in a known manner and stored under pressure in pressure vessels. Instead, the hydrogen can be extracted from the fuel gas and stored in the form of a metal hydride.

Modular power plant corresponding to the invention, can be operated independently and with low costs. For this purpose, in accordance with the invention, additionally provided with a module generate steam, heated by the flow of the fuel gas. In addition, the transformation module can be equipped with a means of drying, heated by waste heat of a modular plant. In a modular plant, corresponding to the invention, the gasification turns out ash. It can return in the form of fertilizers in the transformation module. Plants that can be converted into biomass, in particular C4-plants are 5-10 or more growing seasons before dying, and before you have to refresh the area of agricultural cultivation, representing the module conversions to return in the process, in particular, in the case allostericheskie way.

The following is a more detailed technological description of the distinctive features of the invention. As for the partial oxidation, gasification module can be operated in different ways. In particular, you can call directly the partial combustion of biomass in the reactor oxidation. In particular an important variant of the embodiment of the partial oxidation causes an alternating flow heat provided and the gasification substances containing mainly water vapor. This way, in a different context, known as allosterically gasification. The heat generated from the outside, it is necessary to submit in the process allosterically gasification, since the reaction between biomass and water vapor, which forms a fuel gas, generally endothermic. Heat for the partial oxidation is possible, preferably, to produce by burning biomass or fuel gas. Mostly, the heat for the partial oxidation fed into the oxidation reactor by feeding normal taleesha gas using a heat exchanger. In another variant embodiment of the method corresponding to the invention, partial oxidation without cause feed produced is oxygen or air. This way, in a different context, is known as autothermal gasification. In its process happen reactions exothermic oxidation by molecular oxygen in the gasification substance, which thus receive on-the-spot heat required for the endothermic reaction between water vapor and biomass. Autothermal or allosterically gasification, in principle, known from "StahL und Eisen", T. 110, 1990, No. 8, S. S. 131-136, but in a different context. In a modular plant, corresponding to the invention, preferred allosterically gasification to optimize hydrogen production.

Now the invention will be described in detail with reference to the drawings, given only as an example, in which:

Fig. 1 is a block diagram of a modular power corresponding to the invention;

Fig. 2 is a functional diagram corresponding to Fig. 1; and

Fig. 3 - the further refinement of the functional circuit corresponding to Fig. 2.

In the drawings is shown a modular power plant to obtain mainly of hydrogen from solar energy. Modular powerhouse contains three modules for special purposes, i.e., the transformation module 1 for the conversion of solar energy is cultivation for growing plants, in particular, C4-plants that can be converted into biomass. Mainly will be used for perennial plants. The gasification module 2 in the form of a gasification reactor for biomass gasification in the presence of water vapor for the formation of the fuel gas at temperatures and for time processing products for the gasification in the gasification zone of the reactor in order to file a condensation resin in the areas of gasification module downstream from the zone of the gasification and/or located downstream module of the fuel elements. The storage module 3 receives rich in hydrogen fuel gas and/or oxygen. The transformation module 1 contains a block 4 for biomass harvesting and processing unit 5 to convert biomass into advanced product for gasification. The gasification module 2 is connected with a loading device 6 with the processing unit 5. The storage module 3 containing, for example, the storage medium 7 in the form of a metal hydride, is connected by using the 8 purification of fuel gas from the gasification module 2. In this design the output of the gasification module 2 and module 3 are coordinated with each other and with the capacity installed and adjusted so that the flow of the fuel gas is used for producing water vapor is assy. The storage module 3 can contain a number of storage elements, although it is not shown. The transformation module 1 contains the unit 5 for processing biomass in the form of shredder 9 or tabletting tools 10. The transformation module 1 also has means 11 for storing the processed biomass to compensate for deviations of the number of processed biomass due to growth conditions. The main elements of the transformation module 1, as well as gasification module 2 and module 3, is transported in an assembled or disassembled state, and usually pre-made centrally. As shown in Fig. 2, the gasification module 2 is designed for allosterically gasification. The actual gasification reactor 15 is designed, generally speaking, for supplying gas under pressure using water vapor, which serves as the gasification and pseudoviruses substances. In addition, in this example, the module provides 12 generate steam from the pipe 13, and this module is heated by the combustion of flow of the fuel gas. As mentioned, you can use the waste heat. Hydrogen mono to withdraw from the modular power plant through the pipeline 14 and used on site or to submit in carewaiting products for the gasification and the outlet channel 17 for ash. There is also a heat exchanger 18 for overheated water vapor. The heat exchanger 18 is heated by the combustion chamber 19, which serves the flow of the fuel gas. Water required to produce steam, down tool 20 water treatment and is served in the steam generator 21. Of course, connect the necessary pumps, valves and tools for using waste heat.

The gasification module 2 and module 3 are connected through the installation of 22, one important element of which is the reactor 23, in which the content of hydrogen in the fuel gas increases with the conversion of water gas. This installation also comprises a heat exchanger 24 and the damping means 25.

The method, illustrated in Fig. 3, it is possible to embody the invention. In this way electricity is produced from hydrogen through fuel cells. In Fig. 3 shows, first of all, the module 101 of the oxidation reactor to produce raw fuel gas containing hydrogen and carbon monoxide from biomass using oxygen-containing gasification agent. In the variant embodiment of the module of the oxidation reactor is allosterically. With this purpose, the water vapor pairwise substances. Biomass is served in the element 111 flow control biomass. Module reforming unit 102 for storing hydrogen from the raw fuel gas in the elements of the reformer 103, 103' due to the reaction with the storage material is connected to the module oxidation reactor through a cyclone filter 117, filter resin 118 and capacitor 119. With this purpose, there is a pipeline 105 the supply of raw fuel gas. Substances in suspension, separated from the raw fuel gas through a cyclone filter 117. Filter resin 118 removes unwanted minimum quantity of resin precipitation of the raw fuel gas. The remains of the water vapour obtained after allosterically gasification fuel gas is separated using a capacitor 119. The elements of the reformer 103, 103' is made in the form of reactors based sponge iron. Hidden hydrogen present in the form of carbon monoxide, also restores the iron oxide with the formation of sponge iron. The use of reactor-based sponge iron as an element of the reformer 103 is advantageous because the porous structure of the sponge iron is suitable for the filtration residues of toxic substances from the raw fuel gas. The raw fuel gas, vitekaushimi 101 of the oxidation reactor, may contain components, which can also be used, in particular hydrogen, and methane. This shows a variant embodiment of the components that are still in use, are used in the device of the combustion heat exchanger 120 to supply the module 101 of the oxidation reactor thermal energy required for allosterically gasification. The exhaust gas from the combustion chamber 120 is passed through the purifier 121 flue gas, in which, in particular, it is possible to separate carbon dioxide. Thus purified exhaust gas can be discharged to the environment. In the variant embodiment of the module of the reformer 102 contains the second element of the reformer 103'. The latter is connected to the module 104 of the fuel elements. Aqueous clean fuel gas, which contains almost no carbon can be released from the second element of the reformer 103' on the exhaust pipe 107 for clean fuel gas. For this purpose, the module reformer 102 contains the pipeline 108 supply of water vapor, whereby the water vapor gets to the element of the reformer 103'. The sponge iron reaction with water leads to the formation of hydrogen from clean fuel gas. Production of water vapor occurs in progerirh elements on the exhaust pipe 107 for clean fuel gas. This element contains at least one low-temperature fuel cell. In the variant embodiment has a photoelectromagnetic (FEM (PEM) fuel element 125. For electricity generation clean fuel gas is passed over the anode 128 located on one side of a polymeric membrane 124 of the fuel cell 125. On the opposite side of the polymer membrane 124 is the cathode 129. Oxygen, preferably atmospheric oxygen, is passed over the cathode through pipe 130 of the supply of combustible substances. As a result, the hydrogen from clean fuel gas is oxidized with the formation of water in the space of the fuel element 125 on the side of the cathode. This leads to the generation of electricity, which could be taken on the conclusion 127. In the exhaust manifold 107 for clean fuel gas can be provided a capacitor 123 for separation of water vapor from the clean fuel gas. Of course, it is recommended to leave a minimum amount of water into a clean fuel gas, since it is not necessary to prevent drying of the membrane 124 FEM fuel element 125. The control device includes first means to control the receipt of the raw fuel gas in accordance yunogo gas in accordance with the electricity, exhaust from the module 104 of the fuel elements. The first management tool contains the gas sensor 110, preferably - CO-sensor, in the exhaust manifold 106 to the raw fuel gas element 111 control the flow of biomass in the reactor module oxidation and the first controller. The second management tool contains the voltage sensor 112 for measuring voltage, generiruemogo module 104 of the fuel elements, the element 113 control the flow of water vapor in the pipeline 108 supply of water vapor and the second controller. The first and second regulators is designed as a single computational unit 114. Both the controller to function so that, on the one hand, the activation of the receipt of the raw fuel gas in accordance with the reaction of the hydrogen storing material, and on the other hand, is a separate release management clean fuel gas in accordance with the electricity withdrawn from the module 104 of the fuel elements. Specifically, the gas sensor 110 determines the course of recovery element reforming unit 103 connected to the module 101 of the oxidation reactor. If raw fuel gas is produced at a rate greater than the appropriate rate recovery in rigor is for growing. Then, the computing unit 114 reduces the supply of biomass in the module 101 reactor oxidation using element 111 flow control biomass, and Vice versa. Instead, you can manage with the help of element 116 to control the flow of the gasification agent. In the second management tool voltage sensor 112 measures the voltage drop on a heavy load on the output 127 in comparison with the nominal voltage. If the voltage drop increases, the computational unit 114 controls the element 113 control the flow of water vapor so that more water vapor is supplied by pipeline 108 supply of water vapor in the element reforming unit 103 connected to the module 104 of the fuel elements. And finally, from the drawing it is obvious that there are funds 109 to switch the pipeline 105 the supply of raw fuel gas and the exhaust manifold 106 to the raw fuel gas, on the one hand, and the exhaust pipe 107 for clean fuel gas and pipeline 108 supply of water vapor, on the other hand, between the different reactors based sponge iron. Using these switching means 109 both reforming 192 is connected to the module 101 reactor oxidation or module 104 fuel elementem 104 of the fuel elements, essentially oxidized, it is separated from the module 104 of the fuel elements of the switching means 109 and connects with the module 101 of the oxidation reactor. On the contrary, in case of a significant recovery element reforming unit 103 connected to the module 101 of the oxidation reactor, is separated from the latter and, if necessary, connects to the module 104 of the fuel elements. In order to control the switching means 109, it is advantageous to use a voltage sensor 112 and the gas sensor 110. In addition, the switching control means 109 performs the computational side 114. Of course in the implementation stages of the control corresponding to the invention, it is possible to use other means of sensors, different from those specified in the variant embodiment.

1. Modular power to obtain mainly of hydrogen from solar energy, comprising: a) a transform module for converting solar energy into biomass, essentially, not containing natural sulfur, made in the shape of the surface of agricultural cultivation for growing plants, in particular C4-plants that can be converted into biomass; b) module gasification in the form of reactor for allosterically gasifier is during the time of processing the products of gasification in the gasification zone of the reactor with the in order to suppress condensation resin in the areas of gasification module downstream from the zone of the gasification and/or located downstream module, and b) a storage module, which stores the obtained fuel gas or hydrogen, with the transformation module contains a block for biomass harvesting and processing unit for converting biomass into advanced product for gasification, the gasification module is connected with a loading device with a processing unit, a storage module connected to the module gasification using cleaner fuel gas, the outputs of the gasification module and the storage module are coordinated with each other in relation to the capacity installed and adjusted so that the flow of the fuel gas used to generate steam, and the flow of another part and/or the waste heat from the modular plant is used for drying the biomass harvested, the size of the transform module regarding the area of cultivation is selected in accordance with a given bandwidth of installation in each case, the transformation module includes a processing unit in the form of at least one machine for biomass harvesting in the form of a shredder or tabletting tools and contains means the si due to growth conditions, and the main elements of the transform module, the module gasification and storage module made in advance in the form of elements of the modular power plant that can be transported in an assembled or disassembled state.

2. Power plant under item 1, characterized in that the gasification module is equipped with at least one gasification reactor, which operates under pressure and with the use of steam as the gasification and pseudoviruses substances.

3. Power plant under item 1 or 2, characterized eat that module gasification so fit for allosterically gasification at the lowest possible temperature that the fuel gas contains at least about 50% hydrogen.

4. Power plant according to any one of paragraphs. 1 to 3, characterized in that the hydrogen separated from the fuel gas in a known manner and stored under pressure in pressure vessels.

5. Power plant according to any one of paragraphs. 1 to 3, characterized in that the hydrogen separated from the fuel gas and stored in storage means on the basis of the metal hydride.

6. Power plant according to any one of paragraphs. 1 to 5, characterized in that it is equipped with an additional module to generate steam and nagrodami conversion is connected with means for drying the preliminary product for gasification, heated by waste heat from the molar plant.

8. The method of obtaining electrical energy from raw materials, adapted to gasification, in particular from biomass, through a modular power plant according to any one of paragraphs. 1 - 7 and in conjunction with this power plant, with raw fuel gas containing hydrogen and carbon monoxide, receive module reactor oxidation of the raw materials when using oxygen-containing gasification substances, served raw fuel gas in the reformer connected to the module oxidation reactor, and the hydrogen from the raw fuel gas intermediate store them in the elements of the reformer due to its reaction with storing material, produce clean fuel gas that contains hydrogen, and, in fact, does not contain carbon, the module reforming, served in the fuel cell module, coupled with the module reforming, and carry out its circulation module of the fuel elements, control the receipt of raw fuel gas, on the one hand, in accordance with the reaction of the hydrogen storing material, and on the other hand, control the production of clean fuel gas separately in accordance with the electricity, atodkuuog gas in the module reactor oxidation exercise alltimecase using water vapor and unwanted water separated from the raw fuel gas through the condenser.

 

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