The way to ensure safety flare system

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to chemical engineering and can be used for any business, where there is a burning need for potentially explosive gas mixtures. The way to ensure safety flare system includes measuring the concentration of oxygen in the barrel of the torch and the flow of diluent by increasing the concentration of oxygen up to a dangerous limit. Additionally continuously measuring the oxygen concentration at the outlet of the technological system, comparing it with the concentration of oxygen in the barrel of the torch and maximum explosion-proof oxygen concentration for this system. The flow of diluent is carried out with excess oxygen concentration at the outlet of the technical system and/or an increase in the concentration of oxygen at the outlet of the technological system above the maximum permissible explosion-proof oxygen concentration for a given technological system. The method provides an explosion flare system, regardless of the form of the discharge gas constant, periodic, emergency, at minimum cost of a diluent. 1 Il.

The invention utmost burning of potentially explosive gas mixtures, which is the by-products of production and released during emergency discharges, particularly those that contain oxygen and fuel ratio, is insufficient to oxidize all of the fuel to the products of complete oxidation.

There is a method of ensuring safety flare system by blowing them purge gas (inert or fuel with limited oxygen content) with a flow rate below the [rules of arrangement and safe operation of flare systems (PU BEF-91)]. But the known method does not provide explosion of pressure loss in the flare system directly in front of the barrel of the torch, since the purge gas flow rate is measured before the flare header that does not exclude the possibility of formation of explosive mixtures at the site of the flare system after its depressurization. The disadvantages of this method is lack of direct continuous monitoring of explosive gases in pipelines and equipment flare system.

There is also known a method of providing explosion flare system by measuring the contents in the barrel of the torch and the supply of the purge gas with increasing concentration is to be used only for flare systems where it is not possible sharp rise in the oxygen content in the discharged gases. Otherwise, the method is inefficient, because the measurement of oxygen in the barrel of the torch only States the explosive situation, and the supply of the purge gas loses its meaning, because the barrel of the torch, at the time of its inclusion, due to the inertia of the devices) may be filled with an explosive mixture.

The objective of the invention is to increase the efficiency of the method, which is achieved by the fact that the way to ensure safety flare system for burning waste gases of complex structure coming from the technical system to a flare system flare barrel, by measuring the oxygen concentration in the trunk and feeder thinner by increasing the concentration of oxygen up to a dangerous limit, additionally are continuously measuring the oxygen concentration at the outlet of the technological system to a flare, compare the obtained values with each other and with maximum explosion-proof oxygen concentration for a given technological system, and the flow of diluent is carried out at a higher concentration in the barrel of the torch above the oxygen concentration geologicheskiy system to a flare over the maximum allowable explosion-proof oxygen concentration for a given technological system.

The diluent serves in an amount such that the oxygen content in the stem of the torch does not exceed the oxygen content at the outlet of the technological system, if the latter does not exceed the maximum permissible explosion-proof oxygen content for a given technological system. When this condition is not fulfilled, the diluent serves in an amount such that the oxygen content in the stem of the torch does not exceed 50 - 90% of the lower oxygen content in the mixture of waste gas with air, the respective upper concentration limits of flame propagation atmospheric conditions for waste gas from different types of discharge (continuous, periodic, emergency) and discharge points.

Schematic diagram of the method shown in the drawing.

Waste gases from the process system 1 according to the flare pipe 2 is coming to a flare stack 3, which support the flame of the pilot burners 4. The sensors measure the concentration of oxygen 5 and 6, the signals on the block comparison 7 where they are compared among themselves and with the specified value corresponding to the maximum permissible explosion-proof oxygen concentration in the process is to Truboprovod 9 with a correction for the flow of waste gas, determined by the sensor 10.

An example implementation of the method is demonstrated for a single flare systems production of vinyl acetate from acetic acid, ethylene and oxygen. For this production is characterized by the presence of permanent and periodic discharges of up to 800 nm3per hour and emergency emissions of up to 7500 nm3/hour. The maximum permissible explosion-proof oxygen concentration for a given technological system installed at 8.5% vol. 02taking into account the high pressures and temperatures in the process. The oxygen concentration in the discharges from various points of the technological scheme can vary from 0 to 8.5% vol. during normal plant operation.

Under atmospheric conditions the experimental data for processing mixtures of contents 02the upper concentration limit flame spread not less than 16% vol.

When completely sealed flare system and the flow rate of the discharged gases, providing a linear velocity of the gas in the barrel of the torch, large 1 m/s, the sensors measure the oxygen content 5 and 6 show the same values and the diluent is not available. The mixture in the flare stem while providing up to 8.5 about. % 02but is trivalent - the oxygen. This is due to the fact that the upper concentration limits are strongly dependent on temperature and pressure.

At small expenses discharged gases in the barrel of the torch mixed air through the tip of the torch, and the sensor 5 indicates a higher concentration of oxygen than the sensor 6 and flare system serves the diluent in amounts that offset the increase in oxygen content due to the receipt through the flare tip. Possible positive gradient of oxygen concentration along the height of the barrel of the torch, which is typical for small flow of gas discharged, may not significantly affect the explosiveness of the mixture in the barrel of the torch because of the large difference between the concentration at the outlet of technological systems (up to 8.5% vol.) and oxygen concentration on the upper concentration limits of flame propagation for technological mixtures at atmospheric conditions (16%).

High flow discharged gas and the depressurization of the flare system through the barrel of the torch, the suction in the barrel of the torch in place of depressurization is impossible due to the fact that the pressure in the flare system in this case exceeds atmospheric.

At low flow rates discharged ha is considered as the temperature of the pressure loss is limited to the conditions of natural convection. The linear velocity of the mixture gas discharged and drawn in air it will not exceed 1 m/s Increase in oxygen content in the stem of the torch will enable the filing of a diluent. Thus, in principle, although it is impossible to completely eliminate the formation of explosive mixtures in the local volume of the flare stack for a limited time, however, the ensuring explosion flare stack as a whole can be easily achieved by appropriate selection of the system performance analysis and enable a filing of a diluent.

In emergency situations on a process plant, which will be exceeded 8.5% vol. oxygen, diluent enters immediately after increasing oxygen concentration at the outlet of the technological system. The selection of the appropriate system performance analysis and power supply diluent to provide explosion-proof oxygen concentration and the barrel of the torch. Thus it is enough to submit the diluent in amounts that provide a concentration in the barrel of the torch at the level of 9.6 to 14.4% vol.

The proposed method has the advantage over the known methods, being more effective, with the explosion of Fakel the minimum cost of a diluent.

The way to ensure safety flare system for burning waste gases of complex structure coming from the technological scheme to a flare system flare barrel, by measuring the concentration of oxygen in the barrel of the torch and feeding diluent by increasing the concentration of oxygen up to a dangerous limit, characterized in that it further conduct continuous measurement of oxygen concentration at the outlet of the technological system to a flare, compare the obtained values with each other and with the maximum permissible explosion-proof oxygen concentration for a given technological system, and the flow of diluent is carried out at the higher concentration of oxygen in the barrel of the torch above the oxygen concentration at the outlet of a technological system in the flare and/or when the concentration of oxygen at the outlet of the technical system to a flare over the maximum allowable explosion-proof oxygen concentration for a given technological system.

 

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