Method of neutralizing policlorbifenilelor products
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the protection of the environment, specifically to the disposal of products containing policlorbifenilelor substances. Method of neutralizing policlorbifenilelor of products includes heating products gas-oxygen flame with a temperature of at least 2000oC until a temperature on the surface 600-750oC with the heating of the chamber walls of the combustion chamber to a temperature not higher than 1000oC, released from the product gases are heated at the entrance to the secondary combustion chamber to a temperature not less than 1300oC in the absence of free oxygen with the simultaneous supply of ammonia in an amount to provide binding hydrogen chloride, and dorogaya when the oxygen content at the outlet of the afterburner 3-5%, the residence time of gases in the secondary combustion chamber to provide at least 1.5 C. At the exit of the afterburner gases prosushivayut through the layer of kaolin wool with simultaneous injection of ammonia. The technical effect of using the invention is guaranteed cleaning products from policlorbifenilelor substances and the elimination of the pollution of highly toxic dioxins. 2 C.p. f-crystals, 2 tab.
orbifolia connection for example, the neutralization of transformer cores socolovich capacitors.Representative polychlorbifenils compounds is, for example, pentachlorobiphenyl with the chemical formula C12H5Cl5and the boiling temperature of 350 397oC (Cm. Russian University. D. I. Mendeleev. The main achievements in education and science, issue 173, Publishing center, Moscow, 1995, article Century. Century. Tarasova environmental Contamination with polychlorinated biphenyls and ways to minimize their impact page 24 of 42).From the analysis of the chemical formula it follows that for solving problems of disposal of these products should not be allowed during technological process of neutralization of release to the environment both hydrocarbons and toxic chlorinated products.There is a method of neutralization of toxic hydrocarbons during firing resin refractories Cm. "Method of firing resin refractories" patent N 2053451, IPC 23 C 7/06, 1996 bull. N 3.According to this patent N 2053451 known method includes heating products and afterburning released from the product gases in the secondary combustion chamber, and heat the product is gas is the Eney 600oC, with heating of the chamber walls of the combustion chamber to a temperature above 1000oC and the injection of the oxygen jet emitted from the product gases and afterburning of their oxygen flame with a temperature not less than 1300oC.The disadvantage of this method is that it is based on the neutralization of toxic gases by simple incineration and does not provide for the disposal of polychlorinated biphenols.For example, according to the above article, in. A. Tarasova, polychlorinated biphenol (PCBs) are the most powerful source of PCDF and PCDD (dibenzofurans and dibenzodioxins) that occur during combustion of PCBs at moderately high temperatures (700 - 1200oC).Toxic substances such as contain chlorine and the product of the incomplete oxidation of carbon (see, for example, phosgene COCl2. Harmful substances in industry, in Chemistry 1965, S. 223), as well as polychlorinated dibenzofuran are formed and exist in the product in the form of a skeleton with a deep lack of oxygen, under conditions of pyrolysis at a temperature of 750 - 1200oC. That is, when heating the products at the specified well-known way with the oxy-fuel flame with a temperature of at least 2000oC, when temperate way of neutralizing policlorbifenilelor products under the patent 2076090, class. C 07 C 17/38, 27.03.97., column 3, para. 2.The known method provides the clearance policlorbifenilelor connection with the processing of their reagents. However, disposal of products by a known method without their destruction is not technological.The task, which directed the claimed technical solution is to exclude environmental pollution by PCBs and dioxins.This is achieved by implementing heating products gas-oxygen flame with a temperature of at least 2000oC until a temperature on their surface 600 - 750oC, with heating of the chamber walls of the combustion chamber to a temperature above 1000oC, released from the product gases are heated at the entrance to the secondary combustion chamber to a temperature not less than 1300oC in the absence of free oxygen with the simultaneous supply of ammonia in an amount to provide binding hydrogen chloride and dorogaya when the oxygen content at the outlet of the afterburner 3 - 5%.The residence time of the gases in the secondary combustion chamber to provide at least 1.5 and at the exit of the afterburner gases prosushivayut through the layer of kaolin wool with simultaneous injection of ammonia.In savennieres products not exceeding 750oC. At the specified limit surface temperature to 750oC and the absence of free oxygen in the gas phase (but in the presence of significant quantities of water vapor and carbon dioxide in the gas phase environmental products, from products of combustion of natural gas) formation of chlorinated products of incomplete oxidation of carbon cannot occur.Therefore, the product after the heating by the claimed method are cleared, and therefore neutralized from polychlorinated biphenols who are moving from products in the gas phase through evaporation.If you dorigatti separated from the product gases in the secondary combustion chamber to the heating chamber walls of the combustion chamber to a temperature above 1000oC, with the injection of the oxygen jet emitted from the product gases and afterburning of their oxygen flame with a temperature of 1300oC, in the presence of the afterburning chamber of excess oxygen (usually about 10 - 15%), when using the known method (p. N 2053451) are formed of highly toxic polychlorinated dibenzamide (for example, dioxin C12H4Cl4O2see Chemistry, Ref. ed. In, Schroeter, Izd-vo Chemistry 1989, page 527)
To avoid formation of these polychlorinated di is of filing of ammonia and heating the mixture to a temperature of 1300oC at the entrance to the secondary combustion chamber. In particular, the evaporation process oils, heating and heating at the entrance to the secondary combustion chamber are in the absence of free oxygen in the gases. Under these conditions, when the disposal of vapors of oils containing chlorine is not created the necessary oxidation potential for education chlorcyclizine compounds (which may be formed in the presence of free oxygen) after oxidation of the structural component of organic molecules with the formation of H2O, 1/2 CO2and replace the specified structural component on the oxygen with two links-O-. From this reasoning shows that for the formation of ties in the form of-O -, you must first oxidize two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of carbon that can occur only in the presence of free oxygen in the gas phase. According to the present method, the mixture of gases at the entrance to the secondary combustion chamber is heated to a temperature of not lower than 1300oC and at the same time in these gases serves ammonia, in amounts sufficient to bind the chlorine contained in the gases in the form of florodora. Under these conditions, at the entrance to the secondary combustion chamber is reaction
NH3+HCl _ NH4Cl (solid)
with the formation of ammonia with ç5). Heat the gases to a temperature above 1300oC is for the implementation of the rupture of C-Cl bond with formation in the presence of hydrogen of florodora HCl. In this case, since the concentration of HCl in the presence of ammonia does not significantly increase due to binding of chlorine in the solid, the reaction goes in the direction of formation of the final product - NH4Cl ammonia and carbon dioxide through maintaining a balance of oxygen in gases. Maintenance in the afterburning chamber at the exit of free oxygen not less than 3% and not more than 5%, and the residence time of the flue gases in the secondary combustion chamber is not less than 1.5 with due to the fact that the oxygen required for post-combustion of hydrocarbons, which are at the specified temperature almost completely burned. However, in order to have in the exhaust gas CO content is not more than 0.02% for most furnaces, oxygen support more than more than 3% but not more than 5%, then the CO content is not reduced from increasing oxygen content.To increase the degree of purification of gases of HCl at the outlet of the furnace gases prosushivayut through the layer of kaolin wool, which is injected ammonia that allows you processed the tats of using the proposed method are presented in table. 1 and 2. 1. Method of neutralizing policlorbifenilelor products, characterized in that conduct heat the product with the oxy-fuel flame with a temperature of at least 2000oC until a temperature on their surface 600 - 750oC with the heating of the chamber walls of the combustion chamber to a temperature above 1000oC, released from the product gases are heated at the entrance to the secondary combustion chamber to a temperature not less than 1300oC in the absence of free oxygen with the simultaneous supply of ammonia in an amount to provide binding hydrogen chloride, and dorogaya when the oxygen content at the outlet of the afterburning chamber 3 to 5%.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the residence time of gases in the secondary combustion chamber to provide at least 1.5 C.3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that at the outlet of the afterburner gases prosushivayut through the layer of kaolin wool with simultaneous injection of ammonia.
FIELD: burning waste gases of pyrolysis furnaces in reworking solid domestic wastes.
SUBSTANCE: proposed combustion chamber includes mixing chamber with active and passive nozzles mounted at its inlet; active and passive nozzles are connected respectively to compressed air source and to waste gas source; mixing chamber is made in form of diffuser at aperture angle of 10-18 deg; ratio of diameters of active and passive nozzles is equal to: Dact:Dpas=0.35-0.4.
EFFECT: enhanced economical efficiency of use of vapor-and-gas cycle.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: the invention refers to apparatus of regenerative thermal oxidation with multi pass valves.
SUBSTANCE: the apparatus for regenerative thermal oxidation for gas processing has a combustion zone, the first heat exchanging layer keeping heat exchanging surroundings and connecting with the combustion zone; the second heat exchanging layer keeping heat exchanging surroundings and connecting with the combustion zone; a valve for alternate direction of the gas flow between the first and the second heat exchanging layers. At that the valve has the first valve passage and the second valve passage separated from the first valve passage; a flow distributor having an admission passage communicates with the help of fluid medium with the admission opening of the surroundings and an exhaust passage communicates with the help of fluid medium with exhaust opening of fluid surroundings. At that the distributor is fulfilled with possibilities of its the first and the second valve passages between the first position in which the first valve passage communicates with the help of liquid with the admission passage and the second valve passage communicates with the help of liquid surroundings with exhaust passage and the second position in which the indicated the first valve passage communicates with the help of the fluid surrounding with exhaust passage and the second passage of the entry of the valve with the help of liquid surroundings communicates with the admission passage. At that the distributor of flow has a blocking surface which blocks the flow through the first part of the first valve passage and through the second part of the second valve passage when the distributor of the flow is between the first and the second positions and is fulfilled with possibility of its turning to 180o between the first and thesecond positions. At that valve passage is divided as the first so is the second at least into two chambers and the first and the second parts of the valve passages are congruous.
EFFECT: simplifies the construction, provides comfort of controlling and exploitation and deep removal of volatile organic combinations.
22 cl, 12 dwg
FIELD: technologies for combustion of flush gases, including those under high pressure, during extraction and processing of natural gas and oil.
SUBSTANCE: body of burner, mounted on gas inlet pipe, is made conical with widened portion at upper portion, in the body additionally mounted are two catalyst elements, at lower portion on inlet section first catalyst element is positioned, and above on outlet section - second catalyst element, rotary shutters are mounted on base of conical body in additional way, so that in closed position they are in contact with first catalyst element, and open position between first catalyst element and body gap is formed, also, device is additionally provided with one or more main torches, mounted in gas inlet pipeline below rotary shutters and first catalyst element. Relation of diameters of first and second catalyst elements matches relation of debits of hydrocarbon gas, fed in normal mode and during salvo exhaust. Catalyst elements are manufactured either in form of cell-like structured blocks with direction of channels in parallel to direction of feeding of flush gases, or in form of block sections with granulated catalyst, for example, Rachig rings, or in forms of block sections with active-catalyst metallic shavings, or in form of blocks with active-catalyst metallic meshes.
EFFECT: higher ecological safety and fullness of combustion of flush gases in broad flow range, simplified construction and comfort of maintenance.
6 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: the invention refers to industrial ecology and may be used for flameless purification of ejections of industrial enterprises.
SUBSTANCE: the reactor for catalytic purification of gaseous ejections has a cylindrical body, which interior surface is covered with a catalyst with a source of infrared radiation placed in the body, a tube heat exchanger located in the lower part of the body, a turbine mixer located in the upper part of the body and additionally - a permeable cylindrical drum out of the catalyst so that the axles of the symmetry of the drum and body coincide. The drum embraces the mixer and the source of infrared radiation fulfilled in the shape of a six-ends star is installed in the middle of the body so that its flatness is perpendicular to the axle of the symmetry of the reactor. The drawing off socket is connected with the tube space of the heat exchanger, and the feeding socket is located so as to provide heating of gaseous ejections with the heat of the gases moving out of the reactor.
EFFECT: increases effectiveness of purification of gaseous flow and reduces power inputs for heating the gas flow.
FIELD: burning combustible gas at pressure above atmospheric.
SUBSTANCE: proposed plant is used for burning lean gases; it consists of unit for burning gas at pressure above atmospheric including lean gas chamber, combustion chamber, heat regeneration section and exhaust; pipe line supplying lean gas to lean gas chamber; heat removal and pressure equalizing chamber and preheated air chamber; plant is also provided with pipe line supplying the compressed surrounding air to heat removal and pressure equalizing chamber, preheated air pipe line for delivery of preheated air to preheated air chamber; provision is made for hole for delivery of lean gas from lean gas chamber to combustion chamber and hole for delivery of preheated air from preheated air chamber to combustion chamber. Heat removal and pressure equalizing chamber is made for heat exchange between lean gas chamber, preheated air chamber and combustion chamber and compressed surrounding air; lean gas and preheated air are burnt in combustion pressure at pressure above atmospheric.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency; minimum difference in pressure between gas and air chambers.
12 cl, 12 dwg
FIELD: arrangements or devices for treating smoke or fumes.
SUBSTANCE: head comprises gas supply pipe with gas gate and protecting shield mounted outside and coaxially at the top end of the gas supply pipe. The protecting shield is composed of two baffles made of two hollow trancated cones mounted one on the other. The grater base of the top baffle faces downward, and that of the bottom baffle faces upward. The smaller base is connected with the gas supply pipe.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability and prolonged service life.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: valve comprises rotatable housing provided with passage, outer unmovable ring seal of the housing, ring seal between the rotatable housing and outer unmovable ring seal of the housing that has bore made for permitting gas to flow to the passage or from the passage. The ring seal is movable with respect to the outer ring seal of the housing. The passage and the bore are made for permitting receiving the compressed gas to provide continuous sealing between the outer ring seal of the housing and ring seal when the housing rotates. The valve is additionally provided with means for permitting gas to flow through the radial passage and between the ring seal and outer unmovable ring seal of the housing and setting ring connected with the rotatable housing and locking ring that is mounted at a distance from the setting ring and connected with the rotatable housing. The ring seal is interposed between the setting ring and locking ring.
EFFECT: simplified structure and enhanced efficiency.
16 cl, 30 dwg
FIELD: toxic flue gas combustion technology for fuel-burning units.
SUBSTANCE: flue gases are neutralized in combustion chamber; total fuel flow is bifurcated; first fuel flow is mixed up with flue gases supplied to combustion chamber and second one is conveyed to combustion-chamber burners wherein it is burned in air environment and then passed to combustion chamber. Coke gas, flue gas, or blast-furnace gas, or generator gases, or mixture thereof can be used as fuel; total flowrate of flue gases (B"G) at combustion chamber outlet, total flowrate of fuel (BF) supplied to combustion chamber, flowrate of air (BA) supplied to combustion chamber, and flowrate of fuel (BF BRN) supplied to burners are found from following set of equations (1), (2), (3), (4):
, where B'G is flowrate of flue gases from combustion chamber outlet, kg/h; T'G is temperature of flue gases at combustion chamber inlet, °C; O'2 is oxygen content in flue gases at combustion chamber inlet, %; C'G is heat capacity of flue gases at combustion chamber inlet, kcal/kg; B"G is total flowrate of flue gases at combustion chamber outlet, kg/h; BF is total flowrate of fuel supplied to combustion chamber, kg/h; BF BRN is fuel flowrate to burners, kg/h; QF L is fuel low heating value as fired, kcal/kg; O2" is oxygen content in flue gases at combustion chamber outlet, %; VA O is theoretical air flowrate for burning 1 kg of fuel, kg/h; BA is air flowrate to combustion chamber, kg/h; TG" is gas temperature at combustion chamber outlet, °C; CG" is heat capacity of flue gases at combustion chamber outlet, kcal/kg; α is excess air coefficient. Temperature within combustion chamber is maintained between 850 and 1150 °C.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of flue gas neutralization in fuel-burning units.
1 cl, 1 dwg, 3 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: chemical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises using gas made of a mixture of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the plasma burner. The plasma burner ionizes gas thus producing carbon monoxide and reactive oxygen that removes ash from the gas. Oxygen and vapor are sprayed and injected to chamber (3) that receives the device with plasma burner. The control system (6) is provided with feedback and controls the concentration of the production gas, nozzle, and plasma burner.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
29 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: the invention is designed for ventilation and may be used at equipping industrial objects.
SUBSTANCE: the system of ventilation of an industrial object has local units of suction air with polluting substances, an airway connecting the local suction units with the suction branch pipe of a boiler's blow fan. The airway is connected through drainage with the pipeline located below it with condensed and liquid fractions of polluting substances. The pipeline is switched to the suction branch pipe of the boiler's blow fan.
EFFECT: increases reliability, economy of the ventilation system of an industrial object.
3 cl, 1 dwg