The method of transformation of heat
(57) Abstract:Usage: heat pumps. The inventive absorption of the working substance are by compression of its steam in the ejector-absorber together with his weak solution, and desertia working substance is carried out in the ejector by strong expansion of the solution. Released vapor of the working substance perepuskat in the ejector-absorber. 1 Il. The invention relates to methods of transformation of heat, which converts thermal energy of one temperature potential energy of another thermal capacity, and is intended to provide cold or heat, or both.Known methods, in which the transformation temperature potential heat energy is carried out for the account of absorption and desorption of the working substance, such as ammonia absorbent, such as water-ammonia solution (E. I. Sokolov, V. M. Berdyansk "Energy basis of transformation of heat and cooling processes", - M.: Energoizdat, 1981, S. 109 - 134).In the known methods of transformation of heat of desorption of the working substance is carried out by evaporating the alcoholic solution due to its heating hot water steam, then steam kondenseerumise this method, you must wrap high-grade heat. On the other hand, the implementation of these processes requires the use of cumbersome and bulky apparatus. Accordingly, the known method can be applied only where there is a high-grade heat in the form of heating steam.The claimed invention solves the problem of implementation of transformation of heat by absorption and desorption of the working substance absorbent, without the use of steam heating using electricity.This is achieved by replacing the process of evaporation of the working agent in the generator by heating the concentrated alcoholic solution of desorption him with decreasing pressure of the solution at its adiabatic expansion in the ejector, and the replacement of the absorption process of the working substance in the absorber by cooling the weak solution in the absorption process of working heat in the ejector by adiabatic compression it to pair with a lean liquid absorbent.Thus, in the present invention the absorbance of the working substance are by compression of its steam in the ejector together depleted solution and the desorption of the working substance is carried out at the strong expansion of the solution in the ejector, causing the mixture obladaet depleted solution, the resulting mixture is heated.Comparative analysis of the prototype and the proposed solution shows the fundamental difference between the processes of absorption and desorption of vapor of the working substance, and therefore the claimed invention meets the criterion of "novelty."The drawing shows a diagram illustrating the method of transformation of heat.The scheme consists of a pump 1, the ejector-absorber 2, heat exchanger 3, the ejector-desorber 4, the heat exchanger 5 and the connecting pipe 6.Transformation of heat is carried out as follows.Pump 1 pumps the mixture of the working substance and the absorbent through the ejector-absorber 2, the heat exchanger 3, the ejector-desorber 4 and the heat exchanger 5. Heat Q1at temperature T1down to the heat exchanger 5, resulting in the solution of the working substance is heated in the heat exchanger 5 on t1= T1- T4and after compression in the pump 1 at P = P2- P1served in the ejector-absorber 2, where the diffuser it expands to a pressure P3and mixed with the incoming pipeline 6 working substance, and the mixture is then compressed in the confuser ejector-absorber 2 to the pressure P4. As a result of compression of the mixture of working wisest 3, where heat Q1at T2give the consumer, cooling the mixture at t2= T2- T3.After the heat exchanger 3, the cooled mixture at T3and pressure P5served in the ejector-desorber 4, where the diffuser it expands with P5to P6. In the process of expanding the mixture of the working substance desorption of naturally, the mixture is depleted and cooled to T3to T4. Released during the expansion of steam at a pressure P6separated from the mixture and perepuskat of the ejector-desorber 4 in the ejector-absorber 2. Depleted and the cooled mixture is sent at T4and P7in the heat exchanger 5, where it is heated from T4to T1by absorbing the heat of the Q1. Then the cycle repeats.A prerequisite for the transformation of heat, i.e. the absorption of Q1at T1in the heat exchanger 5 and the allocation of Q2at T2in the heat exchanger 3, is the bypass steam of the working medium through the pipeline 6 of the ejector-desorber 4 in the ejector-absorber 2 due to the fact that the pressure after the expansion of the strong solution in the ejector-desorber 4, i.e., P6choose more steam pressure after the expansion of the weak solution in the ejector-absorber 2, i.e. P3or P6> P3. Last dousa such when after expansion in the ejector-absorber 2 is provided a deeper decompression. On the other hand, the differential pressure created by the pump 1 (P2- P1), chosen so that it is ensured the circulation of the mixture in the circuit and meet the condition:
P2- P1(P2- P4) + (P4- P5) + (P4- P7) + (P7- P1)
(P2- P4) = (P2- P3) - (P4- P3- the differential pressure on the ejector absorber 2;
(P4- P5) and (P1- P7) - loss of pressure on heat transfer equipment and pipelines;
(P5- P7) = (P5- P6) - (P7- P6- the differential pressure on the ejector absorber 4.If (P7- P6) > (P5- P6), the ejector-desorber 4 can operate in pumping mode.The heat balance is determined by the ratio:
Q2= Q1+ AL,
L - power pump.The heat transformer can operate in the mode of the refrigeration machine, in this case, the depleted solution of the working medium circulating through the heat exchanger 5, should have a temperature T4above the freezing temperature of the solution at P
G1- the number of circulating solution (mixture);
C1the heat capacity of the solution,
the heat generated in the heat exchanger 3
Q2= (T2- T3) G2C2.the heat generated in the ejector-absorber 2 through absorption of the working substance
Q3= (T2- T1) G2C = Gxqa,
Gx- the number of the working substance, absorbed in the ejector;
qadifferential heat of absorption,
the heat taken in the ejector-desorber 4 due to the desorption of the working substance
Q4= (T3- T4) G C = Gxqa,
where Gx- the number of the working substance, desormiere in the ejector;
qaD - differential heat of desorption.Conversion
< / BR>where
Ln- power pump.To calculate the factorithe necessary experimental data for the evaluation of losses in the ejector, pipelines and heat exchangers. In the absence of such data, for a rough estimation, you can use the published calculation for otheractor transformers heat (see "Thematic swords conditions preheating from 5 to 65oC is of orderi= 4 - 6.The proposed method of transformation of heat can also find wide application in refrigeration to obtain the temperature range from minus 30 to 5oC. thus, the main advantages in comparison with the prototype are.the high value of the conversion factor,
a significant decrease of metal absorption heat transformer by replacing cumbersome equipment with ejectors. The method of transformation of heat by absorption and desorption of the working substance absorbent material, characterized in that the absorbance of the working substance are by compression of its steam in the ejector-absorber with his weak solution and the desorption of the working substance is carried out in the ejector by strong expansion of the solution, and the separated vapor of the working substance perepuskat in the ejector-absorber.
FIELD: refrigeration industry; heat-and-power engineering; other industries; production of the absorption- membrane installations.
SUBSTANCE: the invention presents the absorption- membrane installation, which ensures production of cold and heat energy working as the thermal pump by extraction from the strong solution of the refrigerant through the semi-permeable membrane under the pressure exceeding the osmotic pressure formed by the pump, the boiling of the refrigerant heated from the external source of the low-potential power at the low pressure with production of the refrigerating effect and absorption of the formed vapors by the weak solution of the refrigerant with production of the heat energy of the condensation and dissolution. The pressure under the membrane is maintained above the pressure of the refrigerant boiling at the environmental temperature. The expansion refrigerator is installed streamwise the refrigerant weak solution and behind the membrane block with usage of the mechanical power of the expansion refrigerator onto the drive of the pump and (or) on the drive of the booster-compressor compressing the vapors of the refrigerant till their mixing with the refrigerant weak solution and absorption. The invention usage will allow to expand the capabilities of the installation.
EFFECT: the invention ensures expansion of the capabilities of the installation.
5 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: present invention pertains to the power engineering industry. To extract heat from a cold medium and transmit it to a hot medium, heat of dissolution is used as well as separation from the solution, two or more substances or two or more groups of soluble or absorbable substances with different thermodynamic properties on their saturation lines or beyond these lines. For this purpose, in the cold part of the cycle, through a selective membrane or membrane, a solvent is moved from one solution to the other such that, one of the substances or one of the groups of substances separates from the solution or is absorbed, with heat release or heat absorption or no thermal effect. The second substance or group of substances is dissolved or separated by an absorber, with absorption of a large amount of heat. As a result, in the cold part of the cycle, heat is taken off the cooled medium. The obtained solution and separated substance or substances are channelled to the hot part of the cycle, heating them with oncoming heat exchanger. In the hot part of the cycle, there is oppositely directed movement of solvent through the selective membrane or membrane. As a result, a reverse thermal effect is achieved and heat is transferred to the hot medium. The obtained solution and separated substance are returned to the cold part of the cycle, cooling them with oncoming heat exchanger. Use of the invention increases efficiency of a refrigerator or heat pump.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of a refrigerator or heat pump.
SUBSTANCE: method for conversion of heat energy to electricity, heat of increased potential and cold involves the following stages. A cooling agent is evaporated from a strong solution. A heated vapour flow is expanded with the performance of work and formation of spent vapour. Vapour is condensed. A liquid cooling agent is expanded and evaporated so that the cooling effect is formed. The cooling agent vapour of reduced temperature is absorbed. Pressure of the solution is increased and the solution is heated before evaporation. The heated cooling agent vapour is separated into two flows after evaporation, one of which expands with the performance of work, and the other one is condensed and used for generation of cold and/or heat energy. The cooling agent vapour flow, after its expansion with the performance of work, and the flow of the cooling agent vapour of reduced temperature and reduced pressure, which is obtained at evaporation of the cooling agent with the formation of the cooling effect, are absorbed using a common weak solution and with the formation of a strong solution including the cooling agent of both flows that are specified above. A device for conversion of heat energy to electricity, heat of increased potential and cold is described.
EFFECT: group of inventions is aimed at improvement of efficient generation of mechanical energy, heat and cold.
13 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to thermal pump. Thermal pump comprises multiple hollow elements provided with adsorbent. Said hollow elements house working fluid displacing between adsorbent and phase transition area. Hollow elements force the flow of heat transfer fluid in fluid circuit (101) by valve device over said hollow elements for them to be brought in thermal contact with fluid. Flow over hollow elements is alternated in cycles. At least two hollow elements, in every position of said valve, are flown over by fluid in parallel and at least two hollow elements are flown over successively. In every position of said valve, at least two sets of multiple hollow elements are flown over in parallel. At least one set of multiple hollow elements is arranged directly upstream or downstream of heat exchange (105, 106). The number of hollow elements flown over simultaneously in parallel makes at least one fourth, preferably, one third of the quantity of hollow elements flown over successively.
EFFECT: expanded applications.
18 cl, 17 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is aimed at energy saving by rational use of renewable sources of heat and natural temperature drop in environment. Disclosed is a method of producing heat energy in a closed adsorptive cycle enhancement of temperature potential, consisting of consecutive steps of adsorption of cooling agent on adsorber, removal of cooling agent with adsorbent (regeneration), evaporation and condensation of cooling agent, adsorbent regeneration is performed by heating from renewable source of low-potential heat, and condenser is cooled to low temperature by using only natural temperature drop in environment.
EFFECT: invention increases temperature potential of heat source only due to use of natural temperature difference in environment.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: machine engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods for compressing the working fluid used to transfer heat from the coolant with a lower (E) to the coolant temperature with a higher temperature (Al), and may be used in the heat pump. The method combines absorption and change in concentration of the electrolyte solution, such as ZnCl2, (Na, K, Cs, Rb) OH, CoI2, (Li, K, Na) (Cl2, Br2, I, SO4) or substances whose concentration decreases with increasing temperature, in a polar solvent: H2O, NH3, Methanol, ethanol, methylamine, DMSO, DMA, AN, formamide, formic acid. A highly saturated solution is cooled, discharged from the absorber-exchanger (A1) from a high (1) to a low (2) temperature during passage through heat exchanger-crystalliser (NOT) to form absorbent crystals. Crystals separated (K1), remains low concentrated solution (2). For cooling low-concentrated solution is partially expanded (2), steam is supplied to crystals (R1) in which they are absorbed. Tighten the solution to the heat exchanger-evaporator pressure (E). The low-concentrated solution is expanded in the turbine producing work and refrigerating cycle to partially evaporate in an evaporator-heat exchanger (E) at a given temperature and solvent vapor formation. The additional absorbent crystals (K2) are separated, connecting them into the previously selected crystals (K1). Steam is heated by passing it through a heat exchanger, a crystalliser (NOT) and compressed (5) of its pressure absorber (A1). The low-concentrated solution (3) remaining after partial evaporation compressed to a pressure absorber (A1) and heated in a heat exchanger, a crystalliser (NOT). The separated crystals are heated in the heat exchanger, a crystalliser (NOT) is dissolved in a hot solution of (3) to form the highly-concentrated solution. Steam (4) is streamed into the absorber (A1), where the vapor is absorbed, and the heat is removed and re-formed starting solution.
EFFECT: method improves the efficiency of heat transfer, such as heating, air conditioning.
8 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: device for implementing the adsorption cycle of increasing the temperature potential of a renewable heat source includes an adsorber, a heat exchanger in contact with the adsorbent granules, a vacuum tap, a container with liquid refrigerant and a heat exchanger partially immersed in the liquid refrigerant. The container with liquid refrigerant and the heat exchanger is a condenser and an evaporator. As the adsorbent, a composite adsorbent of methanol vapour is used, which is a porous matrix selected from the group consisting of silica gel, alumina, vermiculite, the pores of which contain a metal halide or nitrate from the range of: calcium, magnesium, lithium, nickel or cobalt in an amount of at least 17 wt %, Alcohols are used as the refrigerant-adsorbent.
EFFECT: increasing the temperature potential of a renewable heat source in a closed adsorption cycle.
4 cl, 1 tbl, 1 dwg