(57) Abstract:Use: machines for forestry and forest industry. Essence: the machine is characterized by the presence of the motor reducer was installed, kinematically linked through the transmission system with the primary (input) shaft gear box changes gears and connected through check valves, adjustable flow, and emergency shut-off valves to the pressure line of hydraulic pumps, one of which is kinematically connected to the engine and the other with the engine and the propulsion of the machine. 2 Il. The invention relates to forestry and forest industry, in particular to the structures of power tools.Known as various types of hydrostatic transmissions, and the modular design of energy resources.Known hydrostatic transmission vehicle , comprising a steering mechanism, adjustable pump pressure and drain lines, kinematically connected with the propulsion motors, forming with the closed hydraulic pump hydraulic circuit, and a device to prevent slipping, which includes an additional hydraulic machines and choke, and additional Hydromash the other, this adjustable choke kinematically connected with the steering mechanism and connected in parallel to the additional hydraulic machines.The known device does not allow you to tow a tractor when the engine is small, the range of operating speeds, no transport mode.According to the modular principle, i.e. from the front (energy) and rear (technological) modules that are connected by vertical-horizontal hinge, made most of the designs multioperational machines for the wood industry - harvesters (Feller-cuccarese-bucking machines) and forwarders (cargo vehicles). Vertical hinge allows rotation of the tractor, the horizontal flexibility of the wheels to the ground contour and offloading frame from the additional torque. The rotation of the modular machine designs (articulated) is due to the relative rotation of semiframes energy and technological modules two cylinders.According to this principle is made tractor T-150, T-151, T-157 and others. The first of these T-150K - as the closest to the technical essence adopted for the prototype .Having good the execution of complex forestry activities required a wide range of operating speeds (and, accordingly, the traction loads) at a sufficiently high efficiency and reliability, starting with a slow speed - 0... 2 km/h to transport 20... 30 km/hFurthermore, the design of tractor T-150K quite complex. It has three separate hydraulic systems: hydraulic rear hitch, hydraulic steering system and hydraulic control system hydroporinae clutch mechanical gearbox for gear without breaking the flow of power .The essence of the proposed technical solution is that in the car, including the engine, energy and technology modules, articulated with each other, a mechanical transmission with transmission changes gears, propulsion, Hydrosol with valve, hydraulic relief valves, and one of the pumps is kinematically connected to the engine and the other with the engine and the propulsion of the machine, installed the hydraulic motor to the reducer was installed, kinematically connected through a transmission system with the primary (input) shaft gear box changes gears and connected through check valves, adjustable flow, and emergency shut-off of clapsed and compliance inventive step.Comparative analysis with the prototype shows that the proposed forest machine characterized by the presence of the motor reducer was installed, kinematically linked through the transmission system with the primary (input) shaft gear box changes gears and connected through check valves, adjustable flow, and emergency shut-off valves to the pressure line of hydraulic pumps, one of which is kinematically connected to the engine and the other with the engine and the propulsion of the machine.This means that the proposed forest machine meets the criteria of the invention of "novelty."The proposed forest machine is the improvement of applied forestry energy resources. Currently manufactured prototype of the machine, showing in terms of functionality its significant advantages, allowing it to perform a number of operations in the forest with less environmental damage and higher performance compared to existing machines.In Fig.1,2 presents the fundamental unit of transmission and rotation mechanism, and hydraulic diagram of the proposed machine.Forest machine are modular and consists of prednisoneallegra hinge.Engine 1 (Fig.1) via the main clutch 2 is connected to the input (leading) shaft 3 of the transmission through the clutch 4 PTO (PTO) with pinion 5 drive independent PTO.Input (leading) the shaft 3 of the transmission is connected to the primary (input) shaft 7 box changes gear is a bevel gear 8,9,10 and coupling 11, which has three fixed positions of the connection shaft: with the gear 9 - direct the course; with the gear 10 - reverse turn; with the shaft 12 through the gear 13 to drive the gear box changes gear from the motor 29 (hydrostatic transmission - reducer was installed).The output shaft 14 of the box changes gear is a bevel gear 15,16 connected to the synchronous SHAFT 17, which is connected to the rear PTO shaft 18 through a coupling 19. Independent enable rear PTO 18 is secured by moving the toothed clutch 19 to mesh with the gear 6, kinematically connected with the pinion 5 of the actuator independent PTO.The drive of the front axle 23 is supplied from the secondary shaft 14 of the box changes gear through the gear 24.Simultaneous inclusion of rear PTO 18 can be used to drive additional is l 22 with the rear axle 21.Hydraulic motor-pump 30 mounted on the shaft 25 has an independent drive from the side of CMV by moving on the spline shaft coupling 26 to mesh with the gear 6. The synchronous drive of the hydraulic pump-motor 30 is carried out while moving the toothed clutch 26 to engage with the gear 27 synchronous output shaft 17.The hydraulic motor 29 is connected with the primary (input) shaft 7 box changes gear through gears 8, 9 and 10, the coupling 11 and the gear 13.Forest machine has a classic management by mutual angular displacement front (energy) and rear (technological) modules using hydraulic cylinders rotate.Washing the cylinders rotate (with engine running) is supplied from the hydraulic pump 28 driven in rotation from the front end of the crankshaft of the engine 1.Hydraulic circuit of the transmission and steering control shown in Fig.2.The hydraulic system of the proposed forest machine includes two independent circuit - hydrurus and reducer was installed, with a total tank 31.Hydraulic system hydrurus includes a suction nozzle 32, the hydraulic pump 28 (H1), reduction (predohranitelno two outputs - pressure line 37 hydrurus and pressure line 40 reducer was installed.Pressure line 37 hydrurus associated with hydrocodoneonlinele 38 steering, which, in turn, two channels "c" and "d" is connected with the cavities of the hydraulic cylinders 39 of rotation, and a drain channel "k" to the tank 31.The control valve 38 of the steering wheel is mechanically through the transmission system from the steering wheel of the tractor.The valve 41 allows you to change the direction of oil flow, thereby ultimately to regulate the direction of movement (forward or reverse).In the pressure line of creeper gearbox installed back 43 and shut-off valves 44. Channels "b" and "m" pressure line reducer was installed associated with the emergency valve 45 hydrurus. Pressure line hydrurus is connected through a check valve 47, line 46, valve 45, the check valve 44, the valve 41 controls the motor 29 reducer was installed and the channel "l" to the tank 31.The pump 30 (H2) with a suction pipe 49 has an output pressure reducing valve 50, valve 51 and an adjustable throttle the flow divider 48. Adjustable throttle the flow divider has two outputs is oricheskogo equipment.The proposed forest machine has several modes of operation.1. Mechanical transmission.Power from the engine 1 is transmitted through the main clutch 2 to the input (master) shaft 3, and from it through the gears 8 and 9 when the engagement of the gear clutch 11 with the gear 9 on the primary (input) shaft 7 box changes gear. When the gear (any - on the drawing is not specified) power is transmitted to the output shaft 14 of the gearbox and on the front and or rear axle of the machine, if included tooth clutch 19.In this case, the engine power is transmitted to the driven axles only mechanically, providing high efficiency and efficient use of power with minimum fuel consumption by the engine.When turning the machine, the valve 38 is moved from a neutral position (right or left), providing a supply of oil under pressure into the rod cavity of one cylinder, Rodless cylinders 39 and the cavity opposite the cylinder and connecting with flashing "k" corresponding to the cavity of the cylinder 39.Part-flow oil pump 28 (H1) for the pressure line 40 and the channels "a" and "b" comes to the emergency valve hydrurus 45, holding the spool in the neutral position, the channel "m" is domenicale 41 and the channel "l" on the plums.The work of creeper gearbox (hydrostatic transmission).When the transfer gear clutch 11 into engagement with the gear 12 of the primary (input) shaft 7 box changes gear connected with the motor 29. In this case, the input (master) shaft 3 of the transmission rotates idle. The engine power is transmitted only by hydraulic pressure from pump 28 (H1) and 30 (H2) to the primary (input) shaft 7 of the gearbox by means of the motor 29, and further to the output shaft and to the driven axles. While there are several possible modes of operation.1. Slow mode.The pump 30 (H2) is disabled. The pump 28 (H1) delivers the oil in the pressure line 40 to the dispenser 41 hydraulic transmission, which is installed in one of two operating positions (front or back).Oil under pressure flows through the channel "e" in the hydraulic motor 29 and merges channel "f". Since the oil pressure in the channels "a" and "b" equally, the valve 45 is closed. This mode can provide several hydrostatic transmission (the number of gears in the transmission).2. Accelerated mode.Introducing toothed gear 26 by moving on the shaft 25 in mesh with the gear 6, the pump 30 (H2) connected to the engine.The oil flow from the pump 30 (H2 primary (input) shaft 7 of the CPR.This mode provides several hydraulic (by the number of steps in CPR). However, the consumption of oil at the entrance to the hydraulic motor 29 will be equal to the sum of the costs H1 + H2, thereby increasing the speed of rotation of the motor (movement of the tractor) on all gears.Since the pressure in the channels "a" and "b" equally, the valve 45 is closed (pressure reducing valves 34 and 50 are adjusted to the same pressure).Turn the machine with the engine off.If the engine has stopped, the pump 30 (H2) through the gear train 27,26 connected with the shaft 25 of the pump drive and transaxles.In this case, when the vehicle tows the pump 30 (H2) is driven by the drive wheels of the machine. Oil from the pump flows through the channel 52 and "b" in the right cavity of the emergency valve 45. Since the pressure in the channel "a" is zero, the valve 45 is moved to the left (in the drawing), opening up access oil in the channel "m" through check valve 47 into the discharge line 37 hydrurus, the valve 38 is in the cylinders of rotation 39. Simultaneously, the oil channel 46 enters the shut-off valve 44, blocking the flow valve 52 of the hydraulic transmission (reducer was installed).Sources of information
1. A. S. N 1614946 B 60 K 17/10. Publ. in BI, 1990, N 47. 1 Forestry machine that contains the engine, energy and technology modules, pivotally connected to each other, mechanical transmission with transmission changes gears, propulsion, Hydrosol with valve, hydraulic relief valves, and one of the pumps is kinematically connected to the engine and the other with the engine and the propulsion of the machine, characterized in that it is provided with the motor reducer was installed, kinematically connected through the transmission system input shaft gear box changes gears and connected through check valves, adjustable flow, and emergency shut-off valves to the pressure line of hydraulic pumps.
FIELD: transport engineering; self-propelled wheeled vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: proposed vehicle contains frame 1 with cab 9, front and rear steerable wheels 4, 6 and middle wheels 5, engine placed behind the cab along vehicle and covered by hood 11. hydrostatic transmission contains pumping station 21 consisting of matching reduction gear driven by engine placed behind the cab, and three pumps connected by pipelines with hydraulic motors providing separate drives of wheels. Hydraulic motors are arranged along frame 1 between sidemembers on solid brackets made in form of boxes with flanges connected with wall of side member between its webs. Invention makes it possible to create ecologically clean and reliable multipurpose all-wheel-drive vehicle of high cross-country capacity with hydrostatic transmission to drive all wheels.
EFFECT: provision of convenient mounting and servicing of transmission units.
5 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to crawler tractors and it can be used in their full-flow hydrostatic transmissions. Said transmission contains dividing reduction unit 2, two parallel final hydrostatic drives with pumps 3, 4 and hydraulic motors 5, 6, track reduction units 17, 18 and two planetary mechanisms. Planetary mechanisms are installed between hydraulic motors 17, 18 and track reduction units 17, 18. Sun gears 9, 10 of planetary mechanisms are connected with each hydraulic motor by two similar gear trains 7, 9. Carriers 11, 12 of each planetary mechanism are connected with epicyclic wheels 14, 13 of other planetary mechanism and with track reduction units 17, 18. invention improves maneuverability of tractor, provides economic recuperation of brake power from trailing side to leading side at turning of tractor, reduced power load on engine at turning, reduced power losses in hydrostatic drives of transmission of tractor with possibility of use of hydrostatic drives of lower installed power.
EFFECT: improved service characteristics of tractor.
FIELD: transport engineering; automobiles with positive displacement hydraulic drive.
SUBSTANCE: proposed transmission includes constant-capacity guided-vane hydraulic pump mechanically connected with vehicle engine communicating through pressure, drain and suction hydraulic lines through hydraulic distributor enclosing pressure and drain hydraulic lines and playing the part of reversor with at least one constant-capacity reversible guide-vane hydraulic motor to transmit torque to one or two driving wheels of automobile. Spaces of suction and drain hydraulic lines communicate with space of hydraulic tank. Suction hydraulic line passes through adjustable hydraulic restrictor whose control lever is mechanically coupled with automobile accelerator pedal.
EFFECT: simplified design of transmission, reduced fuel consumption and weight of transmission and its cost, and increased efficiency of automobile.
18 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; machine building hydraulics.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used on vehicles and machine-and-tractor units operating under unsteady conditions of movement. Proposed device contains planetary train 1, reactive link 3 connected with drive gear of oil pump 5. Planetary train is connected through carrier shaft with gearbox 9 and is set into operation by engine 11. Two-step adjustable restrictor 12 is installed in pressure main line of pump. Safety valve 14 and control cock 15 are connected to input of adjustable restrictor, being also installed in pressure main line of pump pneumohydraulic accumulator, being end member of pressure main line, is provided with three spaces. It consists of hydraulic cylinder, free piston, piston with rod, piston position regulator, oil line and oil channel. Space between pistons is filled with oil which regulates volume.
EFFECT: reduced influence of vibrations of external traction load onto functioning of machine-and-tractor unit.
FIELD: transport engineering; hydrostatic transmissions.
SUBSTANCE: proposed hydrostatic transmission contains pumping unit consisting of main and makeup pumps driven by vehicle engine, hydraulic motors connected by main hydraulic lines with pumping unit and forming circulating hydraulic circuit, and electrically driven self-contained pump whose delivery space is connected with hydraulic circuit formed by main hydraulic lines. Hydrostatic transmission is furnished additionally with sealed hydraulic tank with device for charging its air space with compressed air from vehicle pneumatic system and containing shutoff cock, compressed air pressure regulator in sealed hydraulic tank with safety valve and vacuum manual control valve to discharge compressed air from sealed hydraulic tank, two-position manual control valve for alternate hydraulic coupling of suction space of self-contained electrically-driven pump with hydraulic tank and with device for charging the tank with working liquid, check valve arranged in drain hydraulic line at inlet of sealed hydraulic tank, and manually controlled shutoff valve in suction hydraulic line at outlet of sealed hydraulic tank.
EFFECT: improved reliability of hydrostatic transmission of vehicle designed for operation under various road conditions.
5 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in different vehicles and in devices and mechanisms for clashless engagement of driven shafts. Proposed torque converter contains drive and driven units of converter. Drive unit is made in form of disks 2-5 with slots freely fitted on splined shaft 1. Movable blades are fitted in said slots. Driven unit of converter is made in form of cylindrical housing 7 with driven shaft 16 and rings 11 and 12 fitted on shaft. Disks 2-5 with blades 6 of drive unit of converter are arranged inside rings. Slots in disks 2-5 of drive unit of converter are made through being arranged tangentially. Each of rings 11, 12 in cylindrical housing 7 of converter driven unit is installed for rolling on guide 13, being connected with axle-shaft 14 flush-fitted in cradle of step bearing 15 whose body is in rigid engagement with cylindrical housing 7. With drive unit rotating, summary driven torque is formed from its hydraulic and inertia components. Formulas for calculating the torque are given in description of invention.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of hydraulic - inertia converter, its control system, gearbox of converter and method of torque conversion.
24 cl, 1 tbl, 10 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; vehicle hydraulic drives.
SUBSTANCE: proposed recuperative reversible stepless hydraulic transmission of wheeled vehicle contains drive engine 5, recuperator 20 with overrunning clutch 24, controllable reversible hydraulic machine 18 with pressure and suction and control plunger 8 communicating with hydraulic control system through pipelines, follow-up hydraulic booster with variable-capacity pump 12 of reverse capacity, four non-controllable hydraulic machines 29-32. Each of said hydraulic machines has vehicle wheel, and wheels of vehicle are in contact with road pavement. Recuperator 20 is made in form of planetary reduction gear whose carrier 19 is connected with pump 12 and with hydraulic machine 18 provided with two diametric pressure and two diametric suction spaces and connected with hydraulic machines 29-32 by pipelines. Hydraulic machine 18 contains "floating" plunger 33 with two cylindrical grooves between two end face spaces and "polar" plunger by channels of which end face spaces of floating plunger 33 are communicated, overlapped or reversed with pressure and suction spaces of hydraulic machine 18. Cylindrical grooves of floating plunger 33 synchronously overlap or hydraulically communicate two pressure and two suction spaces of hydraulic machine 18. Lever 6 of polar plunger is mechanically connected with corresponding slot of plate 3 of vehicle speed and reverse control member.
EFFECT: reduced number of control members, dispensing with brake system improved cross-country capacity of vehicle, reduced fuel consumption, reduced acceleration time, increased efficiency.
5 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: public building structures, particularly drives for showcase rotation.
SUBSTANCE: drive to rotate showcase substantially formed as superimposed disc 4 installed on pin 5 provides force transmission from drive 12 to disc 4 by means of flexible tie having tensioning means. Flexible tie is formed as closed loop of chain 10 having rigid links. The chain passes around the disc 4 along disc surface generator. Drive has sprocket 11 of driving means. The sprocket 11 is installed on shaft of hydraulic drive 12. Hydraulic drive 12 is mounted on plate 13 moving in radial direction relative disc 4 by hydraulic power cylinder 16.
EFFECT: increased safety of the drive, improved disc position adjustment, reduced size, simplified mounting and enhanced maintainability.
7 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: transport mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises electric means for measuring working volume of pumps and hydraulic motors and pickup (60) for measuring the speed of rotation of the shaft of the pump station. The electric circuits are provided with threshold control members (67) and (80) interconnected between pickup (6) and the electric means. Between threshold control members (67) and (80) and electric means for changing working volume of pumps (67) and (80) and hydraulic motors (13), (14), (17), and (18) of the drive of end wheels are variable resistors (77), (78), (86), and (87) that are controlled by pickups (89) and (89) of pressure difference in hydraulic circuits of the drive of the intermediate wheels and the drive of each pair of end wheels.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability and prolonged service life.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; production of drive units for engineering tools and motor vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of mechanical engineering and may be used in production of drive units for engineering tools and motor vehicles. The self-regulating infinitely variable speed transmission contains: an input shaft 9 and an output shaft 6, a centrifugal type nonadjustable hydraulic pump 3, a gear differential unit 2 with two output shafts 5, 6 and a nonadjustable hydraulic motor 4. The hydraulic pump 3 is connected to the gear differential unit output shaft 5. The nonadjustable hydraulic motor 4 is connected to the gear differential unit output shaft 6, which is an output shaft of the gear differential unit output shaft. Self-regulation of a torque of the output shaft is depending on a load by changing the number of revolutions per a minute of the centrifugal pump using the differential gear of the he self-regulating infinitely variable speed transmission. The technical result is an increased affordability due to reduction of a quantity of gears and lack of the throttling losses of a liquid and to the complete self-regulation.
EFFECT: the invention ensures an increased affordability due to reduction of a quantity of gears and lack of the throttling losses of a liquid and to the complete self-regulation.