Automatic hydraulic power plant
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to energy and can be used to generate electricity. The power plant consists of a dam, pipeline inlet water pressure, impulse turbine, reaction turbine and generator of electric current. Jet turbine has output connections made by arcs of a circle, and a diffuser, to which the nozzles are attached tangentially. Power is supplied by a cylinder-valve control the flow rate of water supplied to the jet turbine. Output nozzle jet turbines surrounded by active blades of the turbine, which is connected with the cylinder-valve through the weight cable. The invention allows to increase the efficiency of the turbine and to ensure the constancy of the speed of the turbine when changing water flow and to eliminate the loss of power output rate of flow of water. 5 Il. The invention relates to the field of energy and can be used to generate electricity.Known hydropower plant, including the dam, penstocks and power units (see SU 356335 A, 23.10.72, E 02 B 9/00).The disadvantage of this power plant is that it is exposed to cavitate what is hydroelectric, consisting of dams, pipelines supply water pressure, impulse turbine and generator of electric current (see SU 227181 A, 16.09.98, E 02 B9/00).The disadvantage of this technical solution is the variability of the turbine speed when changing water flow and reduce efficiency.The purpose of the invention is to ensure the constancy of the speed of the turbine when changing the water flow, the magnitude of coefficient and the elimination of power losses with the output speed of the water flow.This goal is achieved by the fact that automatic hydraulic power plant, consisting of dams, pipelines supply water pressure, impulse turbine and generator of electric current supplied jet turbine output connections which are made by arcs of a circle and attached to its tangent cone, and cylinder-valve control the flow of water to the jet turbine, thus the output nozzles jet turbines surrounded by active blades of the turbine, which is connected to the front flap.The invention is illustrated by drawings.In Fig. 1 shows a diagram of automatic hydraulic e is Bina top. In Fig. 4 shows a graph of the efficiency of a jet turbine speed-output cross-sections of the jet nozzles of the turbine. In Fig. 5 shows graphs of the power jet turbines of the water flow and the linear speed of the output sections of the jet nozzles of the turbine.Automatic hydraulic power plant consists of dam 1, the pipeline supplying water head 2, the active turbine 3, jet turbines 4 and generator of electric current 5. Jet turbine 4 has output sockets 6, manufactured by arcs of a circle, and the diffuser 7, to which the output pipe 6 is attached on a tangent. The plant is also equipped with cylinder-valve control water flow 8 coming in jet turbine 4. Output connections 6 jet turbine 4 is surrounded by the active blades of the turbine 3, which is connected with the cylinder-valve 8 through the cable 9 with the counterweight 10.Supply of disposable energy
< / BR>where
h - head, m;
V is the flow rate of water at the pressure, m/s;
g = 9,8 - acceleration of the force of gravity, m/s2;
G - second water flow through the active jet turbine, m3/sIt is evident from Fig. 2 type "A" shows that r = V,
r - RA is rbine
< / BR>(without taking into account friction losses),
W is the linear speed of the output section of the jet nozzles,
(V-W) - output flow rate of water from sections of the jet nozzles.From the formula (1) shows that the maximum efficiency (R. t= 1) is subject to: W=VPower jet turbines
< / BR>Automatic hydraulic power plant operates as follows. Water from the upper water pipeline supplying water head 2 comes in jet turbine 4, which drives a generator of electric current 5 generating electricity. From jet turbines 4 water is discharged through the output pipe 6. Under the condition of equality of the output water velocity V and the linear speed of the output section of pipe W no power loss with the output speed of the water flow, i.e. the efficiency is equal to (R. t= 1), which corresponds to normal operation of the power plant. Active turbine and the front flap control water flow 8 motionless.When the output speed of the water flow V greater linear speed of the output section of the nozzles W (i.e., V > W), active turbine 3 rotates clockwise, twisting arturban 4 becomes equal to (R. t= 1).
When the output speed V is less than the linear speed of the output section of the nozzles W (i.e., V < W), active turbine 3 rotates counterclockwise, releasing the rope 9 and lowering the front of the valve control water flow 8 as long as the difference of the velocities V and W is not zero and the efficiency of the jet turbine 4 will not be equal to (R. t= 1).
Example. Accept head h = 15 m, the water flow rate G = 500 kg/sOutput speed
Power jet turbines
< / BR>Thus, automatic hydraulic power plant having a water pressure of 15 m and a second flow rate of 500 kg/s, produces 74 kW of electricity per second. 1 Automatic hydraulic power plant, consisting of dams, pipelines supply water pressure, impulse turbine and generator of electric current, characterized in that it is equipped with a jet turbine, the output tubes which produced by arcs of a circle and attached to its tangent cone, and cylinder-valve control the flow of water to the jet turbine, thus the output nozzles jet turbines surrounded by active blades of the turbine, which is connected with the cylinder valve.
FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly fish passes in water-intake structures.
SUBSTANCE: method involves supplying water stream free of young fish in waterway; forming hydraulic screen near water-intake influence area to separate above area from main stream of water-intake structure; forming whirlpool area near water-intake shore edge. Water stream is formed upstream water-intake structure. Water for users is taken from whirlpool area formed by inner water spray boundary and shore edge. Facility includes water-intake structure arranged at shore line, water-intake pipes connected with pump, stream former and means for water stream creation in waterway. Means for water stream creation is made as channel operating in non-pressure regime and having outlet part arranged upstream water inlet. Marks formed on channel bottom and waterway bottom coincide one with another. Stream former is located downstream water intake and directed in downstream direction.
EFFECT: creating of hydraulic conditions to protect young fish from ingress in water-intake structure.
14 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic works designed for preventing getting of young fish into diversion facilities. Proposed device contains fish retaining shield made in form of hollow guides arranged in tiers across water channels in depth with displacement of each upper tier towards diversion channel. It contains also perforated air duct located on bottom of water channel directly before said shield and train-and-fish trough arranged in upper part of channel in parallel with air duct and connected with outlet and device to let out young fish arranged in height of fish retaining shield. Guides of U-shaped are installed at angle to current of intake channel, their planes are perforated and open end part is pointed to bottom of water channel. Young fish let out device is made in form of perforated shields installed side guides for vertical displacement by drive in height of fish retaining shield relative to additional guides made from side of bank edges of intake channel. Perforation holes of shields and u-shaped guides do not coincide in light.
EFFECT: possibility of retaining and bringing young fish out of limits of influence of diversion facility.
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic works designed to protect young fish from getting into diversion facilities. Proposed device contains fish retaining shield installed in channel and made in form of perforated pipelines arranged in horizontal tiers along entire depth of channel and connected with source of working medium, perforated air duct placed on bottom of channel directly before shield and trash-and-fish trough arranged in upper part of shield parallel to perforated pipeline and air duct which is connected with fish outlet. Perforated pipelines are furnished with ejectors and fish gathering troughs. Ejectors are connected with pressure line of pump and are placed inside perforated pipelines and in communication with fish gathering troughs through perforation holes made in horizontal plane along both sides of pipelines, fish gathering troughs being rigidly fastened opposite to perforation holes. Inner space of fish gathering troughs is provided with longitudinal horizontal partitions dividing the troughs into separate fish intake parts. Surfaces of fish gathering troughs pointed to surface and to bottom of water channel are made perforated. Cross partitions found inside separate fish intake parts form fish intake channels. Initial part of fish outlet is made with fish intake pocket over entire depth of water channel. End face parts of perforated pipelines pointed to side of fish outlet communicate with inner space of pocket.
EFFECT: provision of retaining and removing of young fish over entire depth of water channel.
3 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic works designed to protect young fish from getting into diversion facilities. Proposed device contains fish retaining shield installed in water channel in tiers in depth of water channel with displacement of each higher tier to side of water intake channel, perforated air duct made in form of guides installed across water channel before shield on bottom of water channel, and trash-and-fish trough connected with fish outlet and arranged in upper part of shield parallel to air duct. Guides are made in form of flat plates rigidly installed at angle to flow in intake channel. Each plate is provided with horizontal axle in its upper part on which additional plate is secured from side of water intake channel for turning. Lower end face end of additional plate is provided with radial baffle whose surface has perforation holes. End face part of additional plates is provided with sector stopper from side of fish outlet, horizontal axles of plates being connected with drive. Additional plates can be perforated.
EFFECT: provision of retaining and bringing young fish out of the limits of influence of diversion facility.
3 cl, 12 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic engineering; fish protective facilities.
SUBSTANCE: invention is designed to draw off young fish from zone of influence of water diversion front. Method comes to ejecting young fish into intake part of ejecting plant from section of pond with higher concentration of young fish, creating active ejecting working stream in mixing chamber by entraining volume of water containing young fish into stream created by central ejecting hydraulic jet and further conveyance of water-fish mixture along pressure conduit into fish outlet. At the last stage of conveyance young fish is transported into fish outlet under no pressure conditions by forming hydraulic jet angle to trough of fish outlet, young fish being dropped on surface of fish outlet stream. Invention provides effective conditions for drawing off young fish into fish outlet and reduces damage to young fish. If working ejecting stream is preliminarily saturated with atmospheric air, its outer borders are saturated with air in form of finest microbubbles which form boundary layer ("air cushion") at contact with which young fish do not suffer from discomfort and easily take up hydrodynamic pressure built in mixing chamber. Moreover, provision of boundary layer saturated with microbubbles of air makes it possible to considerably reduce value of friction coupling of two streams, main getting from working nozzle and ejecting, containing young fish.
EFFECT: provision of good conditions for letting out young fish into fish outlet, reduced damage of young fish.
7 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to devices protecting young fish and preventing their getting into diversion facility. Proposed fish protective facility includes filtering water-separating dam made in form of vertical water-separating wall arranged along water intake channel and separating inlet part of channel from water conduit, device for preliminary drawing off young fish made in form of vertical rod installed for rotation by drive arranged before water-separating wall from its end face part pointed opposite to water flow. Rod is displaced relative to water-separating wall towards water intake channel. Device for preliminary drawing off young fish is furnished with additional means to increase fish draw-off effect, said means being made in from of flat round disks rigidly secured in height of rod coaxially with rod. Disks are installed parallel to each other forming slot water intake channels. End face part of water-separating wall adjoining the rod is provided with slots located opposite to planes of arrangement of disks. Disks are installed for free passing relative to slots. Invention provides higher efficiency of drawing off young fish out limits of zone of influence of diversion facility owing to provision of disks considerably increasing area of contact with surrounding medium and creating powerful circulation flow providing diversion of young fish and trash entrained by water behind outer surface of dam.
EFFECT: provision of effective conditions for drawing off young fish out of limits of zone of influence of diversion facility.
15 cl, 16 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to fish protective facilities used in diversion facilities. Proposed fish protective facility includes vertical gauze shield installed in inlet part of water intake channel at angle to its longitudinal axis, fish outlet arranged in place of mating of shield with side of channel, and device for creating whirlpool current for washing the shield containing jet guide member and made in form of chambers adjoining outer surface of shield and forming water intake holes over entire depth of water intake channel. Chambers are made cylindrical being formed by surface of shield and jet guide member and are placed in communication through water intake holes formed by edges of shield of adjacent chambers and edges of jet guide members at place of their butt joining. Each chamber is provided with independent fish outlet made in form of vertical perforated pipe arranged coaxially to chamber and communicating by independent fish duct with fish outlet. Inlet part of water intake channel is made with tangential inlet, edge of left side of channel, shield and tangential inlet are arranged in one plane.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of washing of gauze shield and drawing off young fish and trash.
24 cl, 18 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic and hydropower engineering, particularly for building water-retaining structures to provide power supply to small settlements and farms.
SUBSTANCE: method involves assembling flexible apron assembly consisted of flexible floor apron and flexible downstream apron in watercourse; securing thereof to watercourse bottom by anchors. Water outlet assembly including hydroelectric generator arranged inside it is secured to floor apron and downstream apron by rigid ties. Connected to water outlet assembly by ties are water retaining shell and rope system secured to anchor poles located on watercourse bank.
EFFECT: reduced time of structure assembling and costs for electric power generation.
FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly fish-passing devices included in water intake structures.
SUBSTANCE: method is based on young fish's tendency to follow moving objects. Method involves forming water permeable screen including flexible elastic members and extending for the full stream depth; providing means for flexible members displacement and installation in working position; providing preliminary young fish concentration in previously created artificial water-plants and transferring young fish into fish-passing channel. Water permeable screen is formed of flexible elastic members on level of stream carrying young fish with maximal concentration. Screen is created in horizontal plane, wherein flexible elastic members are reciprocated from one bank to another along with directing young fish concentrated inside screen in fish-passing channel. Flexible elastic members imitate natural water flora, which is native fish habitat.
EFFECT: provision of controllable water intake during change in vertical young fish descent dynamics.
27 cl, 21 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to device designed to prevent young fish from getting into diversion facilities. Proposed fish protective device includes suction branch pipe lowered under water level, water permeable shield, device to bring young fish off made in from of hydraulic wash-away device with slot arranged coaxially with suction branch pipe out of the limits of suction hole, feed pipeline connected with pressure line of pump and made inside suction branch pipe coaxially with the latter, and ring conical partition made coaxially to suction branch pipe and rigidly secured on outer surface of suction branch pipe. Hydraulic wash-away device is formed by two cup-like deflectors with concave side pointed to suction hole and installed one over the other to form ring slot directed along water permeable shield. Lower deflector is provided with central outlet hole whose diameter is smaller than diameter of jet forming nozzle arranged coaxially to hydraulic wash-away device and rigidly connected with end part of feed pipeline. Ring conical partition is installed with its larger base to side of suction branch pipe, its smaller base being arranged in plane of suction hole.
EFFECT: simplified design of fish [protective device, provision of effective bringing young fish of limits of influence of suction branch pipe.
7 cl, 8 dwg