Seismic isolation base
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the construction, namely, to designs of foundations under the foundations of earthquake resistant buildings. The purpose of the invention is improving the efficiency of the damping of seismic vibrations by providing the reflection and absorption of the vibration energy of the design of seismic isolation Foundation of buildings. This goal is achieved by the fact that seismic isolation base buildings, structures includes located beneath the foundations of buildings, structures elastic base having the shape of an inverted truncated rectangular pyramid, the sides of which consist of alternately stacked horizontal and inclined layers of materials with different acoustic properties and the Central elastic core made of reinforced soil, the mass of seismic isolation base is equal to the mass of the building structure. Experimental studies on models of the proposed design of seismic isolation Foundation confirms its high seismic isolation properties. Application of seismic isolation Foundation will help to improve the earthquake resistance of buildings, structures, particularly unfavorable in seismical> The invention relates to the construction, namely, to designs of foundations under the foundations of aseismic buildings.Known for the design of earthquake resistant building Foundation, structure, increase the efficiency of the damping of seismic vibrations due to intense vertical bolt connecting the top and bottom base plate, and a horizontal rod with supports at the ends, is placed in the gap of the bulk material .The disadvantage of this design of the Foundation is its lack of effectiveness after the first stage seismography, when the elastic layer and the strained anchor exhausts damping properties.The closest technical solution to offer is the basis for the Foundation of earthquake-resistant buildings, structures, whose horizontal elastic cushion made of composite of the upper sand layer and a lower layer of crushed rock material and provided with a horizontal concrete slabs placed in the sand layer, and a gap relative to each other, and inclined elastic pillow also made of composite internal clayey-sand layer and the outer of crushed rock soil, when the P> The disadvantages of this Foundation are the low efficiency of seismic protection due to the small difference of the acoustic stiffness of the elastic layers of pillows and the integrity of the system the basis is the Foundation upon exhaustion of the absorption properties of the materials of pillows under seismic vibrations.The purpose of the invention is improving the efficiency of the damping of seismic vibrations by providing the reflection and absorption of the vibration energy of the structure siamosaurus the base of the building structure.This goal is achieved by the fact that seismic isolation base buildings, structures includes a braided belt in a horizontal elastic cushion placed under the Foundation, and an inclined elastic cushion, placed on the sides of the Foundation and the bottom and side elastic cushion braided belt made of alternating layers of materials, the acoustic stiffness which differs hundreds of times, and the Central elastic core Foundation of reinforced soil, the mass of seismic isolation base is equal to the mass of the building structure.Seismic isolation Foundation under the Foundation 1 buildings, structures 2, located in the pit 3, includes: a lower and Bo and polyurethane foam, rubber 5; Central elastic core made of clay soil, laid in layers with a seal (7) and reinforced by geogrid or steel strip reinforcement (6); soil backfill 8.The principle of seismic isolation Foundation under the Foundation 1 buildings, structures 2 is as follows.Seismic waves acting on the basis of buildings, structures 2, repeatedly reflected on the limits of the "hard" 4, and "soft" 5 layers of screening zone, the acoustic stiffness which differ in hundreds of times, and therefore the partition boundary layers 4 and 5 there is a large number of interfering waves, which will be mutually strengthened, i.e., the reflection coefficient increases significantly and will lead to significant attenuation of the seismic signal.In the basis of seismic isolation in addition to the reflected seismic waves occur significantly weakened passing and passing exchange waves penetrating the Central elastic core of reinforced soil. The elastic core is in triaxial stress state and the function of the absorption of passing seismic waves. When exposed to earthquake shock seismic loads are reduced sledstvennoe device, reflecting and absorbing seismic waves. The equality of the masses that make up the system: building - seismic isolation base, provide optimal transfer function of this system, as absorbed by the ground wave is damped by the mass of the seismic isolation base and smooth out large rigidity of the base. In principle it is possible to choose the design of seismic isolation base of the building, structure (number, thickness and acoustic stiffness of the layers for specified seismic impact that the effect of the earthquake on the building, the building will be minimized or eliminated completely.Conducted on models of experimental studies of the proposed design of seismic isolation Foundation confirms its high seismic isolation properties.Application of seismic isolation Foundation will help to improve the earthquake resistance of buildings, structures, particularly in the construction of the adverse seismic soils, such as subsidence, bulk, stacked heterogeneous soils, etc.Sources of information
1. USSR author's certificate N 981512, E 02 D 27/34, 1982.2. Copyright witness the shielding zone in the form of a horizontal elastic cushion, placed under the Foundation, and an inclined elastic cushion, placed on the sides of the base, characterized in that the bottom and side elastic cushion is made of alternating layers of materials, the acoustic stiffness which differs hundreds of times, and the Central elastic core Foundation of reinforced soil, the mass of seismic isolation base is equal to the mass of the building structure.
FIELD: building, particularly for erecting pile-plate foundations for industrial buildings and structures, for instance for main buildings of heat power plants.
SUBSTANCE: method involves arranging drilled cast-in-place pile, grouting plate grillage and installing antivibration mounts. Anchorage reinforcement is placed in pile heads and arranged along marked building axes. Anchorage reinforcement is then grouted and resilient antivibration mounts are installed at pile heads. Resilient antivibration mounts are fixed in plane on anchorage reinforcement with the use of fasteners so that antivibration mounts may perform restricted movement. Installed on antivibration mounts is rigid metal foundation frame of upper building in which anchoring reinforcement for securing skeleton of building to be erected is installed. Reinforcement rods and supply lines are inserted in process orifices formed in foundation frame beams and frame is grouted to form panel grillage.
EFFECT: reduced work content, increased simplicity and speed of bearing grillage frame erection; improved building stability.
9 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly frame structures for civil and industrial buildings to be erected mainly on sinking territories or territories to be developed.
SUBSTANCE: method for connecting eccentrically loaded column with foundation by fixing thereof in orifice formed in foundation involves forming composite multi-stepped foundation having central, medium and outer steps and through wedge-like orifices made in each step, wherein orifices taper downwards with cone angle of 1/10 to 1/5 (5.7 - 11.3o) and each step and lower column end are also wedge-like and have cone angles of 1/12 - 1/6 (4.8 - 9.5o), steps are inserted one into another and wedge-like column end extends into central orifice of central foundation step; tightly installing pair of force mounting wedges in gap between wedge-like column end and foundation, wherein each mounting wedge comprises two levers pivotally connected by the first ends to change cone angle of wedge and to regulate column verticality; securing jack communicating with hydraulic pulsing pumping plant to one lever; filling gap between foundation steps and gap between wedge-like column end and foundation with solid powder material, particularly with crushed granite with particle dimensions of 5 - 10 mm; covering upper part of central orifice of central step with concrete plug of 40 - 50 mm thickness along column perimeter; arranging centering pads on concrete plug symmetrically about eccentrically loaded column; installing pair of jacks on centering pads; securing mounting device formed as split terminal including L-shaper rests pressed to column and connected one to another by means of two bars and pins with stressing nuts, wherein jack pistons cooperate with L-shaped rests from below to maintain design position of eccentrically loaded column and to solidify powder material in gap between column tip and foundation orifice wall.
EFFECT: provision of straightening column position relative foundation without connection unit damage; increased reliability of anchoring eccentrically loaded column in foundation.
FIELD: anti-seismic protective units for buildings and structures.
SUBSTANCE: proposed protective unit includes many modules laying in one plane at contact with each other; each module consists of two identical parts made from rigid plastic material and connected in center by means of silent-block; used automobile tire is placed between them, thus forming deformable elastic chamber filled with granule-like elements made from plastic material; granule-like elements possess hydraulic properties.
EFFECT: possibility of weakening, dissipating and dampening seismic wave.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: construction, particularly to construct buildings and structures in earthquake zones or special-purpose objects.
SUBSTANCE: multistory earthquake resistant building includes upper spatially stiff stories defined by columns, crossbars, floor panels and well panels; ground or the first floor formed of kinematical posts with rounded upper and lower edges so that posts may perform stable swinging during earthquake along groves. The grooves are formed in upper framing members created as a part of floor panel or ground floor and in lower framing members made as a part of foundation bearers. Rounded post edges have variable curvature acting as lockable and releasable links and limiting large horizontal movement along with retaining post capacity to reduce seismic forces affecting on buildings and structures during earthquake. Kinematical posts are monolithic or composed of several parts without embedded members. Horizontal cross-section of each kinematical post define star with 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 … n points, wherein unrestricted number n of star points create stiffening ribs.
EFFECT: increased efficiency, strength and stability of the support under broad earthquake frequency spectrum.
FIELD: construction, particularly to erect buildings and building structures on permafrost ground, which may thaw during building or building structure usage.
SUBSTANCE: method involves digging-out pit; filling the pit with nonfrost-susceptible material; introducing reinforcing members in the nonfrost-susceptible material and mounting foundations. The reinforcing member is made as rigid reinforced concrete panel arranged in compacted nonfrost-susceptible material layer. Distance between foundation bottom and panel top is selected to provide uniform load transmission from the foundations to the panel. Upper panel surface is formed of heat-insulation material and sloped parts inclined from panel center to panel periphery are created. Panel rigidity is related with thawing permafrost ground deformation extent.
EFFECT: reduced building deformation caused by non-uniform deformation of thawing permafrost ground.
FIELD: foundations for special purposes, particularly foundation platforms connected to tanks.
SUBSTANCE: reinforced concrete beams or trusses are installed between reinforced concrete panels of upper and lower belts of three-dimensional platform. Reinforced concrete beams or trusses have inclined upper face and are connected one to another in center by monolithic rigid core. The reinforced concrete panels have trapezoid or segmented shape in plane. Reinforced concrete beams or trusses with key connections are located in parallel between reinforced concrete panels of upper and lower belts. Tank walls and coverings have arched structure shaped as prismatic polyhedron inscribed in cylindrical surface defined by square parabola or another curve with generatrices parallel to beams or trusses of three-dimensional foundation platform.
EFFECT: increased structural efficiency due to increased reliability of three-dimensional foundation platform, reduced metal consumption and labor inputs.
2 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly pile foundations including floating piles.
SUBSTANCE: method involves injecting hardening mortar via injectors driven in ground in area between the piles and at pile ends for depth exceeding 1-2.5 m, wherein the injectors are spaced 1.5-2.0 meters apart. The hardening mortar pressure gradually increases. The hardening mortar is injected up to creation of hydraulic fracture cavities having 1.5-2.0 m radii around each injector. Then the injection operation is preformed under constant pressure of 2-10 atm to consolidate and reinforce ground, compress the piles to multiply load-bearing capacity thereof by 1.5-2 times.
EFFECT: increased load-bearing pile capacity due to increased side friction and head resistance.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: tire utilization and use in building, particularly to erect earthquake resistant foundations for low buildings, to construct road beds in marshlands and to erect mudflow control structures of used tires.
SUBSTANCE: method involves laying tires one upon another in several layers so that tread tire parts are in close contact with each other; connecting the tires by inserting fastening members in tire interiors. Tires are grouped in the first tire layer and then perforated strips are installed in interior of each tire. Number of strips depends of number of adjacent tires. Perforated strip orifices are spaced apart a distance corresponding to tire layer thickness. Then adjacent tires are pulled together by means of fastening pins having flat non-threaded parts. The pins are located from top and bottom of tire sides. Then next tire layers are laid and connected in the same way to provide stack having necessary height. Spaces defined in tire stacks and between the tires are filled with filler.
EFFECT: increased reliability of tire connection.
FIELD: building equipment, particularly foundations for sinking or earthquake territories.
SUBSTANCE: method involves determining active vibration zone and surface length wave; creating vertical screen between active vibration zone and building or building structure to be protected as at least one well row, wherein the wells are drilled for depth equal to at least 0.5 of surface wave length and straight line passing from any active vibration zone point to extreme points of vertical screen does not cross building or building structure foundation; creating additional screen under building or building structure base as a number of wells drilled in accordance with uniform grid pattern for length of not more than vertical screen depth. Wells forming vertical and additional screen are treated with consolidating solution.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of building or building structure protection against vibrations or seismic inflexibility of building and building structure base ground.
FIELD: construction, particularly to erect heavy structures on compressible ground in seismic zones.
SUBSTANCE: method involves driving piles; connecting members formed as inversed cups to pile heads; connecting pile heads with slab-like raft. In the case of foundation construction in seismic zones plies having different lengths are used. Long piles are arranged along longitudinal and transversal axes of load-bearing walls. Short piles are driven between main ones. Reinforcement bars of short piles are introduced in raft body for length equal to bolting length necessary to create rigid joints after raft concreting. Before raft concreting members made as inverted cups are put on long pile heads to create gap with thickness equal to half of immersion depth admissible for structural layout of building under construction. Foamed polystyrene layer having thickness equal to gap thickness is formed on upper ends of long piles.
EFFECT: extended technological capabilities due to increased building structure load transferred to structure foundation and be taken by slab and decreased structure immersion.