Method and installation for the combined production of electrical and mechanical energy
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the field of combined production of mechanical and electrical energy using fuel cells. The technical result is to increase the efficiency. According to the invention when the endothermic reforming reaction of hydrocarbon compounds get gas containing H2part of this gas is burned for receiving exhaust gas, compressed oxygen-containing gas and serves on stage combustion. The energy produced by the supply of the exhaust gas at least one gas turbine. Expanded in the gas turbine exhaust gas is used for indirect heating endothermic reaction. Part of the fuel gas produced in the endothermic reforming reaction, is fed into the fuel cell system as the anode gas to generate electricity, and the anode exhaust gas is used to produce exhaust gas by combustion. 2 C. and 42 C.p. f-crystals, 5 Il., table 1. The invention relates to a method for the combined production of electric and mechanical energy according to the restrictive part of paragraph 1 of the claims, and device for its implementation.Therefore, so far from fuel combustion only about 35% of the heat released during this efficiently used for energy production, while about 65% was lost or used only for heating purposes.A significant increase in mechanical or electrical efficiency in more remote times was due to the fact that when converting thermal energy into mechanical energy was used a combination of gas and steam turbines, and hot combustion gases are first expanded in a gas turbine, the heat of the exhaust gases after these Mazowieckie indicators are that expanding steam after the steam turbine is returned into the combustion chambers of gas turbines and to drive gas turbines creates a greater volume flow. Such events allow you to get the efficiency of conversion of thermal energy into mechanical energy on larger installations /over 50 MW/ order 48 - 50%.From European application (EPO 318122 A2 a method and device for producing mechanical energy from a gaseous fuel, in which mechanical energy is used to produce current, it is not given only partially steam turbine and gas turbine. This gas turbine, which, in particular, has a capacity of from 50 to 3000 KW, is the efficiency in terms of the applied thermal energy /low value/ average of approximately 42%. This is provided that first the air for combustion is compressed in the compressor. Then the compressed air for combustion is preheated in the heat exchanger for exhaust gases, partially expanding the first gas turbine, which drives only the compressor, and then is supplied into the combustion chamber, in which this air is combusted fuel.Grief is been created mechanical energy. The exhaust from the second gas turbine is still hot gases are used for the operation of the heat exchanger flue gases to preheat the compressed air for combustion.In the unpublished application Germany 40 03 210.8 applicant has proposed a method of obtaining mechanical energy, which is converted electric generator into electrical energy. This method requires that the original fuel-based compounds hydrocarbon is first converted in the transducer pair and the high-quality from the point of view of energy enriched H2the gas that is enriched in H2the gas is burned in one or more combustion chambers. Burning is carried out using compressed containing O2gas /for example, compressed air/. Received hot exhaust gas is expanded in a gas turbine, which produces exhaust mechanical energy, while it is cooled and finally used for indirect heating the reforming steam. The exhaust gas cooled in the steam Converter is then used to heat the compressed air supplied for combustion in the following indirect heat exchanger. Due to this, the compressed air for combustion gets so much energy that Gia, required to obtain compressed air. In another embodiment, this method is compressed and heated by indirect heat exchange air for combustion of the first fuel supplied to the combustion chamber and there burned part is enriched in H2gas, allowing for expansion in a gas turbine there is hot gas.This method allows to increase the efficiency of converting the energy contained in the usual fuel /for example, natural gas or biogas/ /lower value of heat of combustion Hu/ into mechanical energy with the usual costs for small units /up to 3 MW/ at least 50%, and for large installations, at least up to 55%.In the normal case, this method provides that the produced mechanical energy is eventually transformed into electricity. In this form of execution is the easiest way to transfer energy at any place and it is relatively easy can then be converted with high efficiency into energy of another form /for example, mechanical or thermal/. On the other hand, should take into account that required huge expenditures to eliminate clicks ectricity current or mechanical energy. This requirement component of the CO2if do not want to incur additional costs to the Department of CO2from the resulting flue gas, can be satisfied in that case, if the conversion of chemically bound in the fuel energy is a more effective way than it was done before. Therefore, the need to improve efficiency of energy conversion is called not so much a purely economic aspects, but by the need to protect the environment.Object of the invention is therefore a method and installation for carrying out the method, which will ensure the conversion of chemically bound in the fuel-energy /low value heat of combustion Hu/ electrical and mechanical energy with an efficiency of at least 60%, possibly even more than 65%.This problem is solved by the invention. The method may be the preferred way hallmarks of subparagraphs 2 - 21. Installation for carrying out the method has the characteristics of paragraph 22 of the claims and may be the preferred way distinctive features of endothermically reaction /for example, reforming-pair/ using waste heat in a high-value fuel containing H2and then at least partially be used as a fuel in a fuel cell for the direct generation of electricity. While most of the content of H2consumed for oxidation. The remaining H2and other combustible components /CO and unreacted compounds hydrocarbon/ original enriched gas containing H2then are fed to the combustion of fuel. The resulting combustion exhaust gas may consist of a mixture formed in the combustion process, gas flow and further enriched parts of the initially applied fuel. The pressure resulting hot exhaust gases is reduced in the system of the gas turbine to produce mechanical or /when connecting to the generator/ additional electrical energy. Significant is the fact that released during the combustion process, heat energy is due to the systematic use of energy of the exhaust gases at the highest possible level largely converted to those forms of energy that are desirable. This is done in cast what about the exhaust gas is first used to heat in the conversion process steam and then used also for heating the compressed oxygen-containing gas, necessary to obtain the exhaust gas.Before allotment largely cooled exhaust gases into the atmosphere, they, in addition to the production of electrical and mechanical energy by means of heat-force interaction, can be used for such heating purposes /for example, heat buildings, greenhouses, etc./, which increases energy use. In terms of the lower value of the calorific value of the used fuel electrical efficiency of the method according to the invention can be increased to values between 60 and 80%, depending on the form of running /normal is 65 - 75%/. The invention can be performed with one or more gas turbines, one or more plants for the conversion of a pair, with one or more fuel cells, one or more combustion chambers to obtain the necessary gas combustion. Optionally, you can provide one or more steam generators and one or more steam turbines. In this case the same generators can be switched in series or in parallel. The term "fuel cell" in this context refers to any combination connected together fuel in Fig. 1 - 5. The figures schematically presents the whole set or individual parts of it.The installation according to the invention, shown in Fig. 1, consists of a compressor system K with two compression stages K1 and K2, where oxygen-containing gas (for example, air) is compressed to a higher pressure. This gas enters the pipe 1 and is fed through line 2 to the first compression stage K1 to the second compression stage K2.In the pipe 2 includes a heat exchanger which receives the intermediate cooling of the partially compressed oxygen-containing gas and gives out selected heat through the cooling circuit 3. Selected heat can be used in case of need for heating purposes outside the process.In principle, it is also possible to use this heat, for example, to preheat water in the production process steam. Needless to say that the compressor system K can be performed in a single stage or more than two stages.Compressed oxygen-containing gas exits the second-stage compression K2 through line 4 and enters indirectly heated heat exchanger W. After raising the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas is fed nagretogo compressed exhaust gas, containing H2and, if necessary, other combustible components supplied through the pipe 15. Additionally containing H2gas can also /at least sometimes/ burn primary fuel /for example, natural gas/. Hot exhaust gas exits the combustion chamber B through the pipe 6 and is fed to the gas turbine T approximately the operating pressure of the fuel element C. the Mechanical energy generated in the gas turbine T, partially used /for example, through mechanical coupling means/ for compressor drive system K, and the other part is used for generating electrical alternating current connected to the generator 6.Partially lost pressure, but still hot exhaust gas is directed through the pipe 2 as the heating medium indirectly heated proprioreceptive R. Propriospinal R downloaded through the pipeline 13 gaseous hydrocarbon substance /the primary fuel/ and steam, resulting in the obtained gas containing H2which is discharged through line 14. Cooling further in proprioreceptive R exhaust gas still has a high content of heat. Therefore, being under an elevated pressure oxygen-containing gas. After that, the exhaust gas can be discharged.Needless to say, it is the use of residual heat /for example, for process water pre-heating or heating of buildings/. In this example, it is also possible to use before the final challenge. It is necessary in the case when the combustion in the combustion chamber B is in excess O2. Chilled largely exhaust gas can be fed through line 11 to the fuel element C as the cathode gas, and to cover his need for O2. Only after this is accomplished through the outlet pipe 12.Required in a fuel cell FC as fuel gas enriched in H2gas is supplied by pipeline 14 to the anode of the fuel cell FC. Due to the electrochemical oxidation process in a fuel cell FC, an electric direct current, which is discharged through wire 16 and, if necessary, can be transformed through not shown in the drawing of electropneumatically into alternating current. Constant current can be fed directly to the generator 6.Because the fuel cell is their combustible gas components with /for example, CO and not reacts hydrocarbon substances/, the anode gas is fed into the combustion chamber B of the fuel cell FC through line 15 as a fuel gas. Additionally, in the combustion chamber B can be fed and the primary fuel, that is, without prior conversion to an endothermic reaction, to cover the heat requirement. This is advisable especially in the beginning of the process and simplify the regulation. In order to increase the pressure of the anode gas to the required pressure in the combustion chamber B, the pipe 15 may be embedded not shown in the drawing, the compressor.Converter R could also work with the respective pressure in the reaction chamber to the anode gas in the pipeline 14 with sufficient pressure. However, this requires structural changes in fuel cells FC, which provide the appropriate pressure difference between anode and cathode cavities.The operation of the fuel elements is preferably such that the remaining calorific value of the anode gas was enough to heat proprioreceptive R and to the Location of the fuel cell system FC at the end of the process from the outlet side of exhaust gases is preferred in the case when used fuel elements with relatively low working temperatures. Especially suitable fuel cells with electrolytes on the basis of phosphoric acid /PAFC/ alkalis /AFC/ or solid polymers /SP/E/FC/.In Fig. 2 to 5 schematically illustrates other forms of execution of the invention, which in General correspond to the implementation shown in Fig. 1.Functional parts are denoted by the same positions. Below will focus only on the differences from previous executions.In Fig. 2 shows two gas turbines, the first - CT of which is intended to drive the compressor system K, while the second gas turbine - T - produces mechanical energy. In principle, this separation of functions between the gas turbines CT and T, unlike shown in the drawing is complete, it is possible that both turbines are located on a common shaft. A significant difference from Fig.1 is that the combustion chamber B is for turbine CT to drive the compressor. Therefore, the turbine CT for driving the compressor is driven only by the partial pressure drop is still quite heated in the heat exchanger W compressed combustion air. After the gases. The exhaust gas is directed, in particular, through the pipe 10d immediately upon exit from the heating chamber proprioreceptive R to the cathode of the fuel cell system FC. Only after that it gets through the pipeline 12a in the heat exchanger W for indirect heating of the compressed air for combustion. This arrangement is preferred for fuel elements with higher operating temperature /for example, for fuel cells fuse carbonate salt (MCFC) and/ or fuel cells based on solid oxidizers /SOFC/.A variant of the method according to Fig. 3 is the same as the method according to Fig. 2, two separate gas turbine CT and T. However, the burning of combustible components of the anode gas to the fuel cell system FC is carried out in two combustion chambers B1 and B2 located directly in front of both gas turbines CT and SoAs passing through the combustion chamber B1 compressed gas loses pressure in the turbine CT, intended to drive the compressor, covers the General requirement O2in the process, you can count on a higher energy level than is practically possible when increasing t in order to use this gas turbine CT to produce mechanical or electrical energy. Therefore, in the drawing shown connected to the turbine CT to drive additional compressor electric generator GK /shaded/.Another possible modification of the method according to the invention is the use of multiple gas turbines and combustion chambers, and a few pair of transducers. The latter can be included, for example, in parallel. But especially preferred is their series connection, as shown by the dashed line in Fig. 3. The first transducer pair R1 included directly behind the turbine CT to drive the compressor. Cooled gas for combustion of the fuel resulting from the heating chamber of the transducer pair P1, which has a significant concentration of O2slurry is fed through the pipeline 8 to the second combustion chamber B2. In this combustion chamber B2 burns partial stream 15b anode gas discharged through the pipe 15, while the other partial stream 15a is compressed in the first combustion chamber B1. In the process of combustion in the second combustion chamber B2 occurs the flow of hot exhaust gases, which is considerably higher amount of flow than the flow of exhaust gases generated in the first combustion chamber B1.the pressure of the fuel cell FC, and given further along the pipeline 10. Then the exhaust gas is directed through nozzle 10a of the pipe 10, and passes through shown by the dashed line pipe 10c in the heating chamber of the second transducer pair 2 and after heat is returned through the pipe 10 into the outlet 10b of the pipe 10. This pipe 10 leads directly to the heat exchanger W as in Fig. 1. Supply of the inverter pair R2 gaseous hydrocarbon and steam is shown by a dashed line pipe 13a. Enriched with H2the gas, resulting in the transducer pair R2, is fed through the pipe 14a to the pipeline 14 and flows through the pipe 14b together with the obtained in the Converter pair R1 enriched H2gas in the anode chamber system, fuel cell FC, which, of course, can consist of several individual fuel cells.The scheme depicted in Fig. 3, contains two other forms of execution of the method, which could be preferable in some cases. So, for example, gas, rich H2before supply to the fuel element FC may be subjected to an exchange reaction of CO/H2in one or more reactors 5. She PR CO2and H2there is an increase in the content of H2. In addition, it is expedient to provide in the fuel cells that are sensitive to specific components of gas /for example, CO/, purified gas P /for example, using membranes or adsorption under variable pressure PSA/. This cleaning gas is preferred to improve the efficiency of fuel cells. The separated gas in the case, if it contains flammable components, preferably served directly in the combustion chamber B1 and B2, which is not shown.In Fig. 4 schematically shows another form of execution of the invention, including additional process in a steam turbine for energy production, thereby significantly increases the overall conversion efficiency related to the primary fuel energy /low value, calorific value, mechanical and electrical energy to values of the order of 70 - 80%. In contrast to Fig. 3 compress the air for combustion is performed in the compressor system K without intermediate cooling, i.e. a single stage. In order nevertheless to achieve a high compression ratio, it is preferable to suck through the pipeline 1 is already pre-cooled in the B>2gas streams /pipes 14 and 14a/ included the heat exchanger 1, which provides indirect heat exchange enriched H2gas for pre-heating fuel containing H2gas, supplied through the piping 15 /from the fuel cell FC/ and 17 /cleaning gas P/, which is supplied through pipe 15a and 15b into the combustion chamber of the pair of transducers 1 and 2.In addition, Fig. 4 differs from the Fig. 3 two steam generators D1 and D2, in which by indirect heat exchange with the hot combustion gas is fresh pairs, which can be applied with advantage to obtain a mixture of the hydrocarbon /steam/ material used for conversion/ /not shown/. As other applications get a couple you should consider the cooling of turbine blades and the input pair 1 in the combustion chamber B1 and B2 to increase mass flow.If the pipeline 11 and 11a included the steam generator D1, and the exhaust gas is cooled to approximately the operating temperature of fuel cells FC, steam generator D2 is embedded in the pipe 12c through which goes only part of the cathode off-gas /pipeline 12a/. The other part of the cathode exhaust gas postdoctorial LW2supplied then again in the pipe 12c. In this form of the invention the oxygen content in the exhaust gas, as a rule, is not sufficient to supply the fuel cell system FC only cathode gas. Therefore, in the cathode chamber of the fuel cell system FC is additionally supplied through the pipe 18, the flow of fresh air. To heat this extra flow of air which is brought in the compressor V to the working pressure, except for the heater LW2there is another heater LW1that is built from the heat in the pipe 12, through which is directed to a substantially cooled gas combustion.These variants of the invention can be carried out in the framework of the forms of execution according to Fig. 1 to 3. Significant progress towards achieving the highest possible efficiency of energy conversion reached, however, due to the additional embedding process in the steam turbine according to the invention. For this purpose, in Fig. 4 has a complement in the form of a dot-dashed line is related primarily to the installation.Before combustion gas, the pressure of the UB>2will go in the heater LW1he is separated in the separation setup MD /for example, in membrane sieve/ on two separate partial flow, namely the true flow of exhaust gases discharged through the pipe 12, and the flow of steam is removed from the separator installation of the MD via a separate line 23. It is significant that this separation unit MD separates the portion of water contained in the exhaust gas is not in liquid form, as, for example, by using a capacitor/ and in vaporous form. This steam is applied because of its low pressure through the appropriate inlet for steam low pressure steam turbine DT and there expanded to depression. This is possible because the capacitor C, is connected to a steam turbine DT through the pipe 19, operates under vacuum. Without separation of the gaseous component of the exhaust stream in the separation unit MD it would be impossible to maintain the necessary vacuum in the condenser is technically and economically feasible way.The steam turbine DT, in addition, through line 22 is fed to the steam of higher pressure. This steam is produced within the cooling system of fuel cells FC, which Se part of the condensate, obtained in the condenser C, which is supplied through the pipe 20 and the pipe 22a in the cooling system of the fuel cell system FC. Excess condensate can be discharged through the pipe 21 and applied, for example, for the production of steam in the steam generators of D1and D2or in the form of valuable deionized soda in other processes. Since the method according to the invention is based on the continuous oxidation of H2with the receipt of H2O, is the inevitable formation of excess water and thereby obtaining a valuable by-product.The mechanical energy produced by the expansion of low-pressure steam and high pressure steam, is converted in this case, connected to a steam turbine DT electric generator GD AC. Needless to say, both the generator GD and G can be integrated into one unit or be mechanically linked to each other.The steam produced in the steam generators of D1and D2advisable to use, in particular, for the aforementioned cooling of turbine blades and entering into the combustion chamber B1and B2/as well as for regulating the temperature of the exhaust gas. Needless to say, the resulting steam is mikeski related to the primary fuel energy converted into mechanical or electrical energy.In the forms of execution shown in Fig. 1 to 4, always assume that the cathode exhaust gas (for example, type PAFC/, contains a proportion of H2O that occurs in the fuel cell system FC. But this is not always the case. Therefore in Fig. 5 shows a part of an overall installation, operating according to the option in which the fuel cell system operates on the basis of alkaline electrolytes /AFC/. In this case, through the pipe 14 to the anode again fed the enriched gas H2.Water vapor generated in a fuel cell FC, extracted from it together with the anode gas through the pipeline 15. Therefore, for extraction of steam to the pipe 15 connected to the separation unit MD2. Separated steam may be supplied by the pipe 23b, for example, again in the steam turbine, not shown in the drawing, while the gaseous portion is fed via a pipe 15c in the combustion chamber /not shown on the drawing/ using-combustible components. Since the gas discharged from the combustion chambers, contains elements that adversely affect the service life of alkaline fuel cells, this exhaust gas teleshop brasno to use fresh air, which is compressed in the compressor V to the working pressure and pre-indirectly heated in the heater LW using heat contained in the gas combustion. Compressor V and the heater LW built-in pipe 18 for supplying air. In order to be able to use water vapor contained in the gas combustion between the threads 11 and 12 of the pipeline can be positioned corresponding to the separation unit MD /for example, membrane sieve/. The separated vapor is discharged through pipes 23a and served, for example, in a steam turbine.The efficiency of the method according to the invention is confirmed particularly well in the following example running, which presents structural form of the installation shown in Fig. 4, which also does not mention specific details already described above. It should be noted that the mixture of hydrocarbons with water vapor used in the heat exchanger W is heated to a certain temperature for proprioreceptive R1 and R2. This expedient form of the invention is not reflected particularly in Fig. 4. Through line 1 to the compressor K is supplied already pre-cooled air. The water vapor produced in the steam generator D1used, respectively, the water vapor produced in the steam generator D2that is partly used for cooling the blades of the gas turbine T or served in the second combustion chamber B2. Another part of the received pair serves as a backup for both steam generators R1 and R2. The nature of the process is reflected in the table below the main parameters.Compared with the known methods of obtaining electrical or mechanical energy with the use of conventional fuels by the method according to the invention has not only higher efficiency and produces, respectively, significantly fewer CO2in terms of electric power, but additionally, gases have a minimum content of nitrogen oxides. In addition, as a by-product obtained is of high water, which can be used for a variety of purposes.This particular advantage is that the combination of units combustor - turbine - Converter provided according to the execution according to Fig. 3 and 4 double /consistently included/ can be embedded in the installation, without additional cost, making despite the relatively more complex layout in realtimebondage production of electric and mechanical energy by oxidation of the fuel, when producing a hydrogen-containing gas by the endothermic reaction for the conversion of compounds of hydrocarbon in at least one stage of the indirect supply of heat to sustain the reaction, introducing at least part of the hydrogen-containing gas obtained in the endothermic reaction conversion in the anode cavity fuel cells to generate electricity fail anode exhaust gas from the fuel cell system at least one stage of combustion, compressed oxygen-containing gas, serves the compressed oxygen-containing gas in at least one stage of combustion; introducing at least part of the oxygen-containing exhaust gas from at least one stage of combustion in the cathode cavity fuel cells to generate electricity, produce mechanical energy by feeding at least part of the exhaust gas from the degree of combustion of at least one gas turbine, use at least part of the flow of exhaust gas for indirect heating at least the same degree of conversion of the hydrocarbon fuel, wherein the use of the exhaust gases after the step of converting hydrocarbon compounds for casinovideogames gas, supplied in the cathode cavity of the fuel elements, and the exhaust gases immediately after the step of converting hydrocarbon compounds or after heat exchange with the compressed oxygen-containing gas is used at least as part of the oxygen-containing gas supplied into the cathode space of the fuel element.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the fuel cell system using low-temperature fuel cells with electrolytes based on phosphoric acid (PAFC), alkaline (AFC) or solid polymer (SP(E)FC).3. The method according to p. 2, characterized in that the exhaust gas having high blood pressure, get in at least two stages.4. The method according to p. 3, characterized in that after each stage of the combustion exhaust gas is fed into one of the gas turbine where it is expanded.5. The method according to any of paragraphs.3 and 4, characterized in that the at least partially expanded exhaust gas after the gas turbine is used for indirect heating during the endothermic reaction to one of several separate steps.6. The method according to p. 5, characterized in that the collecting portion of the hydrogen-containing gas produced in various article according to any one of paragraphs.1-6, characterized in that the hydrogen-containing gas prior to supply to the fuel cell system is subjected to the exchange reaction of CO/H2.8. The method according to any of paragraphs.1-7, characterized in that the hydrogen-containing gas prior to supply to the fuel cell system is subjected to a cleaning process which separate the gas components, and the separated combustible components containing gas component, used for receiving exhaust gas.9. The method according to any of paragraphs.1-8, characterized in that when receiving the exhaust gas is additionally used as the primary fuel, such as natural gas.10. The method according to any of paragraphs.1-8, characterized in that the residual heat of the cathode gas to the fuel cell system is used for heating, regardless of the production of mechanical or electrical energy.11. The method according to any of paragraphs.1-10, wherein separating at least part of the water formed in the fuel cell system and/or the production of exhaust gas from the exhaust gases of the fuel elements (cathode or anode gas) or from the exhaust.12. The method according to p. 11, characterized in that the separated water in the form of water vapor.
1, LW2), heated by gas combustion.41. Installation on p. 38 or 40, characterized in that the steam turbine (TD) is connected to the capacitor (C) working with depression.42. Installation according to any one of paragraphs.21 to 41, characterized in that the reactor or reactors (R, R1, R2for endothermic reactions performed in the form of steam reforming.43. Installation according to any one of paragraphs.21-42, characterized in that it is equipped with at least one heat exchanger (I), through which the heat receiving at least one steam reforming reactor (R, R1, R2enriched with pure hydrogen gas, indirectly transferred hydrogen-containing gas supplied into at least one combustion chamber (B, B1B2).44. Installation according to any one of paragraphs. 21-43, characterized in that the system of the fuel cell (FC) is made in the form of a system of low-temperature fuel cells, in particular in the form of a system of fuel cells with electrolytes based on phosphoric acid (PAFC), alkaline (AFC) or solid polymer (SP(E)FC).
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed combined cycle plant has boiler 14 for steam production that incorporates furnace for fuel combustion to produce furnace gas and process-gas inlet pipeline 78 passing process gas to furnace; steam turbine 38 that receives steam and is set in motion by means of this steam for energy generation; combustion chamber 52 for burning secondary fuel to produce gaseous combustion products; gas turbine 46 for expanding gaseous combustion products coming from combustion chamber to generate energy and to pass waste gas to process-gas inlet pipeline 78; return pipeline 86 for recirculation of part of furnace gas; first governor of furnace gas circulation speed in return pipeline 86; feeder 80 for fresh air supply to process gas inlet pipeline; second speed governor for fresh air supplied to feeder 80; and control device for first and second governors designed to maintain at least almost optimal performance characteristics of boiler under various operating conditions of combustion chamber.
EFFECT: enhanced energy generation efficiency under various operating conditions of combustion chamber.
24 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to power station and method of power generation basing on principle of combination of cycles providing higher specific capacity and flexibility of operating parameters of power station without corresponding increase of its thermal power rating. Process of improving thermal efficiency of combination cycles can be provided owing to use additional fuel and/or supply of heat. Particularly, gas turbines whose exhaust gases are delivered into steam generator for regeneration of heat can be additionally heated. Proposed system, as a whole, provides high efficiency of power station with combination of cycles mainly owing to Rankine (lower) cycle. Models of implementation of invention include load driven by engine of upper cycle set into action by liquid from upper cycle delivered into heat regeneration device. Said heat regeneration device is heated by additional fuel and/or from additional heat source to form higher energy consuming liquid of lower cycle and/or increase of amount of said liquid used as energy source for engine of lower cycle setting into motion load (potentially the same load as that in engine of upper cycle). Energy of liquid of upper cycle and liquid of lower cycle sets into action engines of upper and lower cycles, respectively, however, said liquids and/or exhaust of corresponding engines can found wide application at combined generation of heat and electric energy.
EFFECT: considerable increased of power rating of steam turbines and total efficiency of power station.
33 cl; 51 dwg
FIELD: heat power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used at building steam-gas plants of increased efficiency by means of gas-turbine unit mounted on steam-turbine plant on operating thermal power station. According to invention, all heating surfaces of boiler required for its operation on previous fuel are preserved, heating surface in additional so similar boiler surfaces are installed in separate convective gas conduit of gas turbine, and consumption of fuel in boiler reduced so that total steam-generating capacity of steam boiler with additional surfaces should be preserved at level of steam generating capacity of steam boiler at its operation with out gas turbine plant.
EFFECT: possibility of use of gas turbine plant on steam turbine power unit with boiler operating on any fuels, without long standstill of power unit for reconstruction and correlation of power of gas turbine and steam turbine operating en-bloc.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: heat power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used at creation and modernization of power-generating gas-turbine plants operating on natural gas as fuel. According to known method of partial substitution of gas-turbine fuel in which air compressed by compressor of gas-turbine plant is heated before delivering into combustion chamber in recuperator by superheated steam generated in steam boiler at combustion of replacement fuel, steam into recuperator is fed directly after steam boiler, and after recuperator at least part of steam and reheated by exhaust gases of gas-turbine plant to temperature required by consumer, for instance, to required temperature of steam to be delivered to turbine. According to invention, steam, before delivery into recuperator, can be superheated to temperature exceeding temperature required by consumer. Moreover, part of reheated steam can be directed into combustion to be used in mixture with combustion products of gas-turbine fuel as working medium of gas-turbine plan.
EFFECT: possibility of use of low-cost ash-bearing fuels, such as coals, which can not be used in other spheres of application instead of natural gas.
5 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: system is proposed in which hybrid cycle of gasification is used where carbon dioxide is recirculated in gas generator for use as gasification reagent and working fluid medium. System includes source of fresh clean oxygen, gas generator particles separator arranged for communication in flow with gas generator, combustion chamber for syngas, gas turbine arranged with communication in gas flow with output of gas turbine and gas compression system putting out flow of compressed outgoing gas. First part of compressed outgoing gas is delivered into gas generator to regulate temperature in gas generator and get carbon dioxide and steam for gasification and decrease requirement of fresh clean oxygen.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of power generation.
21 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: heat power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: according to invention, heat system of gas-turbine plant is communicated with heat system of steam-turbine plant with possibility of changing over heat flows from waste-heat boiled and steam extractions from compartment of steam turbine to optimize heat and energy loads by making waste-heat boiled with possibility of cutting off its system water heaters and delivering feed water into steam generator from condenser through waste-heat boiler. Invention provides cutting off specific capital outlays, high reliability and long service life, reduced exhaust of dangerous nitro gen oxides (NOx) to levels below tolerable ones.
EFFECT: possibility of self-contained operation of gas-turbine plant and steam-turbine plant.
5 cl, 4 tbl, 2 dwg
FIELD: power production.
SUBSTANCE: method of combined heat and power plant operation is proposed by the invention. The considered combined heat and power plant is overbuilt with steam and gas unit with double-circuit steam recovery heat generator. Part of steam generated in steam boiler is replaced with steam generated in the first circuit of the double circuit steam recovery heat generator. Low-pressure steam from the double circuit steam recovery heat generator is supplied to the heat recovery elements of the combined heat and power plant steam turbine with lesser fuel consumption per the produced power unit. The steam remaining from high-pressure regenerative recoveries and heat recoveries is subject to expansion in steam turbine producing additional action.
EFFECT: reduction of specific fuel consumption for electrical and heat power, increase of cycle economy, use of power reserves available in heat steam turbines and increase of their operating power; power generation at combined heat and power plants at lesser additional capital costs.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to steam engines. Suggested engine with heat regeneration uses water both as working fluid and as lubricating material. During operation water is supplied by pump from collecting tray via coil around exhaust opening of cylinder, and as a result water is previously heated by steam exhausted from cylinder. Then preliminarily heated water is supplied to steam generator and is heated by means of combustion chamber to generate superheated high-pressure steam. Air is preliminarily heated in heat exchanger, and then is mixed with fuel from fuel sprayer. Spark plug ignites sprayed fuel, and flame and heat centrifuge is created inside combustion chamber. Speed and torque moment of engine are controlled by system of yoke and cam, which opens needle valve for inlet of superheated high-pressure steam in cylinder, inside of which there is piston of reciprocal travel. Supplied steam expands in explosive action at piston top at high pressure, which makes the piston go down, at that piston with the help of driving force transfer turns joined crank cam and crankshaft. Spent steam is sent via centrifugal condenser, having system of flat plates. Cooling air from air blowers circulates via flat plates to transfer steam into liquid condition. Condensed water is returned into collecting tray for further use with the purpose of steam generation. Method is considered for energy generation in engine.
EFFECT: provides for increased efficiency factor and engine performance, by provision of heat regeneration and engine operation at critical pressure and temperature.
12 cl, 14 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat power engineering, particularly to combined-cycle units with boiling bed. Proposed plant comprises boiler and boiling bed at pressure, housing accommodating furnace with boiling bed and cyclones, gas turbine unit, steam turbine, heat exchangers to cool gases coming out of gas turbine unit and boiler outlet ash. Swirling chamber is arranged in boiler exhaust gas path, downstream of cyclones, to receive swirled gases coming out of cyclone and combustion gas. Gas temperature in said chamber is maintained higher than that of fluid gas. Swirling chamber bottom accommodates fluid slurry separator. Swirling chamber outlet accommodates tube bundle to catch slurry and solid ash catcher is arranged there behind.
EFFECT: higher reliability and efficiency.