The reactor for the production of a gas rich in hydrogen and carbon monoxide

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: the reactor is designed to produce gas, includes a casing, provided with a device for supplying water vapor-containing hot gas stream, and to output the product, refractory lining located on the inner wall of the casing, and a layer of the reforming catalyst located within it, as well as a nozzle for the production of water vapor-containing hot gases flow connected with the upper part of casing pressure. The reactor is characterized by the fact that the catalyst bed consists of upper and lower sublayers, with the upper sublayer of the layer of catalyst has a catalytic activity is lower than the activity of the lower sublayer. The catalytic activity of the upper sublayer of the catalyst may range from 1 to 50% activity of the lower sublayer. The upper sublayer of the catalyst may have a thickness, which is 0.025 to 0.6 on the thickness of the lower sublayer. The lower sublayer of the catalyst may consist of several sublayers containing catalysts having high activity in reforming with water vapor. The use of the reactor improves the efficiency of the catalytic reforming and carbon monoxide, and, in particular, relates to a reactor for the production of a gas rich in hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

Known reactor for the production of a gas rich in hydrogen and carbon monoxide, by high-temperature catalytic reforming with water vapor hydrocarbons; this known reactor includes a housing, working under pressure, equipped with devices for supplying water vapor-containing hot gas stream, and to output the product, refractory lining located on the inner wall of the casing and the layer of the reforming catalyst located within it, as well as a nozzle for the production of water vapor-containing hot gases flow connected with the upper part of casing pressure (see European patent EP 0113198 A2, class. C 01 B 3/02, publ. 1984).

Rich in hydrogen and carbon monoxide gases are used as synthesis gas, primarily for the production of ammonia and methanol, as well as in the production of steel and as a fuel or city gas.

In the implementation process of the high-temperature reforming with water vapor source of hydrocarbons is burned with air, oxygen or air enriched with oxygen, in the nozzle, the connection is served in the quantity which is less than that required for complete combustion, and gas coming form hydrogen and carbon monoxide, mainly by reactions in the flame

CnHm+n/2O2_ nCO+m/2H2(1)

CnHm+nO2_ nCO2+m/2H2(2)

Both reactions are exothermic for all hydrocarbons. This process is most often used in the reforming of light materials being in the range from natural gas to oil fractions with a boiling point up to 200oC.

During this process, only a part of the hydrocarbon is oxidized to oxygen-containing environment at the above reactions in the flame (1,2). Residual hydrocarbons in the gas stream after combustion are then catalytic reforming with water vapor by endothermic reaction

CnHm+nH2O nCO+(m/2+n)H2(3)

the process of catalytic reforming with water vapor is carried out at a temperature of about 900 -1400oC. Water vapor added to raw materials to reduce the flame temperature and increase the degree of conversion of the hydrocarbon in coming out of the gas nozzle.

Hydrocarbons mixed with steam, is burnt in oxygen-containing environment at the top of the reaction and the catalyst, located in the fixed layer in the lower part of the reactor. Heat endothermic reforming reactions with water vapor compensated by the hot gas leaving the combustion zone in the upper part of the reactor above the catalyst bed. Upon contact of the gas after combustion with a catalyst gas temperature is reduced to 900-1100oC when the reforming reactions with water vapor flowing into the catalyst bed.

To protect the reactor vessel from the high temperatures of exothermic reactions in the flame (1,2), its supply of heat-resistant and insulating refractory lining on the inner wall of the casing of the reactor.

Currently, refractory materials commonly used in industrial reactors described above, consist of 90% aluminum oxide. Although these materials are high strength, capable of casting or clinkers with good thermo - or wear resistance, the destruction by contact with hot combustion gases containing oxides of carbon, water vapor and hydrogen, is more intense in the upper part of the reactor near the combustion zone. Due to the regenerative nature of gases alumina refractory material is restored to ptx2">

Volatile decomposition products released from the lining of the reactor, together with the impurities contained in the source gas are volatile at high temperatures, are deposited on parts of the reactor and below along the flow of the equipment reaction system having a temperature below the evaporation temperature of degradation products and impurities.

In reactors containing a layer of highly active reforming catalyst with water vapor, the temperature on the catalyst surface in the upper part of the layer is therefore considerably lower than the temperature of the gas after combustion and is normally the deposition of solid lumps in the upper part of the catalyst layer.

Deposits of hard lumps concentrate, essentially, a thin layer in the upper part of the catalyst layer and cause a decrease in the quantity of gas passing through this layer of the catalyst, which leads to uneven distribution of the gas transmission rate through the nearby areas of the layer of catalyst and sometimes to the formation of channels through the catalyst bed.

The purpose of this invention is to solve the above problems encountered when carrying out high-temperature catalytic reforming process is ikaetsya proposed reactor for the production of gas, rich in hydrogen and carbon monoxide, which includes housing, working under pressure, equipped with devices for supplying water vapor-containing hot gas stream, and to output the product, refractory lining located on the inner wall of the casing and the layer of the reforming catalyst located within it, as well as a nozzle for the production of water vapor-containing hot gases flow connected with the upper part of casing pressure. The reactor according to the invention is characterized in that the catalyst bed consists of upper and lower sublayers, with the upper sublayer of the layer of catalyst has a catalytic activity is lower than the activity of the lower sublayer.

Preferably the catalytic activity of the upper sublayer of the catalyst is from 1 to 50% of the activity of the lower sublayer.

The upper sublayer of the catalyst has a thickness, which is 0.025 - 0.6 thickness of the lower sublayer.

The lower sublayer of the catalyst may consist of several sublayers containing catalysts having high activity in reforming with water vapor.

Catalysts with low activity in the reformer can be prepared by impregnation of the CSOs substances from the particles impregnating the catalyst.

In addition, the reduced catalytic activity can be obtained by increasing the size of the catalyst particles in the upper sublayer of the catalyst.

During operation of the reactor according to the invention if the temperature on the catalyst surface due to the endothermic reforming reaction with water vapor flowing into the catalyst bed, may be smoothed ("blurry") on a large surface, given the small amount of solid deposits in the upper sublayer of the catalyst. Thus, the solid deposits are distributed on a large area catalyst layer and thereby improving the permeability of the gas through the catalyst bed.

A preferred variant of the reactor according to the invention is schematically represented in the accompanying drawing.

The reactor (1) comprises a casing pressure (2), and set in it a layer of catalyst (3) having an upper sublayer (4) with reduced activity and lower sublayer (5) with high activity. Layer (3), which typically has a height of 1-4 m, contains the famous reforming catalyst with water vapor. The reactor (1) is additionally provided with inlet holes (6,7) for supplying the source gas containing kilough (2) protected from high temperatures when developing the reactions in a gaseous reaction medium, refractory lining located on the inner wall of the pressure casing (2).

The activity of the catalyst in the upper sublayer (4) a layer of catalyst (3) is from 1 to 50% of the activity of the catalyst in the lower sublayer (5).

The upper sublayer (4) catalyst layer (3) has a thickness that ranges from 0.025 to 0.6 of the thickness of the lower sublayer (5).

The lower sublayer (5) catalyst layer (3) may, in turn, consist of several sublayers containing catalysts with increased activity against reforming with steam. During operation of the reactor according to the invention of the original hydrocarbons, pre-heated to a temperature of about 400-700oC, is fed into the nozzle, located in the upper part of the reactor, having a refractory lining. In the nozzle the feedstock is mixed with steam and oxygen-containing environment. The amount of oxygen corresponds to the molar ratio of oxygen/carbon preferably from 0.5 to 0.7 and the molar ratio of steam/carbon preferably from 0.5 to 2.0. Typically suitable for the process, the hydrocarbon feedstock is in the range from milliony gas reforming, when the process is carried out under conditions Autoterminal catalytic reforming.

Emerging from the nozzle gas containing unreacted hydrocarbons are then passed through the reforming catalyst with water vapor, in the form of a fixed layer below the combustion zone of the nozzles in the reactor for reforming.

At a temperature of 1000-1500oC, which is usually installed in the combustion zone, the decomposition products of the lining of the reactor, from the nozzle or impurities of raw materials are volatile and added to the gas stream entering the catalyst bed.

Due to the endothermic nature of the reforming with water vapor residual hydrocarbon in the gas stream entering the catalyst, the temperature at the catalyst surface in the upper sublayer, usually at about 100-150oC lower than the temperature of the surrounding gas using catalysts with normal activity reforming with water vapor, such activity is known containing Nickel and/or molybdenum catalyst. When activity in a redox reaction the usual catalysts reforming with water vapor is, for example, 5%, lowering the temperature at the top of podsa the Torah are distributed on a large surface in the entire layer, so the change in temperature on the catalyst surface smooths the upper sublayer of the layer of catalyst.

The data table. 2 shows that the temperature on the surface of the catalyst layer can be controlled by the composition of the gas (table. 1) in a large temperature interval. Therefore, the required surface temperature of the catalyst may depend on the volatility of solids contained in the gas stream.

Activity in respect of reduction reaction, which constitutes 90% of the normal activity of the reforming catalyst in the upper sublayer thickness from 30 to 60 cm layer of the catalyst at high temperatures in industrial reforming reactor may be usually sufficient for the distribution of deposits of solids in the upper sublayer of the words of the catalyst to such an extent that prevents unwanted decrease the amount of gas passing through the catalyst bed.

In addition, the distribution of sediments in the lower sublayer of the layer of catalyst can be achieved by separating this sublayer into several sublayers with increasing catalytic activity in the direction of flow of the reaction gas.

1. The reactor for the production of gas, rich in water vapor, containing hot gases flow, and to output the product, refractory lining located on the inner wall of the casing, and a layer of the reforming catalyst located within it, as well as a nozzle for the production of water vapor-containing hot gases flow connected with the upper part of the casing, working under pressure, characterized in that the catalyst bed consists of upper and lower sublayers, with the upper sublayer of the layer of catalyst has a catalytic activity is lower than the activity of the lower sublayer.

2. The reactor 1, characterized in that the catalytic activity of the upper sublayer of the catalyst is 1 to 50% of the activity of the lower sublayer of the catalyst.

3. The reactor under item 1, characterized in that the upper sublayer of the catalyst has a thickness, which is 0.025 to 0.6 on the thickness of the lower sublayer.

4. The reactor under item 1, characterized in that the lower sublayer of the catalyst consists of several sublayers containing catalysts having high activity in reforming with water vapor.

 

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