Lubricating composition


(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to a lubricant composition that is used as insulation filler for an electrically insulating material for highly loaded friction units, processing of metals by pressure, as rail lubrication. The inventive composition comprises, in wt.%: solid 5-95; lubricating base 5-95; as filler contains processed in energonaprjazhenie mill blend, wt.%: synthetic detergent 3-10; metal-containing compound and/or metal powder from the group of copper, aluminum, zinc, lead, molybdenum, or a mixture thereof 2-5; cryptocrystalline graphite or talc 45-75; scaly graphite or talc 10-50; rail lubricant contains, % : solid 10-20, bitumen 5-15, atactic polypropylene or resin rosin 5-10 gasoline else, and lubricant for metal forming includes, %: solid 5-10, ammonium salts of lignosulfonic acids 1-6; monoethanolamine 0,3; triethanolamine 0,2; oleic acid 0.5 to 1; stearic 0.4 and water - the rest. The technical result of the invention is the environmental security, low cost and increase performance properties. 2 C.p. f-crystals, 3 tables.

Known application of expanded graphite blade structure with a specific surface area up to 200 m2/g as a thickener petroleum oils.

The use of expanded graphite in comparison with graphite s-1 reduces the amount of thickener.

The method includes the processing of natural graphite 10% solution of sodium bichromate in concentrated sulfuric acid, centrifuging, washing with distilled water, drying, fast heating at 600 to 1000o(Ed.mon. USSR N 896060, CL 10 M 5/02).

The expanded (annealed) graphite during the heat treatment in the interlayer space rush of oxygen-containing groups, resulting in the surface hydrophilized. Due to the selection of oxygen-containing groups of the graphite when the lubricant in the friction zone, you receive an abundance of free and combined oxygen, which contributes to the oxidation (corrosion) steel and cast iron in the metal.

Preferred for use in the lubricant is clad graphite, providing part of the necessary components (metals - copper, zinc, aluminum, lead, molybdenum, sulfur, phosphorus; gas is Oia, which comprises a solid filler, lubricant base (patent RF N 2072390, CL 10 M 169/04).

The lubricant must meet specific requirements:

- the grease must not be environmentally harmful components;

- level anti-friction properties coefficient of smoothness, measured by the ratio of the coefficient of static friction fn to the coefficient of sliding friction fc intermittent friction for the stepwise slide (standard American society of testing materials ASTM 2877-70) should be no higher than 1,0;

lubrication should form a thin solid film with high adhesion, to which no adhesion of the abrasive particles, the film should be dry in no more than 5-7 min;

- sedimentation stability of the lubricant should be more than 50-70%, simplifying its use in the operation.

When the sedimentation stability of the lubricant is less than 50-70% insoluble components deposited on the bottom of the tank and in the pipes feeding systems, hammering them. It worsens working conditions (it is necessary to pause to clear blockages in the system and increases the energy consumption for mixing of the lubricant in the supply system.

Quick-drying lubricant with solid graph satisfying the above requirements in full.

In the lubricant concentrate according to the prototype used graphite, which determines the low sedimentation stability of the lubricant, in addition, the lubricant contains harmful fillers such as desulfobacteriaceae resin.

The technical problem to be solved by the inventor, is environmental safety, cheapness and availability lubrication, improving tribological and performance properties of lubricants, increased sedimentation stability and weather resistance, the expansion of technological capabilities.

To solve this technical problem proposed lubricating composition containing a solid filler and a lubricant base, characterized in that the filler comprises a mixture of synthetic detergent (SMS), metal-containing compound and/or metal powder selected from the group: copper, aluminium, zinc, lead, molybdenum, or mixtures thereof, and cryptocrystalline flake graphite or talc treated in energonaprjazhenie mill when Energogarant not less than 50 g (g is the gravitational constant) to qualitative homogenization of the mixture and vysokotochnogo grinding to a particle size less than 1 μm, the next time wybranego from the group: copper, aluminum, zinc, lead, molybdenum or mixtures thereof - 2-5

Cryptocrystalline graphite or talc - 45-75

Graphite flake or talc - 10-50

in the following ratio of components of the lubricating composition, wt.%:

Solid - 5-95

Lubricating base - 5-95,

for lubrication of rails composition as a lubricating bases contains bitumen, atactic polypropylene or a rosin resin and gasoline in the following ratio, wt.%:

Solid - 10-20

Bitumen - 5-15

Atactic polypropylene or resin rosin CT 5-10

Unleaded gasoline Up to 100,

and for the processing of metals by pressure as lubricant bases contains monoethanolamine, triethanolamine, oleic acid, ammonium salts of lignosulfonic acids, stearic and water in the following ratio, wt. %:

Solid - 5-10

Monoethanolamine - 0,3-0,5

Triethanolamine - 0,2

Oleic acid is 0.5 to 1

Ammonium salts of lignosulfonic acids 1-6

Stearic - 0,4

Water Up to 100

When processing in energonaprjazhenie mill when the value of the energy impacts of not less than 50 g (g is the gravitational constant) mixture secretaries is asih compounds and/or metal powder (Cu, Al, Zn, Pb, Mo), or their mixtures, there are structural transformation of cryptocrystalline graphite increases the defects of the crystal structure, the amorphization of the crystal lattice reaches 80-100%, mechanochemical activation and grinding the mixture, the mixture becomes ultrafine.

In the discontinuities of the regularity of the graphite lattice formed active centers and appear loose connection of the corner atoms of carbon, ultrafine particles SMS and activated metals, sulfur, phosphorus, and metals of groups) carbon flake graphite form an active layer on the surface of activated particles cryptocrystalline graphite. The main components of the SMS are several surfactants having a high adsorption capacity of the alkyl sulphates, alkyl sulphonates, alkylamide and polyphosphates, which increase the adhesion properties of the active layer on the surface of the graphite particles.

Ultrafine activated mixture has higher anti-wear, EP, release properties, adhesion, ductility, sedimentation stability of graphite suspension reaches 95%. In the friction zone the mixture forms adsorption of composite graphite in the micropores and cracks in the metal. When it healed microdefects, which prevents the cleavage of the metal on microvascular rail and wheels.

A bunch of bitumen with atactic polypropylene or resin rosin and gasoline provide education quick drying high-strength film having high adhesion to metal. The film does not lose properties at temperatures from -50 to +50oC.

Example 1. Lubricating composition for lubricating rails.

Rail lubricant is prepared as follows. Take Noginsk cryptocrystalline graphite brand voice-1-3, GOST 5420-74, scaly graphite of Zavalye or Kyshtym graphite plant (group brands: GE, P, CH, SSC, PSC, SOC), synthetic detergent type "Crystal", "Lotus", "Era", metal-containing compound and/or metal powder selected from the group: copper, aluminium, zinc, lead, molybdenum, or their mixture (powder, salt solutions in the form of pure compounds or waste) process in energonaprjazhenie mill, vibrating type SVM-SVM or centrifugal type AGO, RPMS, the CM with the energetic impact in the activation process is not less than 50 g (g is the gravitational constant).

Modes of activation mixture: for mills RAS at a frequency of 35 Hz and amplitude of 3 mm breezie to 1 min.

In data processing produces ultra-fine activated mixture with particle size up to 1 μm structurally transformed cryptocrystalline graphite clad metals, gray - and phosphorus-containing additives, surfactants SMS, and particles of carbon flake graphite - solid. The mixing ratio of the filler is selected depending on the purpose of lubrication, method of its application.

In the preparation of lubricating compositions for lubrication of rails in a tightly sealable container with stirrer pour petrol a-76 GOST 2084-77, add the required quantity of bitumen and atactic polypropylene THAT 6-05-190.2-81 with viscosity not exceeding 1000 Centipoise or resin rosin CT sour. number 165-175 mg KOH/g and dissolve, stirring, 20-24 hours In a solution add the required amount of solid filler, mix composition 10-15 min, the finished composition is poured into the reservoir supply system lubrication railsometimes. The formulation proposed composition is presented in table.1.

Prepared samples of lubricating compositions are subjected to the following tests: extreme-pressure and antiwear properties define on-ball friction machine according to GOST 9490-75; the ratio of the melt is Aut according to GOST 10772-78; test samples for the impact of climatic factors is made according to GOST 9.054-75 methods GOST 9490-75 and ASTM D 2877-70. The results of the tests are presented in table. 2.

From the operational point of view, all season fluid grease used for applying it on the side surface of the rail head in the curve track sections, is tested under the following performance properties: critical load scuffing balls Rc- at least 200-250 N; load welding beads Cc- at least 1500-2000 N; index bully ANDC- at least 30-35; the average size of the spots of wear of the balls Dand- not more than 0.7 mm; the ratio of smoothness fn/fc no more than 1; under the influence of climatic factors tribological properties of lubricants should not deteriorate by more than 10%, the viscosity of the OT-4 is not more than 20; sedimentation stability of not less than 50%.

As follows from the data presented in table.2, the requirements in the most appropriate samples of compounds 1,3,5 offer lubricating compositions. Samples of the formulations of 2,4 limited comply with the requirements in terms of Dandand fn/fc, because they have their values close to limited operating requirements.

Example 2. Lubricant composition for metal forming.

Take water, oleic acid, solid, triethanolamine, monoethanolamine, ammonium salts of lignosulfonic acids, stearic, dispense them in a predetermined ratio and loaded into energopetrol mill. Mix the composition with Energogarant to 20 g for 10-15 min, and when Energogarant 20-30 g for 5-10 minutes At these modes operates as a mixer, providing high homogenization of the mixture.

Recipe intended composition and properties shown in table.3. For comparative tests made graphical-V (TU 6-02-1122-87).

1. Lubricant composition comprising a lubricant base, solid filler, wherein the filler comprises a mixture of synthetic detergent (SMS), metal-containing compounds and/or metal powder selected from the group: copper, aluminium, zinc, lead, molybdenum, or mixtures thereof, cryptocrystalline and what is the gravitational constant) to qualitative homogenization of the mixture vysokotochnogo grinding to a particle size less than 1 μm, in the following ratio of the components of the filler, wt.%:

Synthetic detergent (SMS) - 3 - 10

Metallsoderjasimi connection and/or metal powder selected from the group: copper, aluminium, zinc, lead, molybdenum, or their mixtures - 2 - 5

Cryptocrystalline graphite or talc - 45 - 75

Graphite flake or talc - 10 - 50

in the following ratio of components of the lubricating composition, wt.%:

Solid - 5 - 95

Lubricating base - 5 - 95

2. The composition according to p. 1, characterized in that the lubricant base contains bitumen, atactic polypropylene or a rosin resin and gasoline in the following ratio, wt.%:

Solid filler - 10 - 20

Bitumen - 5 - 15

Atactic polypropylene or resin rosin CT - 5 - 15

Unleaded gasoline Up to 100

3. Lubricating composition under item 1, characterized in that the lubricant base contains monoethanolamine, triethanolamine, oleic acid, ammonium salts of lignosulfonic acids, stearic and water in the following ratio, wt.%:

Solid - 5 - 10

Monoethanolamine - 0,3 - 0,5

Triethanolamine - 0,2

Oleic acid - 0,5 - 1,0

Ammonium salts of lignosulfonic keys


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