Centrifugal heat pump or refrigerating machine
(57) Abstract:Area of application: for heat and refrigeration. The inventive device has an associated shaft coaxial double chamber rotor with sealed cavity filled with gas or evaporative working environment and separated by an internal partition on pricewe space of the evaporator and the peripheral space of the capacitor connecting between a circulation loop with the inclusion of a centrifugal compressor, the second internal cavity filled with the same or different working environment and separated from the first wall. The inner cavity has its own circulation loop, and its centrifugal compressor is made in the form of an annular diffuser formed inclined to the axis of the baffle and the wall of the cavity. The partition is made in the form of the surface of the cone, paraboloid, or other curvilinear. The rotor filled with heavy inert gases or boiling cooling agents. Through the use of centrifugal force to compress the environment and ensuring its circulation increases the performance and efficiency of the installation. 2 C.p. f-crystals, 4 Il. The invention relates to the field of heat the device  , contains the associated with the shaft of the rotor with a sealed cavity filled with gas or evaporative medium and separated by an internal partition on pricewe space of the evaporator and the peripheral capacitor, closing them between a circulation loop with the inclusion of a special circulating compressor.The device allows to increase the conversion efficiency of the heat capacity and reduce energy costs for compression of the working environment through the use of centrifugal forces to suppress with circulation circuit spontaneous appearance of spurious vortices of Taylor vortices. However, in this device high energy costs on the circulation compressor, you need a reliable sealing of the working body of the compressor, the device is very difficult in the constructive-technological performance.It is also known device  , containing a coaxial double chamber rotor with external sealed cavity is filled with the working environment and divided by a partition into pricewe space of the evaporator and the peripheral capacitor connecting between a circulation loop with the inclusion of the circulation compressor and internally is I.The device allows the use of centrifugal force not only in compression of the working medium, but also on its circulation using the built-in circuit of the centrifugal compressor.Energy losses in the circulation circuit in the device is lower, and the conversion efficiency is higher in comparison with the previous.Built-in centrifugal compressor does not require sealing, the device is quite simple and high-tech.However, the internal cavity of the device does not have a circulation path, the heat loss by spontaneous formation of Taylor vortices in it are very high, which reduces the overall efficiency, conversion efficiency, heat and / or cooling device. It is also not optimized working environment, fill both cavities. In addition, the device has an external contour of the vane axial blower that does not use centrifugal force, resulting in the created head is small, and the energy costs of its work great. Consequently, the total loss in the device is reduced in comparison with the previous very small and do not allow to raise efficiency, conversion efficiency, and performance significantly above machines with rotation the known machines and increase to maximum efficiency, the conversion factor, heat and cooling power.This goal is achieved in the device so that the internal cavity of the rotor has its own circulation loop, and its centrifugal compressor is made in the form of an annular diffuser formed inclined to the axis of the wall of the septum and the wall of the cavity, while the partition is made in the form of coaxially aligned with the shaft of a truncated cone /conoid/ or the other surface of the second order with forming, dividing the cross-section of the cavity diagonally, and as a working environment used heavy inert gases xenon, krypton, argon, mixtures thereof and /or/ boiling liquid cooling agents.In addition, the wall of the internal cavity is oriented in the direction created her stream so that the stream was oppositely directed to the flow of external circulation circuit.In addition, the external cavity is provided with a second centrifugal compressor, made in the form of an annular diffuser formed inclined to the axis of the external walls and internal cavities, wall cavities made in the form of truncated cones /conoidal/ or other surfaces of the second order in chastest the s created thread coincided in the direction of flow from the first compressor.The proposed device is shown in Fig. 1, 2, 3, 4.In Fig. 1 presents a General view of the device, an axial slit.In Fig. 2, 3, 4 presents options internal circulation circuit and a centrifugal compressor internal cavity with walls in the form of conoid, paraboloid, cynosuroides rotation, respectively.The device has associated with the shaft 1 coaxial double chamber rotor with external sealed cavity 2 is filled with gas or liquid evaporative medium and separated by a partition 3 pricewe space of the evaporator 4 and the peripheral capacitor 5.The shell internal cavity 6 is rigidly connected with the outside by means of radial blades-jumper (not shown).External rotor cavity has a special circulation loop connecting pricewe space of the evaporator with the peripheral capacitor. The connection of the evaporator with the condenser performed using mechanical centrifugal compressor wheel 7 and centripetal expander 8. The rotor is installed in a high-speed ball, oil or gas bearings. The compressor and expander are rigidly connected with the cavities of the rotor and rotating together with n the treatment (not shown), used to reduce the aerodynamic drag due to their vortex coupling between them.Shell external and internal cavities of the rotor formed by the surfaces of the second order, for example cones (conidae), Fig. 2, paraboloids, Fig. 3, cynosuroides, Fig. 4, the components between an annular diffuser 9, is used as an additional compressor.An internal cavity in turn also divided by a partition into two parts, connected by necks between themselves and forming their circulation loop. The partition is formed also by surface second-order - cone, paraboloid, hyperboloid, cynosuroides and is with the upper and lower cavity wall two annular diffuser, one of which 10 is a centrifugal compressor, and the other - expander 11.The partition is oriented in such a way that created her circulation flow was opposite in direction to the flow of the external cavity. The rotor is enclosed within a shell of heat exchanger 12, provided with annular chamber or coil for the circulation of coolant to the consumer. The inner rotor cavity filled with heavy inert gases - xenon, krypton, arg liquids.External rotor cavity filled with the same working environment and internal, with the same or lower pressure.Shell rotor made of light alloy, preferably titanium, composite materials such as fiberglass or laminated batch compositions, for example, on the basis of carbon fiber, reinforced with wire mesh or reinforced pre-stressed wire or fiber winding.The cavity is equipped with stengelese or nipples for pumping and filling in the environment and their subsequent gas-vacuum-tight tap.Anti-friction rotor turns freely installed in its own bearings with a minimum clearance relative to the outer shell of the working rotor. The rotor shaft is made of a tubular end-to-end or with one blind end and located within thermal stationary or rotating heat pipe.The rotation shaft is transmitted to the drive directly, through the coupling, through a belt or gear. The speed of rotation of the rotor is determined by the diameter of the cavity, the working environment, its pressure value of the specified teleperedach. The speed range is from 12 to 60 thousand.min and above. Osage to be applied magnetic suspension of the rotor for discharge support bearing, the life extension and / or rotation speed and teplopoteryami.The casing of the heat exchanger can be made watertight, partially evacuated and (or) filled with heat-conducting gas. To reduce heat losses through thermal conductivity of the wall of the casing it is preferably made of a material with low heat conductivity or insulating bridge on a cold priosevoy site.The principle of the device is as follows.During rotation of the rotor with high angular velocity of the peripheral layers of the working medium is compressed by centrifugal force, and pricewise respectively extend. Since the volume of the cavities of the rotor is constant, the compression and expansion of the environment should be described isochoric processes (law of Charles-Gay Lussac) : P1/P2= T1/T2in accordance with this act, the working environment in the periphery must be heated, and in the paraxial zone to cool.However, the law of Charles-Gay Lussac strictly applicable and only for ideal gases, which has no viscosity. The processes taking place in a confined space gases and environments with real viscosity, is much more complicated. In filling a closed volume environment, you experience the Nera is s - the Taylor vortices, and is formed convective vortex lattice, consisting of intense vortex cylinder.The number of vortices and their intensity is proportional to the angular velocity. Vortex lattice transfers thermal energy both in the radial and latitudinal and meridional directions, for example atmospheric vortices - cyclone, Typhoon, tornado.Spontaneous internal heat and mass transfer violates the radial temperature distribution of an ideal gas described by the equation
< / BR>where
- angular velocity, r is the radius of rotation, Cp- heat capacity, K is the adiabatic exponent.The Taylor vortices do not allow to be installed on the periphery of the rotor stable and sufficiently high temperature, prematurely taking away heat energy back into the cold pricebuy zone. When large numbers of Taylor T = 42hL2where is the angular velocity, h is the scaling factor, the viscosity of the working environment, within certain narrow limits of spurious turbulence may not occur, but to ensure reliable suppression required the organization of a special artificial circulation with heat transfer in layers with constant (or increasing) the pressure, as is the DM is. However, in the known device is quite extensive and capacious internal cavity of the rotor is not protected from the formation of Taylor vortices and parasitic turbulence.The proposed device eliminates this disadvantage due to the fact that organized layer-by-layer circulation in the internal cavity, and this circulation is in the opposite direction to the external circuit and with increasing pressure in the heat to prevent the formation of Taylor vortices.The proposed device operates as follows.During rotation of the rotor drive with high angular velocity of the working gas or evaporative medium is compressed at the periphery of the cavities powerful centrifugal forces, expanding simultaneously in pricewhich areas. The contours of both cavities bounded by the walls of annular diffusers, occurs layer-by-layer circulation mutually opposite directions. This circulation develops under the action of the tangential component of the centrifugal force that creates the compression pressure centrifugal thrust in a rotary conical channels (8).Reduce the formation of turbulent eddies in the channel paths can be more vyhodnocov or surfaces, specially designed for the contours of high-speed marine vessels cynosuroides rotation. When this circulation in the external cavity is provided by the inclined walls of the two cavities, while the inner is a special partition that divides the cross section of the cavity diagonally.Mutually opposite in the direction of circulation in between two adjacent cavities provides the most efficient heat transfer. The outer rotor free rotation allows to reduce aerodynamic losses in the vortex formation on the outer surface.Compressed in the centrifugal field, the working medium after heat exchange with an external fluid enters the centripetal expander 8 external cavity, and the inner loop in centripetal expander 11. For heat pumps with high teplopoteryam optimal working environment are heavy inert gases xenon, krypton, argon. For heat pumps with low teplopoteryam, but with a high heat output, as well as for refrigeration machines - boiling cooling agents.Expanding in the expander 8, the medium is cooled and supercooled moves in priosevoy channel, selecting at constant and low pressure heat low pooga channel first centrifugal compressor 7 and re-enters the ring diffuser, where more compressed and at the same time gives off heat compression hot consumer.In the refrigeration machine in contrast to the heat pump the heat of compression is given to the environment.In an internal circuit of the same cycle is performed in the opposite direction with the only difference that the centrifugal compression and radial expansion occurs in two adjacent, separated by slanted partition ring compressor 10 and the expander 11.Thus, the internal cavity is realized under the action of centrifugal forces such as effective cycle of heat transfer, as well as the external, excluding parasitic eddy losses Taylor turbulence, and transmits its heat conductivity hot channel in the external circuit.The proposed device performs compression and heating of the working environment, as well as antivirial anti-turbulent layer-by-layer circulation solely by centrifugal force without transformation of heat into mechanical work and corresponding to this transformation is irreversible energy loss. Consequently, the proposed device has the maximum possible efficiency. The transformation ratio of Kholodilin work.The heat produced in the (cold) is
< / BR>where
m is the mass of the working agent;
T - work teplopoteryam.Spent working on rotor
I - moment of inertia
I = MR2/2;
M is the total mass of the rotor;
< / BR>whence it is seen that KTris determined not only by environmental factors K and Cpbut the ratio m/M, i.e., the fill factor of the rotor. For inert gas m/M = 0.1 to 0.2, and for boiling agents type f-12 and f-22, respectively, of 0.5 - 0.7.Therefore, the coefficient of transformation (conversion) for liquid active agents in the period of acceleration of the rotor is substantially higher than for gases. But, on the other hand, liquid agents are not able to work at high temperatures due to excessively high critical pressures in the working cavity of the rotor. In addition, after the acceleration of the rotor and output at constant angular speed factor has no significant value. 1 1. The device of the centrifugal heat pump or refrigerating machines, containing associated with the shaft coaxial double chamber rotor with external sealed cavity filled with gas or evaporative working environment and separated vnutrennih between a circulation loop with the inclusion of a centrifugal compressor, and an internal cavity filled with the same or different working environment and separated from the external cavity lateral and axial walls, characterized in that the internal cavity of the rotor has its own circulation loop, and its centrifugal compressor is made in the form of an annular diffuser formed from the inclined to the axis of the partitions and the walls of the cavity, the septum is made in the form coaxial with the shaft of a truncated cone or other surface of the second order with forming, dividing the cross-section of the cavity diagonally, and as a working environment used heavy inert gases xenon, krypton, argon, mixtures thereof and (or) boiling cooling agents. 2 2. The device under item 1, characterized in that the wall of the internal cavity is oriented in the direction created her flow so that the flow was opposite to the flow of external circulation circuit. 2 3. The device according to PP.1 and 2, characterized in that the external cavity is provided with a second centrifugal compressor, made in the form of an annular diffuser formed inclined to the axis of the external walls and internal cavities, wall cavities made in the form of truncated cones or other surfaces of the second order which would have created a thread coincided in the direction of flow from the first compressor.
FIELD: combined cooling and refrigeration systems.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises expanding air in the turbine up to a low temperature, heating air in the first heat exchanger with utilized heat, compressing air to the initial pressure in the compressor, withdrawing heat in the second feeding heat exchanger, and supplying compressed dry air to the receiver where the air is heated.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
FIELD: air-conditioning and plenum-exhaust ventilation systems.
SUBSTANCE: proposed air-conditioning unit has three-section housing consisting of two peripheral sections and one central section located between them; it has two opposing suction ports for delivery of air to sections; each peripheral section has one delivery port for connection with respective fan and evacuation of air from peripheral sections where compressor and condenser are located; air-conditioning unit is also provided with evaporator of refrigerating machine and shut-off valve connected with central section and located between pair of ports; valve is made in form of plate and is used for control of air flow; this plate is mounted in central section between opposing suction ports; it is turnable relative to central section for disconnection of opposing suction ports and peripheral sections; each peripheral section is connected with respective opposing suction port, thus admitting the air to peripheral sections.
EFFECT: enhanced energy efficiency and operational reliability; facilitated procedure of assembly.
24 cl, 13 dwg
FIELD: pipe-line systems.
SUBSTANCE: heater for fluid has housings of hydrodynamic converters which are made of diverging members at the ends of the vortex pipe. The inner side of the members is concave and is mating to the surface which is defined by the rotation of a second order curve around the longitudinal axis of the vortex pipe. Each face of the vortex pipe is provided with the flow generator which is mounted with a space relation to it. The flow generator is made of a disk whose symmetry axis is coaxial to the longitudinal axis of the vortex pipe. The space between the face of the vortex pipe and the surface of the flow generator, which faces it, receives at least four flow deflectors. Each flow deflector is made of a plate whose surface is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the vortex pipe. The inner side of the adjusting chambers is concave and mating to the surface which is defined by rotation of a second order curve around the longitudinal axis of the vortex pipe.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency .
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: heating and cooling systems.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heating of buildings and cooling of refrigerating chambers using high-pressure gases, for instance, natural gas. Proposed system contains vortex tube installed on gas main line after preliminary gas preparation plant, heating system and hot-water supply system with heating devices, heat exchanger and pump, and also cold supply system with coil in refrigerating chamber and pump. All components of systems are coupled by straight and back pipelines. Coils interconnected by jumper pipe are arranged from outer of vortex chamber and heated gas outlet pipeline of vortex tube. Segments displaced relative to each other through one turn of coil mounted on said segments are arranged on inner surface of pipeline of heated gas outlet at opposite sides. Coil is connected with outer coils and straight pipeline of heating and hot-water supply systems provided with controller connected electrically by impulse lines with inner and outer air temperature sensors and actuating mechanism rigidly coupled through shaft with control element installed at outlet of heated gas of vortex tube. Coil placed inside cooled gas outlet branch pipe communicates hydraulically with pump and, through straight pipe line, with coil of refrigerating chamber.
EFFECT: improved environment protection.
FIELD: energy conversion into heat by liquid parameter change, particularly to obtain heat used in raw hydrocarbon gathering, preparation and refining, in chemistry and oil chemistry, to heat hydrogen-containing liquid polluted with mechanical injuries, salt and gels.
SUBSTANCE: method involves creating vortex flow of cavitating liquid by utilizing liquid pressure and providing following linear liquid flow; providing cavitating liquid flow rotation at speed which provides creation of central and peripheral areas in which positive and negative ions of dissociated liquid molecules are accumulated during cavitation thereof. The negative ions are gathered in peripheral area under the action of centrifugal force. Positive ions having lesser mass are accumulated in central area of liquid flow. This results in obtaining potential difference between central and peripheral areas of liquid flow.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of liquid flow energy conversion into heat along with electric power obtaining.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: engineering of steam compression systems and heat exchangers.
SUBSTANCE: reversible steam compression system has compressor, internal heat exchanger, expanding device and external heat exchanger, connected by pipelines in working connection for forming of a single system. Internal and external heat exchangers are mounted in main contour. Compressor and expanding device are mounted in sub-contours, connected to main contour by means of flow switch devices for making it possible to switch system from cooling mode to heating mode. Reversible heat exchanger for liquid coolant, in particular, for carbon dioxide, in steam compression system contains several mutually interconnected sections, made with possible serial passage of air through them, having coolant contour, and is connected to mutually connected first and second sections. Flow of liquid coolant is witched from heating mode to cooling mode by means of flow switching devices, mounted in appropriate sections.
EFFECT: improved efficiency.
2 cl, 46 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device is designed for converting kinetic energy of water flow into and thermal energy. Proposed station contains dam, conduit system, hydraulic turbines and electric generators. It includes at least one swirl heat generator whose injection branch pipe is furnished with water pressure transmitter and is connected with conduit system through adapter provided with water pressure regulator made, for instance, in form of shutter whose drive is connected with water pressure transmitter.
EFFECT: possibility of generation heat energy for consumers in addition to electric energy.
FIELD: heat engineering, in particular, used gas heat utilizing equipment.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus has heat carrier circulation contour comprising contact economizer with used drying agent inlet branch pipe and cooled used drying agent outlet branch pipe, heat pump comprising compressor, condenser, throttle and evaporator connected to circulation contour upstream of contact economizer. Tubular heat-exchanger is positioned upstream of contact economizer. Influx air is heated in tubular heat-exchanger and is then supplied into convective drier.
EFFECT: increased economy of used drying agent heat utilizing apparatus owing to reduced consumption of power for driving of heat pump compressor and more complete utilization of used drying agent heat owing to preliminary cooling of drying agent to saturation state.
FIELD: methods for exposure to the flow of liquid medium, applicable in hydrodynamics, mainly in heat-exchange and mass-transfer apparatuses.
SUBSTANCE: the method consists in formation of the primary flow of fluid working medium, formation is accomplished outside the space region of the heat generator, a translational motion is imparted to the primary flow, an external disturbance is applied to the flow of fluid working medium inside the space of the heat generator, the secondary flows of fluid working medium are formed, and the flow of fluid working medium is removed in the direction of the outflow, the primary flow is formed in a pipe-line, whose diameter equals the diameter of the inlet pipe connection of the heat generator and is within 50 to 120 mm, the flow has characteristics of a laminar rectilinear flow, a rotary-translational motion is imparted to it at a rate provided by the pressure in the pipe-line within 3 to 140 atm. The device for liberation of energy has a vortex tube, hydrodynamic converters of liquid medium motion made in the form of cones at the ends of the vortex tube, a flow shaper whose axis of symmetry is aligned with the longitudinal axis of the vortex tube, and a flow dissector made in the form of a plate whose surface is parallel with the longitudinal axis of the vortex tube, the vortex tube is made with helical ducts on the inner wall of the cylindrical part of an elastic laminated plastic and is provided with a metal casing enveloping with a clearance the outer surface of the vortex tube.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
7 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: cooling-heating devices.
SUBSTANCE: the method consists in acceleration of gas to the supersonic speed in a contoured nozzle, delivery of it to a tube and extraction of cold from the tube outer surface. The gas is subjected to overspeeding on spiral guides located inside the tube, then cold is extracted from the tube outer surface and then heat is extracted from the stagnant flow at the tube outlet. The cooling-heating device has a tube made of a heat-conducting material, and a contoured nozzle. A spindle-shaped insert is positioned in the tube axis, spiral guides are located on the insert surface.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
4 cl, 4 dwg