Test structure for determining the shape and geometrical dimensions of the needle of a scanning probe microscope
(57) Abstract:The test structure consists of a base and placed on its protruding microstructures geometric shapes, made in the form of needles. Needles can take the form of a many-sided pyramid or cone with the angle at the vertex of less than 20o. The radius of curvature of the tip may be less than 10 nm. Needles can be arranged regularly with a constant pitch. The test structure provides obtaining full three-dimensional image of the needle scanning microscope. 3 C.p. f-crystals, 1 Il. The invention relates to nanotechnology equipment, and more particularly, to devices, providing surveillance and changing the geometrical shape of the needle of a scanning probe microscope (SPM), including atomic force microscopes (AFM).Known test structure for a scanning probe microscope , representing the basis of the monocrystalline material is located on the microstructures in the form of strips of triangular shape in cross section. When scanning this structure in the image generated by the scanning probe microscope, describes the geometric shape of the bands. The radius of curvature of the upper ribs on polucen is Elitny edges of the test structures, we can determine the radius of curvature of the needle used for scanning. However, in this structure, it is possible to get only the radius of curvature of the tip in cross section perpendicular to the direction of the bands.This disadvantage is not present in the test patterns , consisting of a base, which caused many gold particles in the form of balls with a characteristic size of from 5 to 50 nm. After scanning this structure, we get a distorted image of the hemispheres. The shape of the distortion is possible to mathematically calculate the form of three-dimensional image of the needle of the cantilever. However, this structure allows to determine the shape of a needle only within its tip no more than the diameter of the balls used. In addition, it requires complex mathematical calculations.The purpose of the invention is the development of test structures to determine the shape and geometrical dimensions of the needle of a scanning probe microscope.The technical result of the invention is to obtain a structure in order to obtain the full three-dimensional invention needle of a scanning probe microscope without additional mathematical operations in the altitude range from a few nanometers to tens of ICRI is strong geometric shapes.Test structure for determining the shape and geometrical dimensions of the needle of a scanning probe microscope consists of a base and placed on its protruding microstructures of regular geometric shape. It differs in that the protruding microstructure in the form of needles of regular geometric shape. Needles can take the form of a many-sided pyramid or cone with the angle at the vertex of less than 20oand the radius of curvature of the tip is less than 10 nm. Needles can be located on the basis of regularly spaced.For example, when scanning the sample surface the AFM tip moves in relief microstructure, causing the bending of the beam of the cantilever of the AFM. The amount of bending is measured by the amount of feedback that supports constant the amount of cantilever bending of the beam, which allows to obtain three-dimensional image of the surface. If the cantilever tip of the AFM has a larger angle at the vertex than needle test patterns, when scanning the cantilever tip rests against his side face in the top of the needle test patterns. This leads to bending of the beam of the cantilever, which is compensated by the feedback of the AFM, thus forming a three-dimensional image gr is EPA AFM. The radius of curvature obtained on the image of the needle is equal to the sum of the radii of needles cantilever and test patterns.If the cantilever tip has an angle at the apex, less than the needle test patterns, when scanning is to be formed, the image is not needle cantilever and needle test patterns, although the radius of curvature of the needle on the received image is also equal to the sum of the radii of needles cantilever and test patterns.Currently released cantilevers for AFM have needles with angle at the top of the 20oand more and nominal radius of curvature of from 10 to 40 nm. For example, the firm Park Scientific Instruments manufactures nitride cantilevers with needles, in which the angle at the vertex equal to 70o. If the test structure has a needle, in which the angle at the vertex of less than 20owhen the scanning needles above cantilevers will form a complete three-dimensional image of the needles of the cantilevers.If the needle test patterns will have a radius of curvature less than 10 nm, the image of the needle, obtained by scanning the value of the radius of curvature will be determined by the radius of curvature of the tip of the cantilever. This significantly increases the accuracy of determining the radius krivis is when scanning the image, you can distinguish characteristic features, related to the AFM tip on the characteristics of the test structure. So, do not duplicate the image characteristic features apply only to the test structure. A recurring characteristic features may relate to the AFM tip, and to test the structure.An example of execution of the test patterns. In Fig. 1 shows an image of the test patterns obtained on a scanning electron microscope in which the needles have the shape of a many-sided pyramid with an angle at the vertex of less than 20oand the radius of curvature of the tip is less than 10 nm. The height of the needle is 0.8 μm. This structure allows to obtain full three-dimensional image of the needles of cantilevers for scanning probe microscopes in the altitude range from a few nanometers up to 0.8 micron. It does not require additional mathematical operations. On the obtained image to determine the geometry parameters of the SPM needle, such as the angle of convergence of the edges in the range from 20 to 180oand the radius of curvature of 10 nm.Needles of this structure are periodically with a pitch 2,12 μm. This allows to detect at least one needle of the lattice in a single scan using the scanner with a field of 3 μm.Literature
scope imaging standard for assessing the compressibility of biomolecules." Byophysical J., 1993, v. 65, pp. 1 - 6. 1. Test structure for determining the shape and geometrical dimensions of the needle of a scanning probe microscope, consisting of a base and placed on its protruding microstructures of regular geometric shape, wherein the protruding microstructure in the form of needles.2. The test structure under item 1, characterized in that the pins have the shape of a many-sided pyramid or cone with the angle at the vertex of less than 20o.3. Test structure on p. 1, wherein the needles have a radius of curvature of the tip is less than 10 nm.4. The test structure according to any one of paragraphs. 1-3, characterized in that the needles are regularly spaced.
SUBSTANCE: method includes recording number of particles emitted by radioactive layer on basis of number of voltage or current pulses recorded by counting device, then to measuring detector a flow of ionizing radiation is directed from calibrating standard electrode and also registered is number of particles, position of covered electrode is change no less than two times, by turning it in horizontal plane around its axis for arbitrary angle, while repeating measurement of pulses number, while measurement time is selected to be such that number of recorded pulses was no less than 3600 pulses for each measurement position, and then selection of necessary number of electrodes is calculated for forming electrode system in chamber.
EFFECT: higher precision, higher safety.
FIELD: MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGY.
SUBSTANCE: electromagnet wave is induced by means of directed aerial. The wave is incident to dielectric plate. Brusterain angle of incident wave is defined from minimum value of reflected wave and value of dielectric permeability is calculated. Power of incident and reflected waves are measured and the value of reflectivity and specific conductivity are calculated as well as value of dielectric loss of dielectric plate. Then incident angle of electromagnet wave is increased till achieving value providing total internal reflection of electromagnet wave and attenuation of intensity is measured at normal plane relatively direction of wave propagation. Factors of normal attenuation and thickness of dielectric plate are calculated. Method allows to find complex dielectric permeability and thickness of dielectric plates free of dielectric substrates.
EFFECT: improved reliability.
FIELD: electrical measurements.
SUBSTANCE: device is proposed for measurement of dielectric and magnetic permeability as well as thickness of spin coatings on surface of metal and can be used in chemical industry for inspecting composition and properties of liquid and solid media. Electro-magnetic field is induced in body of dielectric material to be inspected which material is applied onto dielectric substrate, by means of sequent excitation of slow surface waves: two E-waves are excited at different, but having almost the same value, wavelengths λr1 and λr2 and one H-wave having wavelength of λr3. Attenuation of field intensity is measured t normal plane in relation to direction of wave propagation by means of receiving vibrators system for different values of base d between them. Normal attenuation factors αE1,αE2 and αH are found from ratio of E(y)= E0 exp[-α(y) y]. Magnetic and dielectric permeability and thickness of magneto-dielectric coating are found from relations of and where has to be phase coefficient of H-wave.
EFFECT: improved precision of measurement.
FIELD: measuring engineering.
SUBSTANCE: meter determines dielectric permittivity and thickness of the oil layer by measuring at two angles unequal to the Brewster angle.
EFFECT: simplified design and expanded functional capabilities.
FIELD: radiometric testing.
SUBSTANCE: counting of electric pulses of all the detectors stops simultaneously as soon as any detector registers no less than specified number of electric pulses caused by ionizing radiation.
EFFECT: improved reliability.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: non-destructive inspection.
SUBSTANCE: primary and secondary n detectors are made of multielement converting elements made of materials having different atomic numbers. Materials are disposed in detectors subsequently starting from lower number to higher ones. Converting elements of primary and secondary n detectors are electrically connected with inputs of (1+n) analog-to-digital converters. Primary detector is rigidly fastened to collimator of radiation source and is turned to item with side having been made of material with higher atomic number. Secondary n detectors are turned to item with sides having lower atomic number. Points of stop of discrete displacement of radiator with primary detector along the rail are coincided with radial directions being placed in the middle of radial directions which form sectors and cross the items at lateral cross-section through their longitudinal axis and centers of secondary n detectors. Value of equivalent atomic number of any layer of coating is calculated from algorithm introduced into processor.
EFFECT: improved precision of inspection.
FIELD: the invention refers to the field of non-destructive control of objects with using of x-ray radiation.
SUBSTANCE: the arrangement has a source of x-ray radiation, three detectors of radiation and a scheme of processing. The characteristic feature of the arrangement is using of detectors with three-sectional converting elements with different spectral sensitivity. The technical result of the invention is increasing of energetic resolution expanding functional possibilities conditioned simultaneous measuring of the thickness of sheet material out of ferrous and non-ferrous metals.
EFFECT: the invention provides high metrological parameters.
FIELD: inspection of dynamics of changes in cellular structures.
SUBSTANCE: method concludes angular collimation of α-radiation by means of Soller collimator, registration of energy spectrum of collimated flux of particles, determination of lateral structures from the shape of registered spectrum on the base of its mathematical model.
EFFECT: improved precision; improved speed of measurement.
FIELD: non-destructive inspection of porous structure of abrasive tool strings.
SUBSTANCE: X-ray surface analyzer has X-ray radiation source, crystalline resonator - for generating monochromatic X-ray radiation, crystalline mirrors for separating and changing direction of propagation of X-ray radiation, focusing crystalline systems - collimators for registering medium-crystal-analyzer for creating interference of waves which passed different routes. One of two X-ray beams having opposite direction than the other being a reference one, is directed by diffraction optics unit system onto registering medium, which has to crystal-analyzer. The system has crystalline mirror and collimator. The other beam of X-ray radiation, which has to be the object beam when passing through collimator along the other route, falls onto object that produces a hologram to be registered. Then the beam passes one more collimator, reflecting microscope and falls onto crystal-analyzer. Image tube is used for measurements. Magnification of three-dimensional interference pattern is carried out due to reflective X-ray microscope while registering holographic image of micro-relief of porous structure of abrasive tool strings.
EFFECT: improved precision of measurements; reduced efficient time for micro-relief profile registration.
FIELD: measurement technology.
SUBSTANCE: microwave electromagnetic fields of running surface slow E-waves and E1 and E2 at two wavelengths λosc1 and λosc2 of oscillator being close in value above dielectric-metal surface at single-mode regime. Damping factors αe1 and αe2 of electric field strength are measured at normal plane relatively direction of propagation of slow surface of wave. Real value of dielectric constant and thickness of coating are calculated. Taking measured values of damping factors into account, values of deceleration are calculated for those wavelengths by relation of Directional pattern maximum angle of inclination θdp max(fz)=θe1(e2) is measured at far zone by means of vertically oriented receiving vibrator. Length of dielectric coating le1 and le2 is determined from relation of le1(e2)=0.552·λosc e1(e2)/(νdf e1(e2)-cosθe1(e2) and its value l=(le1+le2)/2 is subject to averaging.
EFFECT: improved precision of measurement of longitudinal sizes of dielectric coating.