The way to ensure safety flare system
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to chemical engineering and can be used for any business, where there is a burning need for potentially explosive gas mixtures. The way to ensure safety flare system includes measuring the concentration of oxygen in the barrel of the torch and the flow of diluent by increasing the concentration of oxygen up to a dangerous limit. Additionally continuously measuring the oxygen concentration at the outlet of the technological system, comparing it with the concentration of oxygen in the barrel of the torch and maximum explosion-proof oxygen concentration for this system. The flow of diluent is carried out with excess oxygen concentration at the outlet of the technical system and/or an increase in the concentration of oxygen at the outlet of the technological system above the maximum permissible explosion-proof oxygen concentration for a given technological system. The method provides an explosion flare system, regardless of the form of the discharge gas constant, periodic, emergency, at minimum cost of a diluent. 1 Il. The invention utmost burning of potentially explosive gas mixtures, which is the by-products of production and released during emergency discharges, particularly those that contain oxygen and fuel ratio, is insufficient to oxidize all of the fuel to the products of complete oxidation.There is a method of ensuring safety flare system by blowing them purge gas (inert or fuel with limited oxygen content) with a flow rate below the [rules of arrangement and safe operation of flare systems (PU BEF-91)]. But the known method does not provide explosion of pressure loss in the flare system directly in front of the barrel of the torch, since the purge gas flow rate is measured before the flare header that does not exclude the possibility of formation of explosive mixtures at the site of the flare system after its depressurization. The disadvantages of this method is lack of direct continuous monitoring of explosive gases in pipelines and equipment flare system.There is also known a method of providing explosion flare system by measuring the contents in the barrel of the torch and the supply of the purge gas with increasing concentration is to be used only for flare systems where it is not possible sharp rise in the oxygen content in the discharged gases. Otherwise, the method is inefficient, because the measurement of oxygen in the barrel of the torch only States the explosive situation, and the supply of the purge gas loses its meaning, because the barrel of the torch, at the time of its inclusion, due to the inertia of the devices) may be filled with an explosive mixture.The objective of the invention is to increase the efficiency of the method, which is achieved by the fact that the way to ensure safety flare system for burning waste gases of complex structure coming from the technical system to a flare system flare barrel, by measuring the oxygen concentration in the trunk and feeder thinner by increasing the concentration of oxygen up to a dangerous limit, additionally are continuously measuring the oxygen concentration at the outlet of the technological system to a flare, compare the obtained values with each other and with maximum explosion-proof oxygen concentration for a given technological system, and the flow of diluent is carried out at a higher concentration in the barrel of the torch above the oxygen concentration geologicheskiy system to a flare over the maximum allowable explosion-proof oxygen concentration for a given technological system.The diluent serves in an amount such that the oxygen content in the stem of the torch does not exceed the oxygen content at the outlet of the technological system, if the latter does not exceed the maximum permissible explosion-proof oxygen content for a given technological system. When this condition is not fulfilled, the diluent serves in an amount such that the oxygen content in the stem of the torch does not exceed 50 - 90% of the lower oxygen content in the mixture of waste gas with air, the respective upper concentration limits of flame propagation atmospheric conditions for waste gas from different types of discharge (continuous, periodic, emergency) and discharge points.Schematic diagram of the method shown in the drawing.Waste gases from the process system 1 according to the flare pipe 2 is coming to a flare stack 3, which support the flame of the pilot burners 4. The sensors measure the concentration of oxygen 5 and 6, the signals on the block comparison 7 where they are compared among themselves and with the specified value corresponding to the maximum permissible explosion-proof oxygen concentration in the process is to Truboprovod 9 with a correction for the flow of waste gas, determined by the sensor 10.An example implementation of the method is demonstrated for a single flare systems production of vinyl acetate from acetic acid, ethylene and oxygen. For this production is characterized by the presence of permanent and periodic discharges of up to 800 nm3per hour and emergency emissions of up to 7500 nm3/hour. The maximum permissible explosion-proof oxygen concentration for a given technological system installed at 8.5% vol. 02taking into account the high pressures and temperatures in the process. The oxygen concentration in the discharges from various points of the technological scheme can vary from 0 to 8.5% vol. during normal plant operation.Under atmospheric conditions the experimental data for processing mixtures of contents 02the upper concentration limit flame spread not less than 16% vol.When completely sealed flare system and the flow rate of the discharged gases, providing a linear velocity of the gas in the barrel of the torch, large 1 m/s, the sensors measure the oxygen content 5 and 6 show the same values and the diluent is not available. The mixture in the flare stem while providing up to 8.5 about. % 02but is trivalent - the oxygen. This is due to the fact that the upper concentration limits are strongly dependent on temperature and pressure.At small expenses discharged gases in the barrel of the torch mixed air through the tip of the torch, and the sensor 5 indicates a higher concentration of oxygen than the sensor 6 and flare system serves the diluent in amounts that offset the increase in oxygen content due to the receipt through the flare tip. Possible positive gradient of oxygen concentration along the height of the barrel of the torch, which is typical for small flow of gas discharged, may not significantly affect the explosiveness of the mixture in the barrel of the torch because of the large difference between the concentration at the outlet of technological systems (up to 8.5% vol.) and oxygen concentration on the upper concentration limits of flame propagation for technological mixtures at atmospheric conditions (16%).High flow discharged gas and the depressurization of the flare system through the barrel of the torch, the suction in the barrel of the torch in place of depressurization is impossible due to the fact that the pressure in the flare system in this case exceeds atmospheric.At low flow rates discharged ha is considered as the temperature of the pressure loss is limited to the conditions of natural convection. The linear velocity of the mixture gas discharged and drawn in air it will not exceed 1 m/s Increase in oxygen content in the stem of the torch will enable the filing of a diluent. Thus, in principle, although it is impossible to completely eliminate the formation of explosive mixtures in the local volume of the flare stack for a limited time, however, the ensuring explosion flare stack as a whole can be easily achieved by appropriate selection of the system performance analysis and enable a filing of a diluent.In emergency situations on a process plant, which will be exceeded 8.5% vol. oxygen, diluent enters immediately after increasing oxygen concentration at the outlet of the technological system. The selection of the appropriate system performance analysis and power supply diluent to provide explosion-proof oxygen concentration and the barrel of the torch. Thus it is enough to submit the diluent in amounts that provide a concentration in the barrel of the torch at the level of 9.6 to 14.4% vol.The proposed method has the advantage over the known methods, being more effective, with the explosion of Fakel the minimum cost of a diluent. The way to ensure safety flare system for burning waste gases of complex structure coming from the technological scheme to a flare system flare barrel, by measuring the concentration of oxygen in the barrel of the torch and feeding diluent by increasing the concentration of oxygen up to a dangerous limit, characterized in that it further conduct continuous measurement of oxygen concentration at the outlet of the technological system to a flare, compare the obtained values with each other and with the maximum permissible explosion-proof oxygen concentration for a given technological system, and the flow of diluent is carried out at the higher concentration of oxygen in the barrel of the torch above the oxygen concentration at the outlet of a technological system in the flare and/or when the concentration of oxygen at the outlet of the technical system to a flare over the maximum allowable explosion-proof oxygen concentration for a given technological system.
FIELD: burning waste gases of pyrolysis furnaces in reworking solid domestic wastes.
SUBSTANCE: proposed combustion chamber includes mixing chamber with active and passive nozzles mounted at its inlet; active and passive nozzles are connected respectively to compressed air source and to waste gas source; mixing chamber is made in form of diffuser at aperture angle of 10-18 deg; ratio of diameters of active and passive nozzles is equal to: Dact:Dpas=0.35-0.4.
EFFECT: enhanced economical efficiency of use of vapor-and-gas cycle.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: the invention refers to apparatus of regenerative thermal oxidation with multi pass valves.
SUBSTANCE: the apparatus for regenerative thermal oxidation for gas processing has a combustion zone, the first heat exchanging layer keeping heat exchanging surroundings and connecting with the combustion zone; the second heat exchanging layer keeping heat exchanging surroundings and connecting with the combustion zone; a valve for alternate direction of the gas flow between the first and the second heat exchanging layers. At that the valve has the first valve passage and the second valve passage separated from the first valve passage; a flow distributor having an admission passage communicates with the help of fluid medium with the admission opening of the surroundings and an exhaust passage communicates with the help of fluid medium with exhaust opening of fluid surroundings. At that the distributor is fulfilled with possibilities of its the first and the second valve passages between the first position in which the first valve passage communicates with the help of liquid with the admission passage and the second valve passage communicates with the help of liquid surroundings with exhaust passage and the second position in which the indicated the first valve passage communicates with the help of the fluid surrounding with exhaust passage and the second passage of the entry of the valve with the help of liquid surroundings communicates with the admission passage. At that the distributor of flow has a blocking surface which blocks the flow through the first part of the first valve passage and through the second part of the second valve passage when the distributor of the flow is between the first and the second positions and is fulfilled with possibility of its turning to 180o between the first and thesecond positions. At that valve passage is divided as the first so is the second at least into two chambers and the first and the second parts of the valve passages are congruous.
EFFECT: simplifies the construction, provides comfort of controlling and exploitation and deep removal of volatile organic combinations.
22 cl, 12 dwg
FIELD: technologies for combustion of flush gases, including those under high pressure, during extraction and processing of natural gas and oil.
SUBSTANCE: body of burner, mounted on gas inlet pipe, is made conical with widened portion at upper portion, in the body additionally mounted are two catalyst elements, at lower portion on inlet section first catalyst element is positioned, and above on outlet section - second catalyst element, rotary shutters are mounted on base of conical body in additional way, so that in closed position they are in contact with first catalyst element, and open position between first catalyst element and body gap is formed, also, device is additionally provided with one or more main torches, mounted in gas inlet pipeline below rotary shutters and first catalyst element. Relation of diameters of first and second catalyst elements matches relation of debits of hydrocarbon gas, fed in normal mode and during salvo exhaust. Catalyst elements are manufactured either in form of cell-like structured blocks with direction of channels in parallel to direction of feeding of flush gases, or in form of block sections with granulated catalyst, for example, Rachig rings, or in forms of block sections with active-catalyst metallic shavings, or in form of blocks with active-catalyst metallic meshes.
EFFECT: higher ecological safety and fullness of combustion of flush gases in broad flow range, simplified construction and comfort of maintenance.
6 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: the invention refers to industrial ecology and may be used for flameless purification of ejections of industrial enterprises.
SUBSTANCE: the reactor for catalytic purification of gaseous ejections has a cylindrical body, which interior surface is covered with a catalyst with a source of infrared radiation placed in the body, a tube heat exchanger located in the lower part of the body, a turbine mixer located in the upper part of the body and additionally - a permeable cylindrical drum out of the catalyst so that the axles of the symmetry of the drum and body coincide. The drum embraces the mixer and the source of infrared radiation fulfilled in the shape of a six-ends star is installed in the middle of the body so that its flatness is perpendicular to the axle of the symmetry of the reactor. The drawing off socket is connected with the tube space of the heat exchanger, and the feeding socket is located so as to provide heating of gaseous ejections with the heat of the gases moving out of the reactor.
EFFECT: increases effectiveness of purification of gaseous flow and reduces power inputs for heating the gas flow.
FIELD: burning combustible gas at pressure above atmospheric.
SUBSTANCE: proposed plant is used for burning lean gases; it consists of unit for burning gas at pressure above atmospheric including lean gas chamber, combustion chamber, heat regeneration section and exhaust; pipe line supplying lean gas to lean gas chamber; heat removal and pressure equalizing chamber and preheated air chamber; plant is also provided with pipe line supplying the compressed surrounding air to heat removal and pressure equalizing chamber, preheated air pipe line for delivery of preheated air to preheated air chamber; provision is made for hole for delivery of lean gas from lean gas chamber to combustion chamber and hole for delivery of preheated air from preheated air chamber to combustion chamber. Heat removal and pressure equalizing chamber is made for heat exchange between lean gas chamber, preheated air chamber and combustion chamber and compressed surrounding air; lean gas and preheated air are burnt in combustion pressure at pressure above atmospheric.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency; minimum difference in pressure between gas and air chambers.
12 cl, 12 dwg
FIELD: arrangements or devices for treating smoke or fumes.
SUBSTANCE: head comprises gas supply pipe with gas gate and protecting shield mounted outside and coaxially at the top end of the gas supply pipe. The protecting shield is composed of two baffles made of two hollow trancated cones mounted one on the other. The grater base of the top baffle faces downward, and that of the bottom baffle faces upward. The smaller base is connected with the gas supply pipe.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability and prolonged service life.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: valve comprises rotatable housing provided with passage, outer unmovable ring seal of the housing, ring seal between the rotatable housing and outer unmovable ring seal of the housing that has bore made for permitting gas to flow to the passage or from the passage. The ring seal is movable with respect to the outer ring seal of the housing. The passage and the bore are made for permitting receiving the compressed gas to provide continuous sealing between the outer ring seal of the housing and ring seal when the housing rotates. The valve is additionally provided with means for permitting gas to flow through the radial passage and between the ring seal and outer unmovable ring seal of the housing and setting ring connected with the rotatable housing and locking ring that is mounted at a distance from the setting ring and connected with the rotatable housing. The ring seal is interposed between the setting ring and locking ring.
EFFECT: simplified structure and enhanced efficiency.
16 cl, 30 dwg
FIELD: toxic flue gas combustion technology for fuel-burning units.
SUBSTANCE: flue gases are neutralized in combustion chamber; total fuel flow is bifurcated; first fuel flow is mixed up with flue gases supplied to combustion chamber and second one is conveyed to combustion-chamber burners wherein it is burned in air environment and then passed to combustion chamber. Coke gas, flue gas, or blast-furnace gas, or generator gases, or mixture thereof can be used as fuel; total flowrate of flue gases (B"G) at combustion chamber outlet, total flowrate of fuel (BF) supplied to combustion chamber, flowrate of air (BA) supplied to combustion chamber, and flowrate of fuel (BF BRN) supplied to burners are found from following set of equations (1), (2), (3), (4):
, where B'G is flowrate of flue gases from combustion chamber outlet, kg/h; T'G is temperature of flue gases at combustion chamber inlet, °C; O'2 is oxygen content in flue gases at combustion chamber inlet, %; C'G is heat capacity of flue gases at combustion chamber inlet, kcal/kg; B"G is total flowrate of flue gases at combustion chamber outlet, kg/h; BF is total flowrate of fuel supplied to combustion chamber, kg/h; BF BRN is fuel flowrate to burners, kg/h; QF L is fuel low heating value as fired, kcal/kg; O2" is oxygen content in flue gases at combustion chamber outlet, %; VA O is theoretical air flowrate for burning 1 kg of fuel, kg/h; BA is air flowrate to combustion chamber, kg/h; TG" is gas temperature at combustion chamber outlet, °C; CG" is heat capacity of flue gases at combustion chamber outlet, kcal/kg; α is excess air coefficient. Temperature within combustion chamber is maintained between 850 and 1150 °C.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of flue gas neutralization in fuel-burning units.
1 cl, 1 dwg, 3 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: chemical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises using gas made of a mixture of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the plasma burner. The plasma burner ionizes gas thus producing carbon monoxide and reactive oxygen that removes ash from the gas. Oxygen and vapor are sprayed and injected to chamber (3) that receives the device with plasma burner. The control system (6) is provided with feedback and controls the concentration of the production gas, nozzle, and plasma burner.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
29 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: the invention is designed for ventilation and may be used at equipping industrial objects.
SUBSTANCE: the system of ventilation of an industrial object has local units of suction air with polluting substances, an airway connecting the local suction units with the suction branch pipe of a boiler's blow fan. The airway is connected through drainage with the pipeline located below it with condensed and liquid fractions of polluting substances. The pipeline is switched to the suction branch pipe of the boiler's blow fan.
EFFECT: increases reliability, economy of the ventilation system of an industrial object.
3 cl, 1 dwg