Bearing element for use as a carrier microbiological film and reactor for wastewater treatment
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the supporting element, intended for use as a carrier of microbial films in the process of biological purification of natural or wastewater, and bearing elements are moved in the water. The surface of the bearing member is partially protected from collision with other surfaces of the bearing elements. Bearing element provided with channels and, in addition, designed with good transmittance of the water after the formation on the surface of the microbial film. The carrier element has a length, width and/or height greater than 1.5 cm, and the protected surface greater than 100 m2/m3the volume of the bearing member, the cross-sectional area of the openings of channels in the boundary surface in the direction of environment is at least 35% of the area of the boundary surface in the direction of environmental homogeneous body having the same dimensions. In the case of a bearing element for wastewater treatment woodworking industry the content of suspended solids is at least 100 mg/l suspended solids measured on the filter. Reactor for Biol is he to the invention, and provided with a grate covering the bottom of the tank and having a cell size smaller than the size of the bearing member, and separated from the bottom of the tank a distance, providing access to the space under the grate. The invention allows to simplify the problem of replacement of load-bearing elements and to increase the efficiency of the process through the use of a larger load-bearing elements. 2 C. and 12 C.p. f-crystals, 9 Il. The present invention relates to a bearing element for use as a carrier microbiological film for purification of natural and waste waters and reactor for purification of natural and waste waters.In the process of biological purification of natural or sewage water is passed through the reactor of a certain type, in which to turn in the water of contaminants into harmless end products such as carbon dioxide and water, are used microorganisms. Cleaning may occur in the presence of air (aerobic) or without oxygen (anaerobic). In order to improve the cleaning efficiency, typically strive to achieve high content of active microorganisms in the process or due to the fact, in order to prevent the removal of these organisms together with purified water, or by oiI separation after exiting the reactor, returning to the reactor (e.g., activated sludge process), or by introducing into the process of a certain type material carrier, the surface of which can grow in the form of biofilm microorganisms, thus supporting the process (biofilm process).Biofilm process has several advantages compared with the process of application of activated sludge and other processes with suspended biomass. Among other factors can indicate the possibility of applying higher loads, and that these processes are much less sensitive to deviations and violations. In most cases, normal biofilm processes are based on the filling of the purification reactor material carrier in the form spolniteljnyj bodies or blocks, which remain stationary during the process. The drawback of such variants of realization of the process is the probability of blocking material carrier biomass or other consisting of small particles of material, as well as the possibility of occurrence of dead zones, in which the contact between water and active microorganisms severely weakened.In another form biofilm process is applied to the carrier material, which is suspended in the I am in the process due to the fact, that the waste water is passed through a strainer or grating, the hole diameter or width of the slots in which are so small that the carrier material cannot pass through them. The advantage of this kind of process is thus that significantly reduces the risk of blocking material carrier and the occurrence of dead zones. In this kind of process can be applied to various kinds of materials-media: foam pieces EP-A-0142123), ring of non-woven plastic material (On: Kangijntn Vol. 29(4): pp 64-69, 1987) and pieces of extruded plastic tubing, the surface area of which is increased due to mechanical processing (On: Kangijntn Vol. 29(4): pp 64-69, 1987), the mixing of the material, leading to the formation of an uneven surface Water Environment Ressarch vol. 64(7): pp 884-889), or the placement of interior walls and exterior edges (WO-A-91/11396). The common feature of these materials is that they have a density close to the density of water to be easily kept in suspension. Although processes with bearing elements these types can often be used at high loads, all used still technical solutions supporting elements have, however, disadvantages, much of ograniczenia to the working microorganisms is crucial to ensure the effectiveness of cleaning. The foam pieces and rings made of non-woven material clogged pores are often growing biomass, which leads to reduction of the area of the active surface in contact with the wastewater and air. Bearing elements, obtained by extruding plastic tubing, make small, less than 1 cm, in order to increase the ratio of surface area to volume. In addition, these elements are often clogged channels, and in addition, in the case when this does not happen, we discovered that the flow of oxygen to the biofilm placed in most cases, on the inner surfaces of the media, strongly limits the possibilities of the process. Also found that the small size of these bearing elements pose a serious specific problem related to the fact that they will be captured by the foam formed during the processes, and thus can be learned from participation in the process of foam or wind. Moreover, often there may be problems with the treatment of wastewater containing suspended solids, such as fibers, due to the clogging of the small holes in mesh filters or gratings designed to delay load-bearing elements. Discovered that for this reason such small bearing elements not p is ptx2">Still, there was no way to solve these problems through the use of a larger load-bearing elements, since it was not possible, in regard to existing technical solutions, to offer a large carrier with a large surface area for biofilm protected from wear and tear, without a significant decrease in the efficiency of the process due to even more significant than the existing small carriers, limiting the supply of oxygen to the biofilm.The present invention is to solve the above problems, and the invention relates to the supporting element, intended for use as a carrier of microbial films in the process of biological purification of natural or wastewater, and bearing elements are moved in the water, and the surface of the bearing member is partially protected from collision with other surfaces of the bearing elements and the bearing element provided with channels and additionally designed in such a way as to provide good transmission of water and after the formation on the surfaces of microbial films.To achieve the above objectives, the bearing element contains distinctive characteristics listed in point is the tier good by passing through the element as water, and air. Thus, the bearing element, which is the subject of the present invention has considerable advantages in comparison with the material-carriers used previously as due to a significant increase in oxygen supply, and due to the significant reduction in the risk of clogging of the strainer or grating designed to delay material carrier.The invention relates also to the use of such elements for the wastewater treatment woodworking industry, i.e. waste water containing at least 100 mg/l of suspended material as measured on the filter GF/A.In addition, the invention relates to a reactor intended for the biological purification of wastewater with the use of load-bearing elements, which are the subject of the present invention.In order to better explain the invention, will be described below to illustrate the embodiments of the invention with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which: Fig. 1 and 2 shows a perspective representation of a first variant embodiment of a bearing element, which is the subject of the present invention, when the observed is 2 when viewed from the end, it is shown in Fig. 1; Fig. 4 shows the image of the end face of the bearing member with Fig. 1 and 2 when viewed from the end shown in Fig. 2; Fig. 5 and 6 show the corresponding perspective image similar to Fig. 1 and 2, the second embodiments, and Fig. 7 and 8 show the corresponding perspective image similar to Fig. 1 and 2, the third embodiments, and Fig. 9 shows a schematic perspective representation of the reactor, which can be used the bearing elements.Bearing element for all shows variants of the invention is a series of walls arranged and interconnected so that a large part of the total surface of the walls are protected from wear and tear under the influence of the surfaces of other bodies that support the item remain available through channels and that the total cross-sectional area of the channels at the boundary surface facing to the environment, is quite high. The bearing element shown in Fig. 1-4, is thus of twelve equally spaced radial inner walls 11 and 12 extending in the axial direction from one end of the bearing member to the other end. Among the walls of the alternate end of the support member walls are interconnected outer ring 13 and the other end - inner ring 14, and wall limit radial window 15. Thus, the bearing element has a structure similar to the structure of the impeller of the turbine. The bearing element may be made of plastic or composite material and therefore to make it possible to apply pressure casting. In order to provide the required thrust, the outer surface converges to the cone and the walls have a thickness decreasing in the direction from one end of the bearing member to the other end, as shown on the drawings. You can perform the load-carrying element of a different material, different from plastic or composite material. The bearing element is formed by several axial channels 16 between the walls and, in addition, has a through channel 17 in the center, allowing unimpeded flow directly through the element from one end to the other. The longitudinal length of the element and its diameter should preferably be about 3.2 see Typically the length and diameter of a bearing element (the width and/or height) must not exceed 1.5 cm, and preferably ranges from 2.5 to 10 cm, in particular in the range from 3 to 5 cm of the Walls 11 and 12 form a protected surface, i.e. the surface that the cultivation of microbial films for the process of biological purification of water. The area is fully protected surfaces must not exceed 100 m2/m3volume of a bearing element, preferably more than 200 m2/m3volume of a bearing element, in particular more than 275 m2/m3volume of a bearing element. If the supporting elements are designed to have a very large surface area in excess of 500 m2/m3may be difficult to avoid the channels in the bearing element was so narrow that would interfere with growth.For conventional aerobic processes is the use of bearing elements having a density close to the density of water, however, according to the present invention it was found that it is easier to use load-bearing elements having a higher density, which is explained by the fact that the bearing elements, the density of which is close to the density of water, there will be no resistance to travel with the flow of water and will quickly get rid of rising air bubbles; it follows that the water inside of these items can easily be fixed, and the air will rarely go through the internal channels of the bearing member. In contrast, the bearing elements with a higher PLO is water and air, so water and air will be blown through internal channels, providing supply biofilm oxygen. At the same time, air bubbles will be broken into smaller bubbles, which also contributes to increase the transfer of oxygen from air into water. Power flow through the bearing elements will increase with increasing density of the bearing member, however, at too high a density in excess of 1.40 kg/DM3is impeded by the mixing of the processed material, thereby reducing the efficiency of the cleaning process. Very high efficiency is achieved when the density of the bearing elements in the range from 1.20 to 1.30 kg/DM3provided a strong thread running through the bearing elements and still good stirring. High density in combination with the size also eliminates the danger of the removal of load-bearing elements of the process due to foaming, easily aggravated by strong aeration.The combination of size, surface area, surface structure and density in accordance with the above description allows you to receive a supporting member having significantly improved properties for aerobic treatment process in comparison with the bearing elements is no good properties under anaerobic or oxygen-free cleaning in which the bearing elements may be maintained in motion by, for example, mechanical mixing. In these systems it is also desirable to choose a density close to the density of water in order to avoid large power consumption to maintain the movement of carriers.Found that these bearing elements give very good results when cleaning various types of wastewater.In particular, the element provides great advantages for wastewater woodworking industry, containing fibers and other particles. Due to the relatively large size of the load bearing element to delay load-bearing elements you can use arrays with relatively large cell sizes, which allows you to avoid all of the problems associated with clogging fibers, etc. In many branches of industry where already planned to use biological treatment applies only mechanical treatment, presents sedimentation basin for separating fibers, etc., a Biological process using weighted load-bearing elements, which are the subject of the present invention can be applied to existing deposition, because the ox is sa, can then be separated in the process of the existing deposition, so do not want create additional procedures of the Department. In some cases, to the biological process may be necessary to use a coarse separation of large particles, such as chips or bark, but in this case, the question is much more simple and cheap separation compared to precipitation.A very important feature of the invention is that a large part of the boundary surface facing to the environment of the bearing member, is open for the passage of water and air in any direction. The cross-sectional area of the openings of channels in the boundary surface in the direction of the environmental element is at least 35%, preferably at least 40%, particularly at least 50% of the area of the boundary surface in the direction of environmental homogeneous body having the same dimensions.Preferred variants of implementation of the present invention to meet the need for a large cross-sectional area of the openings of the channels are such variants where the element is open to flow in all three Jenia, in which water can freely flow through the element.An implementation option, shown in Fig. 5 and 6, differs from the variant shown in Fig. 1-4, there is placed in the center of the bearing member axial tube 18, the outer surface of which is connected with the walls 11, which all have the same radial length. At the end of the bearing member alternate wall 19 and the bore of the 16 channels, the other channel is fully open.In the embodiment of the invention shown in Fig. 7 and 8, apply the spiral wall 11' and 12', which creates a rotational movement of the bearing member when passing through water, which further intensifies the flow of oxygen to the biofilm.The bearing elements are supported suspended in natural or wastewater intended for biological treatment in the reactor, in which air is supplied through diffusers placed at the bottom of the reactor, as shown in Fig. 9 where the tank reactor is indicated by position 20 and aerators on its bottom position 21. Water enters the tank from the upper part 23 and discharged at the bottom through the outlet 24. Bearing elements, suspended in water, indicated by position 25.The grid 26 is also used as an outlet grille in order to hold the bearing elements in the process of passing water flowing through the grid and then through the exhaust pipe, lipophility additional lattice, to prevent removal of the bearing elements together with resulting from tank water. In addition, the likelihood of clogging of the grating 26 is very small, since the bars will continually be blown by air entering from below through the grate upward in the tank. 1. Bearing element is designed for use as a carrier of microbial films in the process of biological purification of natural or wastewater, is arranged to move in the water, the surface of which is partially protected from collisions with surfaces other load-bearing elements, and a supporting member provided with channels and is designed with good transmittance through the water after the formation on the surfaces of microbiological film, characterized in that the carrier element has a length, width and/or height greater than 1.5 cm, preferably in the range from 2.5 to 10 cm, in particular in the range from 3 to 6 cm, protected surface exceeds 100 m2/m3volume of a bearing element, preferably more than 200 m2/m3volume of a bearing element, in particular more than 275 m2/m3the volume of the bearing member, and the cross-sectional area of the openings of channels in g is of at least 40%, in particular at least 50% of the area of the boundary surface in the direction of environmental homogeneous body having the same dimensions.2. Item under item 1, characterized in that the openings of the channels in the boundary surface element is placed with the possibility of entering water and air from all directions.3. Item under item 1 or 2, characterized in that the bearing element is crossed by channels (15, 16, 17, 18) for the passage of water through the element in three dimensions.4. Element according to any one of paragraphs. 1 to 3, characterized in that it is made of radially directed walls(11, 12, 11', 12'), interconnected in a design similar to the impeller of the turbine.5. Item under item 4, characterized in that the wall(11, 12, 11', 12') interconnected by an annular part (13, 14) placed at each end of the bearing element.6. Item under item 4 or 5, characterized in that the walls (11, 12) are connected in the middle by means of a tube (18) in the center of the bearing element.7. Element according to any one of paragraphs. 4 to 6, characterized in that the channels between the walls (11, 12) with one end of the bearing member alternately opened and closed by walls (19).8. Aegialia direction.9. Element according to any one of paragraphs. 1 to 8, characterized in that the wall (11', 12') have a spiral shape.10. Element according to any one of paragraphs. 1 to 9, characterized in that the density of the support member is in the range from 0.92 to 1.40 kg/DM3, preferably in the range from 0.94 to 1.35 kg/DM3and in particular in the range from 1.10 to 1.30 kg/DM3.11. Element according to any one of paragraphs. 1 to 10, characterized in that the carrier element is made of plastic or composite material by way of injection molding.12. Element according to any one of paragraphs. 1 - 11, characterized in that in the case of a bearing element for wastewater treatment woodworking industry the content of suspended solids is at least 100 mg/l when measured on the filter GF/A.13. Reactor for biological purification of sewage water, comprising a reservoir (20) containing the suspended load-bearing elements (25), characterized in that the reservoir contains a weighted load-bearing elements according to any one of paragraphs. 1 - 11, and provided with a grate covering its bottom and having a cell size smaller than the smallest size of the bearing member is separated from the bottom of the tank a distance, providing access to the space under Renana as the exhaust grille, designed to separate bearing elements (25) of water, the lander from the reservoir through the outlet.
FIELD: chemical or physical processes.
SUBSTANCE: catalytic nozzle comprises central cord of the core of the fiber members made of polymeric fiber, e.g. capron, whose diameter exceeds the diameter of individual fiber members by a factor of two. Several fiber members of the nozzle are modified by catalyzers. The ratio of the modified and non-modified fibers is 1:2. The thrown fibers are primarily wound on the central cord, and then the noncorroding metallic cords are wound over the thrown fibers.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
1 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: chemical industry; textile industry; food industry; light industry; other industries ; equipment of the wet dust separation.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the equipment of the wet dust separation and may be used in chemical, textile, food, light and other industries for purification of the dusty gases. The packed scrubber contains: the body with the fitting pipes for the dusty gas and the purified gas; the sprinkling device; the support gratings, between which there is the head; and the device for withdrawal of the slime. The head is made in the form of the hollow spheres, on the spherical surface of which there is the cut groove having in the cross-section perpendicular to the screw line the profile of "Berly saddle" or "Itallocks" saddle. The head can be made out of the porous polymeric materials, the glass, the porous rubber, the composite materials, timber, stainless steel, titanium alloys, precious metals. The technical result of the invention is the increased efficiency and reliability of the dust-catching process, and also reduction of the metal consumption and the vibroacoustic activity of the apparatus as a whole.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased efficiency and reliability of the dust-catching process, reduction of the metal consumption and the vibroacoustic activity of the apparatus as a whole.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: production of ceramic elements for packing.
SUBSTANCE: ceramic element (1, 6, 8) for packing is used as limiter for layers; it is made in form of bow-tie and has constant cross section along axis (1) and many through passages (5) which are parallel to direction of length (L). Proposed method consists in extrusion of mixture which contains one or several ceramic-forming components, sectionalizing of extruded mixture for forming sections and burning of sections for forming packing element. Packing is used for filling the columns where mass-transfer and heat-transfer processes are carried out.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
15 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: forming of elements for dumped packing used for filling columns for mass- and heat-exchange processes.
SUBSTANCE: axis of symmetry of proposed element lies in way of its length. Ratio of largest size perpendicular to length and defining diameter (D) of element to length (L) ranges from 2.7 to 4.5. Element has polygonal cross section with six sides and many internal partitions forming passages at triangular cross section.
EFFECT: possibility of obtaining optimal working parameters.
15 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: chemical industry; other industries; production of the heads for the heat-mass-exchanging apparatuses.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the devices of heat-mass-exchanging apparatuses with the fluidized three-phase layer and may be used in chemical industry and other industries at purification of the gas bursts of the harmful gaseous components. The head for the heat-mass-exchanging apparatuses is made in the form of the torus produced out of the cylindrical component made out of the synthetic filaments by its twisting from one or two ends. The cylinder is made out of the longitudinal filaments fasten among themselves in the staggered order with formation of the longitudinal cells. At that the diameter of the head exceeds its height in 1.25-1.33 times, and the ratio of the cell height to the diameter of the head makes 0.25-0.3. At utilization of the head the gas-liquid layer is uniformly distributed in the operation volume of the apparatus, that predetermines the stable hydrodynamic situation. At that the mass exchanging process is intensified due to the highly developed surface and the strong turbulization of the gas-liquid layer.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the gas-liquid layer uniform distribution in the operation volume of the apparatus, the stable hydrodynamic situation, intensification of the mass-exchange process.
FIELD: chemical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to design of fill0in heads for mass transfer apparatuses and it car be used in heat-mass transfer processes in liquid-vapor(gas) systems, for instance at rectification, absorption, desorption, distillation a dn other processes. Proposed head member for mass transfer apparatuses has cut elements curved to circle of side surface. According to invention, head member is made in form of parallel cylinders formed by cut elements arranged in rod height, curved to circle in turn, inside and outside. Cylinders are connected by bridges and are arranged relative to each other so that their diametral planes from side surface of regular polygonal prism.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of heat-mass transfer by increasing surface of phase contact owing to reduction of drop formation and uniform distribution of phase surface in volume of heat-mass transfer apparatus.