Method of manufacturing parts made of composite material and a method of manufacturing panels of the sandwich type composite

 

(57) Abstract:

Produce pre-designed presets for modal parts single parts made of composite material and are connected to each other in loose condition or state of partial seal with the help of communication between the respective adjacent to the arc surfaces of the workpieces 13,15,36 through the ends of the fibers 17 and 19 that are perpendicular to the surfaces of the workpieces 13,15 and for which engages the surface of the other workpiece 36. Then the United billet is subjected to a joint seal. The ends of fibers formed on the surface of the fibrous preform in the punching her needles. The proposed method is used for the manufacture of panels of the sandwich type of construction materials, and such a panel consists of two rigid layers of the skin, among which is the aggregate of the walls perpendicular to said layers of the skin. The resulting panels are characterized by a high frequency. 2 C. and 7 C.p. f-crystals, 4 Il.

The invention relates to a method of manufacturing parts made of composite material by combining with each other several preformed procurement is material.

The scope of the invention is, in particular, the production of the panels of the sandwich type for various purposes from heat-resistant structural composite materials.

Under the panel "sandwich" refers to a single item, formed by two relatively thin layers of plating or coating, interconnected filler located between these layers. This binder filler panel formed to support and provide rigidity to the panel walls, perpendicular to the layers of the outer casing and forming between themselves a cavity or cell empty space. There are various types of cellular structures aggregate of such panels. Often used in practice honeycomb, corrugated, tubular, chashkoobraznye and other structures placeholders.

When using "cold" composite materials that are not intended for use in conditions of relatively high operating temperatures, for connecting the surface layers of the skin panels of the sandwich type with an internal filler or core is usually applied bonding.

This is not the case when using a heat-resistant structural compositionally matrix, mechanical properties which make them suitable for the creation of those elements or other structures and which are able to maintain their mechanical properties when exposed to a sufficiently high temperature.

A particular need exists in the panels of the sandwich type, made of heat-resistant structural composite materials for their practical application, in particular in the aviation and space technology. Such panels can be manufactured, for example, some structural elements of the spacecraft, hypersonic aircraft, or aircraft with a combined thrust of the engines.

Other variants are possible and the scope of the panels of this type. In particular, they can be used for the manufacture of blades and guide vanes of turbines used in supporting the construction of mirrors for various purposes requiring high dimensional stability. Such panels can also be used in the construction of radomes exposed to significant heat flow, or create a different kind of fire ognevskaya partitions in unearthly, air and marine vehicles and structures is sicyonia materials, includes the manufacture of preformed blanks for different parts of the part, the connection between the two workpieces to each other in unconsolidated or partially compressed state and the subsequent joint dopolnenie United thus blanks.

A known method of manufacturing the sandwich panel, which consists of applying a curable pyrolysis or thermolysis binders by buttering between facing each other, the inner sides of the outer cladding and the core or filler of the panel before they are fully sealed and subsequent implementation of the process of pyrolysis of the binder, after which is carried out jointly by dopolnenie aggregate of the panel, the layers of her skin and converted by pyrolysis of the binder (EP N 0051535).

A known method of manufacturing panels "sandwich" consisting in the use of ties textile type, which is formed by stitching the individual elements of a part or threading through these fibers. However, in this case to exclude significant mechanical stress concentration at the points of connection and ensure sufficient strength of the connection is high given what's billet parts to each other using, for example, threaded fasteners. While forming this part of the workpiece from composite materials are joined after their individual seals. Implemented in this way mechanical connection of the various elements of the single parts are quite effective, but having the pixel structure. In the case of manufacturing panels "sandwich" using this technology, the problem of reducing the local concentration of stress forces to apply the complex geometry of the mating surfaces of the threaded fastening elements and sheathing panels, and also implies the presence of gaskets or washers.

There is a method in which communication between two separate parts of parts made of composite material (polyester resin reinforced by fibers) can be implemented by inserting between the two parts of the fastening element, which is a film on which is fixed a lot of hard needles, which are located perpendicular to the surface of this film. Thus, when using this method of connection of separate parts of parts made of composite material have to resort to the inclusion of this additional details elements composite material, includes the manufacture of preformed blanks, processing at least one workpiece to form the ends of the fibers protruding at least over the surface of one of the blanks, the connection of workpieces in unconsolidated or partially compressed state, and the connection of the two workpieces carried out at least in part, by means of the ends of the fibers protruding from the surface of at least one of the workpieces, the seal of the United blanks (French patent N 2189207, class B 32 B 5/10, 1974). The known method can significantly increase the number of contact points between superimposed on each other by layers of fabric, which equally increases the strength of the stiffening pyrolytic material forming the matrix during the subsequent sealing of such preformed blanks. Hence the increase in strength against delamination between the United thus reinforcing layers blanks. This method can be applied to the connection elements forming the blank for the part, but not for connections already made to the Assembly of the blanks forming this single item. In addition, this known method of improving the quality ceasesto has a destructive character.

The objective of the invention is to propose a method that allows simple and relatively cheap way to ensure effective and uniform connection preformed blanks of different parts of a single part made of composite material before their joint final seal by means of the matrix.

This is achieved by a method for manufacturing parts made of composite material, including the manufacture of preformed blanks, processing at least one workpiece to form the ends of the fibers protruding at least over the surface of one of the blanks, the connection of workpieces in unconsolidated or partially compressed state, and the connection of the two workpieces carried out at least in part, by means of the ends of the fibers protruding from the surface od least one of the workpieces, the seal of the United workpieces, includes the processing of the workpiece, which is carried by piercing it with needles on the substrate followed by the separation of the latter to identify the protruding ends of the fibers, when this protruding ends of the fibers are oriented perpendicular to the surface of the workpiece.

Connect the common on the surfaces of each of the blanks.

When using blanks formed superimposed on each other and pierced with needles two-dimensional fibrous layers, the substrate may be separated one from the surface layers of the workpiece.

Protruding above the surface of the workpiece ends of the fibers can be solidified by consolidation due to partial sealing of the workpiece before connecting workpieces in detail.

A known method of manufacturing a panel "sandwich" consisting of two rigid layers of the outer casing, between which is an aggregate formed by walls perpendicular to the layers of the skin, including the manufacture of preformed blanks for covers and filler panels, the connection between the blanks in unconsolidated or partially compressed state, the joint seal of the United blanks (US patent N 5041321, class B 32 B 3/06, 1991).

However, such panels have insufficient bonding strength of the blanks.

The task of the second invention is the implementation of the above-mentioned method for manufacturing panels of the sandwich type of construction heat-resistant composite materials by the method of mutual connection and subsequent joint is nitela this panel.

This is achieved in that in the method of manufacturing panels of the sandwich type of composite material consisting of two rigid layers of the outer casing, between which is an aggregate formed by walls perpendicular to the layers of the skin, including the manufacture of preformed blanks for covers and filler panels, the connection between the blanks in unconsolidated or partially compressed state and a joint seal of the United preforms, molded blanks for plating punch needles on the substrate for the formation of the ends of the fibers protruding perpendicular to the workpiece surface, the substrate is separated from the workpiece for detecting the protruding ends of the fibers, introduced into the substrate as piercing it with needles, and the connection of plating workpieces and form filler partitions carried out at least in part, by means of the ends of the fibers protruding perpendicular to the workpiece surface for plating.

When using blanks for plating formed superimposed on each other and pierced with needles two-dimensional fibrous layers, the substrate may be separated by at least one of the surface layers zag is ay consolidation due to partial seal blanks for plating before connecting them with partitions, forming a placeholder.

Billet plating with otverzhdennye protruding above the surface of the ends of the fibers can be connected with a blank filler panel, made of foam material.

United blanks for cladding panels and fillers can optionally be sewn on the conductor or driver.

The receiving ends of the fibers is provided by extracting more of the operation igloprobivnye carried out in preparation of preliminary procurement of individual parts of the part, and does not require any special or complex operations.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, where Fig. 1 shows schematically a perspective view of the panel "sandwich" of Fig. 2A-2F - stages of one embodiment of the method in accordance with the invention, used to make panels of the sandwich type shown in Fig. 1; Fig. 3 - use case method in accordance with the invention; Fig. 4A-4E - implementation stages of another possible use case of the method in accordance with the invention for the manufacture of panels of sandwich type shown in Fig. 1.

The panel 10 includes two layers of outer skin or cover 12, 14 and the cellular core or filler, educated bound to each other by partitions 22 which are located between the layers of the outer shell 12 and 14 is perpendicular to them. In the form shown in Fig. 1 example implementation panel "sandwich" cell 24 placeholder inner cavity of the panel formed by the partitions 22, have the shape of a bee's honeycomb, and other forms of structure of the filler or core panel "sandwich" also, of course, can be actually used in practice.

For the manufacture of panel 10 "sandwich" just before embarking preformed blanks of fibrous structure for the panels of the outer shell 12, and 14 for filler 20.

Preformed workpiece 13, 15 parts of the bodywork panel "sandwich" obrazovanie, the layers of fabric or layers of fiber bundles, which if necessary can be interleaved with the layers of fibers. Layers 11 composed of carbon fibers or fibers of the prototype carbon, such as pre-oxidized polyacrylonitrile (PAN). The number of layers 11, used in the manufacture of the blanks, is selected depending on the required thickness of the coating layers or panels manufactured panels "sandwich". Layers 11 are connected by means of the piercing needles. Way needle connection stacked on top of each flat layers of fibrous material is known.

The result of punching hard needles of layers of fibrous material blanks cladding panels "sandwich" is removing the ends of the fibers of the layers 11 or layers of fibers, inserted between them, and the location of the ends of the fibers perpendicular to the layers.

After the surgery igloprobivnye at least one surface layer is removed from the remaining portion of the workpiece 13 (see Fig. 2B). Removable surface layer indicated by the position 11a. The ends of the fibers introduced into the layer 11a in the process of igloprobivnye flat blanks, form the ends of the fibers 17, which protrude above povety layer 11b is removed from the remaining portion of the workpiece 15, exposing the ends of the fibers 19.

Stocking filler 20 internal cavity panel "sandwich" is formed from corrugated sheets produced by overlaying each other (packaging) and the subsequent formation of layers of fabric 21, the pre-impregnated with resin of the appropriate chemical composition (see Fig. 2C). Resin is used in a quantity sufficient to ensure its structure by crosslinking and pyrolysis to ensure stabilization of the form (consolidation) blanks of corrugated sheets, but without the full and final seal these blanks.

Corrugated sheets 23, obtained after structuring the impregnating resin, connect with each other to form a block filler 25 cells 26 (see Fig. 2D). The connection of corrugated sheets in the unit 25 may be implemented, for example, by gluing adjacent to each other of the walls of the sheet 23 by means of the resin used for the pre-impregnated layers of fabric 21. Thus obtained block 25 is cut along the length of the cells in the portions that correspond to the desired thickness of the manufactured panel "sandwich" (i.e., corresponding to the desired distance between the layers of the exterior of the core panel 20.

Obtained after cutting the size of the block 25 and the workpiece 27 is inserted between the surfaces of the workpieces exterior cladding 13 and 15 with the speakers on these surfaces of the ends of the fibers 17, 19 (see Fig. 2E). As shown in more detail in an enlarged scale in Fig. 2F, each part 29 of the workpiece 27, corresponding to the partition wall 22 of the filler or core manufactured panel is perpendicular to the surfaces of the workpiece 13 and 15. The ends of the parts 29 of these partitions billet filler strung or nakalyautsya on fiber needles 17 and inserted in their weight.

United thus, between a preformed workpiece 13, 15 and 27 together then compacted material forming the matrix of this composite (carbon or ceramic). This is a joint seal or dopolnenie collected in a single detail of the workpieces is carried out, for example, by chemical infiltration in razoobrazny phase. Technology of chemical infiltration into the vapor phase carbon or ceramics are well known. After you've made thus seals get the panel "sandwich" type, such as that shown in Fig. 1.

Pyrolysis impregnating resin layer TC is each other blanks. The same applies to carbonization or charring fibers, forming layers 11 and/or layers 21, in cases when these fibers are made of carbon, and from its prototype. In this case, the carbonization or charring fibers forming the workpiece 13, 15 and 27, can be carried out before connecting these blanks into a single item and even before removing the surface layers 11a and 11b.

As mentioned above, the ends of the fibers of the workpiece 13 and 15 are in a suitable condition to connect the elements panel by removing one or more surface layers 11 of the workpiece.

The surface layers intended for subsequent removal, can be replaced by a substrate, on which igloprobivnye other layers. In the case when the fibers forming the workpiece 13 and 15 represent the fibers of the prototype carbon, the substrate may be formed, for example, one or more layers of carbon fabric. But in those cases, when the fibers are made of billet 13 and 15, are carbon fiber, eliminating the need for carbonization, the substrate may be formed from one or more sheets of polyethylene.

The connection is by using a known method.

In the example illustrated in Fig. 3, the design formed by the workpiece 13, the workpiece 27 and the workpiece 15, superimposed on the upper flat surface of the conductor or the formation 30 and is connected by threads firmware 32. In this example, the workpiece 27 has a trapezoid shape and the workpiece 13 and 15 are attached to it from two sides, the connection between the end portions of the blanks 13 and 15 is provided by the mutual engagement between the ends of the fibres of them adjacent to each other surfaces.

Connecting threads 32 penetrate the workpiece 15, pass through the cells of the workpiece 27, penetrate the workpiece 13, and is fed into the holes 34 of the conductor or driver 30, forming parallel lines firmware.

Panels having a structure of type "sandwich" can be given a variety of shapes, including tubular design. In these tubular structures plating layers formed by two coaxial tubes, the space between which is placed a placeholder with radial cells.

Another possible application of the method in accordance with the invention for the manufacture of panels of the sandwich type, similar to those shown in Fig. 1, illustrated in Fig. 4A-4E.

Serenium in the state, suitable for connection Toolbox ends of the fibers 17, 19 by removing one or more surface layers of the workpiece after the transaction of igloprobivnye (see Fig. 4A).

Mesh stocking filler or core panel is manufactured in a known manner.

Two-dimensional layers of the fibrous structure 31 overlap each other and are interconnected by igloprobivnye. Next, on the thus obtained to the workpiece in a checkerboard pattern are sections in the form of slits 32, and the size and location of these sections define the size and shape of future cells aggregate manufactured panel. The incisions are performed in parallel planes perpendicular to the planes of the fibrous layers of the workpiece (see Fig. 4B).

After the implementation of the sections of the workpiece is stretched in the direction perpendicular to the planes of these sections (see Fig. 4C), resulting in the formation of the cell 33 is not filled with material space.

After stretching the thus obtained preform 36 is sealed on the compaction process in the stretched condition by means of a special device formed by the base 34 and the pin is lagoudas on the workpiece 36, placed in a furnace, where appropriate temperature conditions, the workpiece is partially condensed by chemical infiltration into the vapor phase. This condensation is carried out to such an extent that the warranty is enough for consolidation or curing of the workpiece in order to secure the preservation of its geometric shape after removal of the retaining this form of the device (see Fig. 4D).

Then, the thus obtained preform is introduced into the space between the flat workpieces 13 and 15. The ends of the walls of the cells sink 33 and are fixed in the ends of the fibers 17, 19 provided on the surfaces of the workpieces 13 and 15 (see Fig. 4E).

United thus with each other blanks are joint seal or dopolnenie by chemical infiltration into the vapor phase, leading ultimately to the production of finished panels "sandwich".

As indicated, the ends of the fibers on the surface of at least one of connected blanks was supposed educated fibers not subjected to compaction of the workpiece. In order to communicate with these ends of the fibers of the greatest rigidity, it is possible to achieve the consolidation or curing before Ni, is subjected to partial condensation. This partial seal can be made liquid by the way, that is, the impregnation of the preform corresponding to the resin and the subsequent implementation of the pyrolysis, or gaseous way, i.e. chemical vapour infiltration phase. By itself, the operation of the consolidation or curing blanks fibrous structure is known and is typically used to obtain the minimum cohesion or adhesion of the fibers between them that allows you to freely manipulate with such workpiece and gives her the opportunity to keep her shape without the use of special forming tools.

Caulk thus fibers behave almost like pins, providing a more effective engagement between adjacent to each other surfaces of the joined workpieces.

The rigidity of these pins also allows you to consider the connection of workpieces having such pins or the hard ends of the fibers, preforms, the structure of which is not fibrous, for example, pieces of foam, the surface of which these pins or the hard ends of the fibers can penetrate, and such a connection, as Braz, in the case of manufacturing the panel "sandwich" the hard ends of the fibers obtained by the consolidation as a result of partial seal blanks sheets of sheathing panels may be inserted into the surface of the billet filler or core panels made not in the form of a fibrous structure, and is made in the form of a block of foamed material of low density, with which the workpiece panels connected before the joint seal or doubleteam.

1. Method of manufacturing parts made of composite material, including the manufacture of preformed blanks, processing at least one workpiece to form the ends of the fibers protruding at least over the surface of one of the blanks, the connection of workpieces in unconsolidated or partially compressed state, and the connection of the two workpieces carried out at least partially through the ends of the fibers protruding from the surface of at least one of the workpieces, the seal of the United workpieces, characterized in that the processing of the workpiece is carried out by punching her needles on the substrate followed by the separation of the latter to identify the protruding ends of the fibers, and the protruding end, is the connection of the two workpieces carried out at least partially through the ends of the fibers protruding from the surfaces of each of the blanks.

3. The method according to p. 1 or 2. characterized in that when using a billet formed superimposed on each other and pierced with needles two-dimensional fibrous layers, the substrate is separated from one of the surface layers of the workpiece.

4. The method according to any of paragraphs. 1-3, characterized in that the protruding above the surface of the workpiece ends of the fibers utverjdayut by consolidation due to partial sealing of the workpiece before connecting workpieces in detail.

5. A method of manufacturing panels of the sandwich type of composite material consisting of two rigid layers of the outer casing, between which is an aggregate formed by walls perpendicular to the layers of the skin, including the manufacture of preformed blanks for covers and filler panels, the connection between the blanks in unconsolidated or partially compressed state, the joint seal of the United workpieces, characterized in that the molded blanks for plating punch needles on the substrate for the formation of cocoa protruding ends of the fibers, introduced into the substrate as piercing it with needles, and the connection of plating workpieces and form filler partitions carried out at least partially through the ends of the fibers protruding perpendicular to the workpiece surface for plating.

6. The method according to p. 5, characterized in that when using blanks for plating formed superimposed on each other and pierced with needles two-dimensional fibrous layers, as podoski separate at least one of the surface layers of the workpiece.

7. The method according to p. 5 or 6, characterized in that the protruding above the surface of work pieces for covering the ends of the fibers utverjdayut by consolidation due to partial seal blanks for plating before connecting them with partitions forming a placeholder.

8. The method according to p. 7, characterized in that the workpiece plating with otverzhdennye protruding above the surface of the ends of the fibers combined with the blank filler panel, made of foam material.

9. The method according to any of paragraphs. 5-8, characterized in that the United blanks for cladding panel and placeholder additional stitch on the conductor or driver.

 

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