Method of underground mining of bedded deposits of minerals

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the field of mining, particularly underground coal mines. The block of a mine field open vertical blind trunks carried out bottom-up from group a horizontal underground workings, while group horizontal excavations carried out in the soil bottom of the develop beds in the depth of the lower boundary of a mine field and combined with the main lifting, revealing the seam. Improving the efficiency of the method. 5 Il.

The invention relates to the field of mining, particularly underground coal mines.

When exploitation of coal deposits in the existing technical environment quite often mine field is divided into blocks along strike or dip. In the center of the mine field usually spend two (rarely three) vertical shaft, of which one serves for lifting the rock mass coming from the faces of all blocks, mines, second (second and third) - for running, lifting people, equipment, materials and ventilation purposes. In each block, in addition, carried out (at the main odalismaria, ensure ventilation.

View more revealing the workings in this case (capital, elevation of crosscuts, Gusenkov and others) is based on a number of geological and mining factors.

Each of the blocks is prepared for extraction by applying panel, and elevation or story of ways to prepare, or a combination of both. With regard to the development system, its version, and the method of preparation, is selected depending on the geological and mining factors (see, example, Mountain encyclopedia, T. 1, M: Publishing house "Soviet encyclopedia", 1984, S. 247).

This method of mining of bedded deposits usually used when large production capacity of the mine and requires not only unloading yard with large bandwidth, but the presence of accumulating tank of large capacity. The disadvantage of this method is also a significant amount of holding and maintaining roadways, inclined, 1,000 tonnes production.

There is a method of underground mining of bedded deposits of minerals, including division of a mine field into blocks by konturirovany preparatory workings, pitogo block in descending order by bands from the boundaries of the block to the center (see auth. St. 1097796, CL E 21 C 21/04, 1983).

This method of underground mining of bedded deposits of minerals has the following disadvantages. First, contribuye blocks preparatory workings dramatically reduces the number of possible prepare them for extraction and testing. For example, in terms of the maintenance of mining production, preparing in General, the unit for operation, must be field. In this case, they will be mostly in the rocks under the block, and does not delineate it. Reservoir production part of it is more efficient to not immediately on the entire length, but only at a certain distance in front of the face, and they also will not delineate the original block. Secondly, the sinking of vertical shafts thereon rock mass on the surface and, therefore, will need to have a significant cross-section and a large number of pit-yards in the mine field that is used only during testing of one unit. Furthermore, the presence of vertical shafts in each block, having access to the earth's surface, but otherwise is not possible with the known method of conducting mining operations in the block, will require studies of large areas on the surface, the length of the chain binding the concentration of activities on the surface of the mine, the worsening economic situation in the region. And, finally, the opening of the block vertical trunks of cars on the horizon unit out of touch with a network of other mine workings will not allow commissioning of the stocks on the free areas adjacent to the working of a mine field.

The aim of the present invention is to improve the efficiency of the method of underground mining of bedded deposits of minerals.

This objective is achieved in that in the known method of underground mining of bedded deposits of minerals, including division of a mine field on the blocks, holding vertical shafts in each block at the lower end of each block, the refinement of each block in descending order by bands from the boundaries of the block to the center, vertical blind trunks spend upwards of a group of underground workings, this group horizontal excavations carried out in the soil bottom of the develop beds in the depth of the lower boundary of a mine field and combined with the main lifting revealing generation.

In Fig. 1 is a diagram of the preparation and testing of single layer Suite of thin shallow coal seams in PREDPRIJATIE. In Fig. 2 shows a section transverse to the extension layers. Note that from the traditional schemes of Stripping and development of mine fields using blind trunks or esenkov the proposed scheme is characterized by the presence of transport horizon with horizontal workings laid down on the level of the lower border of a mine field.

The proposed method development includes two Central dual dual vertical shaft 1 and 2, passed to the depth of the bottom of the technical boundaries of a mine field, unloading yard 3, group horizontal excavations 4 and 5 (first (4) passed along the strike of the formation, the second (5) is transverse to the extension of the reservoir), the lateral vertical trunks 6, 7 and 8 (the number may be different), and Fig. 1 shows a barrel for the descent of the rock mass (6), to support operations, and skip the fresh air stream (7), for a descent-ascent people. From the shafts 6, 7 and 8 are the mining production of 9 and 10, a split furnace is mounted, and excavation of minerals in a mining face block. This mountain mass of the treatment and development faces is transported to the trunks 1 and 2 according to the scheme: cleaning the bottom - longline haulage drift - block vertical shaft horizontal is me mining of bedded deposits of provides in comparison with the known method a smaller amount of the holding opening and development workings.

Confirmation of the above are rough estimates of the volume of the holding opening and development workings on known and proposed methods (see Fig. 3, 4 and 5). The calculations are performed for the slope part of the mine field (8000 m along strike x 1200 m down dip) single flat layer (the angle of incidence of the 15o). The lower boundary of a mine field is located at -900 m. Unit dimensions: 200 m in the fall of 2000 m along strike.

For testing the slope of part of a mine field in a known manner for the entire period of operation is completed (see Fig. 3, the necessary production, shown by the solid line in Fig. 4):

block vertical shafts

5250 m 3,14 1,524 = 148365 m3< / BR>
(the diameter of the shafts adopted 3 m);

unloading yards in volume one = 17300 m3(adopted 4 times less than at the mine head with a capacity of 1800 tons)

17300 m37 4 = 484400 m3< / BR>
Total: 632765 m3< / BR>
For development of a mine field for the proposed method will need to pass (see Fig. 3, the necessary production shown in dotted lines and Fig. 5).

Two Central-twin vertical shaft depth of 900 m each (diameter trunks adopted on 8 m)

2 barrel 900 m 3,14 < / BR>
block vertical trunks (average diameter of a single trunk adopted 2 m excavation field prepared 6 trunks, 3 of which are used twice)

3 barrel 1050 m 3,14 1,024 = 39544 m3< / BR>
passing generation and reception area at block vertical shafts (section 17 m2)

60 m 17 m27 4 = 28560 m3< / BR>
passed along the strike of a mine field section 17 m2each

6000 m 2 generation 17 m2= 204000 m3< / BR>
passed across the stretch

1170 m 2 generation 17 m24 = 160120 m3< / BR>
Total: 591856 m3< / BR>
Number does not include the volume of construction of technological systems on the surface, transport and communications and others, only exacerbate the disadvantages of this method. In addition, the proposed method of vertical trunks are bottom-up, which allows the use of more efficient equipment.

As for maintaining a horizontal development workings, it is unlikely that the costs will have a significant impact on the effectiveness of the methods, as they will be unloaded from the mountain pressure zone.

The method also allows

to have a great deal to the

to open and work free sites shahtoplastov adjacent to the existing mine field without holding the main lifting revealing generation, construction of a new surface and communications for various purposes (after the reserves of a mine field for the proposed method remain powerful unloading yard and trunks, horizontal transport horizon with which to open a new mine field).

Method of underground mining of bedded deposits of minerals, including division of a mine field on the blocks, holding vertical shafts in each block at the lower end of each block, the refinement of each block in descending order strips from the border of the block to the center, characterized in that the vertical trunks conduct blind bottom-up from a group of underground workings to the reservoir, while group horizontal excavations carried out in the soil bottom of the develop beds in the depth of the lower boundary of a mine field and combined with the main lifting revealing the seam.

 

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FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes driving of layer transporting and ventilation mines along soil and ceiling of bed, in massive and in extracted space, cutting of cleaning mines in cross-section of bed at angle of 27, mechanized delivery of coal along bed mines to coal furnaces and vertical dropping of coal to furnaces. Extraction of slanted transverse bed is performed along bed diagonals having direction to horizon at angle of 27, to provide for free sliding of coal without degradation. Delivery of coal from cleaning mine placed at angle of 60 to layer mine, to back field mine is performed by self-delivery from any place of extraction field along layer mine, field coal-lowering mine and field slanting coal furnace, being at angle of 27 to horizon. Field slanted coal furnaces are placed at distance from one another along 20 m normal. Field coal mines in form of fans of three mines are connected on field slanted coal furnaces at distance of fan start from one another of 60 m with output of mines ends to each layer mine of group of three above-lying slanted-transverse layers for whole diagonal length of extraction field at distance between mines outputs along layer soil of 60 m. Ceiling of cleaning mines may be supported without load, utilizing mechanical traction on the side of ventilation furnaces for pressing moveable support tool to layer ceiling.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method for extraction and underground use of coal includes cleaning extraction and dumping of coal, fixing and controlling ceiling and transporting coal along face to drift. On the drift, in moveable generator, coal is pulverized for intensive burning with use of jets in water boiler firebox, where high temperature of steam is achieved (about 1400 C), enough for decomposition of water on oxygen and hydrogen. These are separated, then oxygen is fed back to jets, and hydrogen is outputted along pipes and hoses in drifts and shaft. Variants of underground generator for realization of this method are provided. Also provided is method for extraction of disturbed coal beds by short faces. It includes extraction and dumping of coal on face conveyor, fixing of ceiling behind combine, moving conveyor line and support sections in direction of cleaning face displacement, control of ceiling with destruction and partial filling. Extraction of coal is performed in short curvilinear faces by long stripes along bed, in straight drive without forwarding drifts, with preservation and reuse of ventilation and conveyor drifts, equipped with mounting manipulator robots, with fixing behind combine by automatically operating support deflectors without unloading and displacing sections in area of coal extraction. Extraction and transporting of coal is performed by fast one-drum combine and curvilinear reloading conveyor, supplying coal to drift conveyor or immediately to underground gas or energy generator placed immediately on drift. Also proposed is face scraper conveyor for realization of said method, wherein pans are made with step along front face profile, greater, than along back one, while forming common line curved towards face with constant curvature. Also proposed is a method for controlling complex for unmanned coal extraction.

EFFECT: higher efficiency, effectiveness, broader functional capabilities.

8 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes determining gas potential of extracted bed in limits of extraction area and monitoring of relative gas-escape from extracted bed and of extracted coal with withdrawal of lava from mounting chamber. Value of primary step of main ceiling destruction is set on basis of distance from mounting chamber to point of minimal gas-kinetic coefficient values closest to it, as which coefficient relation of relative gas-escape to bed gas potential bed is taken. Value of destruction step is determined from mathematical relation, considering distance from mounting chamber to closest point of said coefficient minimal values. It is possible to construct a graph of dependence of gas-kinetic coefficient from distance between face and mounting chamber. Portions of extraction field, wherein periodical changes of gas-kinetic coefficient are observed, are related to areas of geological irregularities influence. On basis of decrease of amplitude of maximal oscillations of gas-kinetic coefficient displacement of face to exit of geological irregularities area is detected, and on basis of increase - entrance therein.

EFFECT: higher precision, higher speed of operation.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes erection of rows of main platforms along bed length in staggered order with length equal or divisible by step value for support displacement, and placing filling material thereon. Along length of main platforms between ceiling and bed soil post support is mounted, upon which filling material is fed. After that between main platforms additional platforms are erected with wedge supporting, and main platforms are rotated counter-clockwise towards pneumatic support and it is displaced for one drive step. During that filling material, while lowering, unwedges wedge support between ceiling and bed soil and forms artificial supports. After that additional platforms are rotated counter-clockwise towards pneumatic support. After movement of cleaning face for two drive steps operations for constructing artificial supports are repeated. Distance between main platforms along bed fall line are selected from mathematical expression.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes preparation of slanting extraction fields at whole area, driving transport drifts, driving ventilation drift for upper extraction field and use of transport drifts of extracted fields as ventilation drifts during extraction of lower extraction fields, and preparation of chamber for coal through block lower than transport drift. Transport drift and chamber are driven with straight preparation and extraction order for extraction fields, using solid system of fields extraction. Chamber is connected to transport drift by links and is driven in advance relatively to it with slant to provide for free draining of water from transport drift and chamber. Chamber width is set on basis of condition for displacement of working toll of technological extraction complex in it.

EFFECT: higher intensiveness, higher reliability.

3 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes preparation of slanted extraction fields, driving transport drifts, driving ventilation drifts for upper extraction field and use of transport drift of upper extraction field as ventilation during preparation of lower extraction field, driving two chambers through block in parallel to transport drift. Lower chamber is driven with advance relatively to transport drift and to upper chamber and with slant, providing for free flow of water from transport drift and both chambers. Transport drift is periodically filled with breakthroughs to upper chamber, which is by breakthroughs connected to lower chamber. Width of lower chamber is set in accordance to condition of placement of working tool of technological extraction complex therein, and width of upper chamber - from condition of placement of rock therein which is product from driving of transport drift. Transport drift and both chambers are driven with straight preparation and extraction order of extraction fields, using solid system of extraction fields extraction.

EFFECT: higher intensiveness of operation.

3 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes driving mines, drilling saturation wells along mineral resource, pressurization thereof by pressurizing means, feeding of softening reagent under pressure and saturation of mineral resource massif. Additionally saturation wells are drilled at bed ceiling, pressurized and softening reagent is pumped therein with 1-2 day exposure after forcing of reagent into mineral resource massif. Well along ceiling are placed at an angle so that distance from pressurizing means location to line of contact of ceiling to mineral resource was not less than saturation radius, and distance between wells was not less than 2-3 saturation radiuses. Between saturation wells along bed ceiling additionally drilled are wells for explosive substance charges with slant for 15-20 degrees greater, than slant of saturation wells, while the distance between saturation wells in this case is increased to 3-4 saturation radiuses. For prior processing of mineral resource by softening reagent a mine is driven in front of cleaning operations front, from which on both sides along mineral resource bed wells are drilled for feeding softening reagent therein, and after end of processing and removal of pressurizing means mine is equipped with degassing pipes.

EFFECT: higher efficiency and higher safety.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes drilling a system of hydraulically connected wells, directed and horizontal, cased and not cased along coal bed. Hydrodynamic and fire effect on coal bed is performed through these. Gassing and degassing processes for coal bed are performed serially via a system of hydraulically connected wells. In that case degassing process is performed by thermal treatment of channels of coal by counter-flow displacement of burning source after combustion of coal bed in one of wells. Then neutral gas is forced into system of hydraulically connected wells, ignited zone is quenched and coal methane is extracted from several wells, equipped for degassing. Gassing process is performed via repeated combustion through specially drilled vertical well and forcing flow into directed cased wells. Formed combustible gas is drained through directed non-cased wells in direction by normal lines from horizontal transverse well.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

1 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes separating bed on levels by driving level drifts, driving sublevel drifts, separating levels on sublevels, extraction of mineral resource in sublevels by hydraulic monitors, transporting caved-in enveloping rocks to extracted space of lower sublevels. Extraction of bed is performed without leaving of any coal blocks between extracted spaces of adjacent levels. During extraction of lower sublevel, adjacent to upper boundary of even lower level, extracted space is filled within limits of current sublevel with empty rocks, while slanting height of backfill massif is taken to be greater than 0.6 horizontal bed massiveness. Slanting height of lower sublevel is taken to be greater than slanting height of backfill massif.

EFFECT: higher personnel safety, higher efficiency, lower costs.

1 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes driving mines in front of cleaning face, processing ceiling and mineral resource by softening agents and extraction of it by cleaning combines with additional removal of mineral resource from below the ceiling. In massif below the ceiling shafts and mines are driven at maximal distance on basis of capabilities of used drilling equipment, not allowing during drilling fro processing massif below ceiling deviation from it until contact with surface by face-adjacent ceiling, supported by cleaning combine support, and distance between following driven mines is doubled, which mines are necessary for displacement of drilling equipment and equipment for feeding softening agent into wells. After finishing its pumping these wells and mines are used through connections in shafts with removing pipeline for extracting methane and degassing mineral resources. Stack of mineral resource unprocessed by softening agent has value of no more than one-two steps of extraction of coal bands along whole length of cleaning face, and the very removal of mineral resources from massif is performed in portions along whole length of mineral resource no more than 2-3 thicknesses f cutting bands of mineral resource. Device for cutting massif includes sections of mechanized support, containing base, connected to spreader posts, extending executive tool. Combine support on the side of cave-in between back posts has wedge-shaped cutting posts, hydraulically connected to back posts. Cutting posts are provided with individual means for controlling feed and draining of hydraulic liquid. Cutting posts have devices, forming in case of their spreading vibration of hydraulic liquid sent to them.

EFFECT: higher efficiency, higher personnel safety.

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