Method of neutralizing policlorbifenilelor products

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the protection of the environment, specifically to the disposal of products containing policlorbifenilelor substances. Method of neutralizing policlorbifenilelor of products includes heating products gas-oxygen flame with a temperature of at least 2000oC until a temperature on the surface 600-750oC with the heating of the chamber walls of the combustion chamber to a temperature not higher than 1000oC, released from the product gases are heated at the entrance to the secondary combustion chamber to a temperature not less than 1300oC in the absence of free oxygen with the simultaneous supply of ammonia in an amount to provide binding hydrogen chloride, and dorogaya when the oxygen content at the outlet of the afterburner 3-5%, the residence time of gases in the secondary combustion chamber to provide at least 1.5 C. At the exit of the afterburner gases prosushivayut through the layer of kaolin wool with simultaneous injection of ammonia. The technical effect of using the invention is guaranteed cleaning products from policlorbifenilelor substances and the elimination of the pollution of highly toxic dioxins. 2 C.p. f-crystals, 2 tab.

orbifolia connection for example, the neutralization of transformer cores socolovich capacitors.

Representative polychlorbifenils compounds is, for example, pentachlorobiphenyl with the chemical formula C12H5Cl5and the boiling temperature of 350 397oC (Cm. Russian University. D. I. Mendeleev. The main achievements in education and science, issue 173, Publishing center, Moscow, 1995, article Century. Century. Tarasova environmental Contamination with polychlorinated biphenyls and ways to minimize their impact page 24 of 42).

From the analysis of the chemical formula it follows that for solving problems of disposal of these products should not be allowed during technological process of neutralization of release to the environment both hydrocarbons and toxic chlorinated products.

There is a method of neutralization of toxic hydrocarbons during firing resin refractories Cm. "Method of firing resin refractories" patent N 2053451, IPC 23 C 7/06, 1996 bull. N 3.

According to this patent N 2053451 known method includes heating products and afterburning released from the product gases in the secondary combustion chamber, and heat the product is gas is the Eney 600oC, with heating of the chamber walls of the combustion chamber to a temperature above 1000oC and the injection of the oxygen jet emitted from the product gases and afterburning of their oxygen flame with a temperature not less than 1300oC.

The disadvantage of this method is that it is based on the neutralization of toxic gases by simple incineration and does not provide for the disposal of polychlorinated biphenols.

For example, according to the above article, in. A. Tarasova, polychlorinated biphenol (PCBs) are the most powerful source of PCDF and PCDD (dibenzofurans and dibenzodioxins) that occur during combustion of PCBs at moderately high temperatures (700 - 1200oC).

Toxic substances such as contain chlorine and the product of the incomplete oxidation of carbon (see, for example, phosgene COCl2. Harmful substances in industry, in Chemistry 1965, S. 223), as well as polychlorinated dibenzofuran are formed and exist in the product in the form of a skeleton with a deep lack of oxygen, under conditions of pyrolysis at a temperature of 750 - 1200oC. That is, when heating the products at the specified well-known way with the oxy-fuel flame with a temperature of at least 2000oC, when temperate way of neutralizing policlorbifenilelor products under the patent 2076090, class. C 07 C 17/38, 27.03.97., column 3, para. 2.

The known method provides the clearance policlorbifenilelor connection with the processing of their reagents. However, disposal of products by a known method without their destruction is not technological.

The task, which directed the claimed technical solution is to exclude environmental pollution by PCBs and dioxins.

This is achieved by implementing heating products gas-oxygen flame with a temperature of at least 2000oC until a temperature on their surface 600 - 750oC, with heating of the chamber walls of the combustion chamber to a temperature above 1000oC, released from the product gases are heated at the entrance to the secondary combustion chamber to a temperature not less than 1300oC in the absence of free oxygen with the simultaneous supply of ammonia in an amount to provide binding hydrogen chloride and dorogaya when the oxygen content at the outlet of the afterburner 3 - 5%.

The residence time of the gases in the secondary combustion chamber to provide at least 1.5 and at the exit of the afterburner gases prosushivayut through the layer of kaolin wool with simultaneous injection of ammonia.

In savennieres products not exceeding 750oC. At the specified limit surface temperature to 750oC and the absence of free oxygen in the gas phase (but in the presence of significant quantities of water vapor and carbon dioxide in the gas phase environmental products, from products of combustion of natural gas) formation of chlorinated products of incomplete oxidation of carbon cannot occur.

Therefore, the product after the heating by the claimed method are cleared, and therefore neutralized from polychlorinated biphenols who are moving from products in the gas phase through evaporation.

If you dorigatti separated from the product gases in the secondary combustion chamber to the heating chamber walls of the combustion chamber to a temperature above 1000oC, with the injection of the oxygen jet emitted from the product gases and afterburning of their oxygen flame with a temperature of 1300oC, in the presence of the afterburning chamber of excess oxygen (usually about 10 - 15%), when using the known method (p. N 2053451) are formed of highly toxic polychlorinated dibenzamide (for example, dioxin C12H4Cl4O2see Chemistry, Ref. ed. In, Schroeter, Izd-vo Chemistry 1989, page 527)

To avoid formation of these polychlorinated di is of filing of ammonia and heating the mixture to a temperature of 1300oC at the entrance to the secondary combustion chamber. In particular, the evaporation process oils, heating and heating at the entrance to the secondary combustion chamber are in the absence of free oxygen in the gases. Under these conditions, when the disposal of vapors of oils containing chlorine is not created the necessary oxidation potential for education chlorcyclizine compounds (which may be formed in the presence of free oxygen) after oxidation of the structural component of organic molecules with the formation of H2O, 1/2 CO2and replace the specified structural component on the oxygen with two links-O-. From this reasoning shows that for the formation of ties in the form of-O -, you must first oxidize two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of carbon that can occur only in the presence of free oxygen in the gas phase. According to the present method, the mixture of gases at the entrance to the secondary combustion chamber is heated to a temperature of not lower than 1300oC and at the same time in these gases serves ammonia, in amounts sufficient to bind the chlorine contained in the gases in the form of florodora. Under these conditions, at the entrance to the secondary combustion chamber is reaction

NH3+HCl _ NH4Cl (solid)

with the formation of ammonia with 5). Heat the gases to a temperature above 1300oC is for the implementation of the rupture of C-Cl bond with formation in the presence of hydrogen of florodora HCl. In this case, since the concentration of HCl in the presence of ammonia does not significantly increase due to binding of chlorine in the solid, the reaction goes in the direction of formation of the final product - NH4Cl ammonia and carbon dioxide through maintaining a balance of oxygen in gases. Maintenance in the afterburning chamber at the exit of free oxygen not less than 3% and not more than 5%, and the residence time of the flue gases in the secondary combustion chamber is not less than 1.5 with due to the fact that the oxygen required for post-combustion of hydrocarbons, which are at the specified temperature almost completely burned. However, in order to have in the exhaust gas CO content is not more than 0.02% for most furnaces, oxygen support more than more than 3% but not more than 5%, then the CO content is not reduced from increasing oxygen content.

To increase the degree of purification of gases of HCl at the outlet of the furnace gases prosushivayut through the layer of kaolin wool, which is injected ammonia that allows you processed the tats of using the proposed method are presented in table. 1 and 2.

1. Method of neutralizing policlorbifenilelor products, characterized in that conduct heat the product with the oxy-fuel flame with a temperature of at least 2000oC until a temperature on their surface 600 - 750oC with the heating of the chamber walls of the combustion chamber to a temperature above 1000oC, released from the product gases are heated at the entrance to the secondary combustion chamber to a temperature not less than 1300oC in the absence of free oxygen with the simultaneous supply of ammonia in an amount to provide binding hydrogen chloride, and dorogaya when the oxygen content at the outlet of the afterburning chamber 3 to 5%.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the residence time of gases in the secondary combustion chamber to provide at least 1.5 C.

3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that at the outlet of the afterburner gases prosushivayut through the layer of kaolin wool with simultaneous injection of ammonia.

 

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