Device for heating a sports turf
(57) Abstract:Use: for heating the surface of the sports facilities, as well as in greenhouse farms. The device includes a primary heat exchange system connected to Central heating and via a heat exchanger with secondary Autonomous closed system of circulation of the coolant. The secondary circulation system coolant is installed in parallel in the cultural layer of soil under vegetation heat pipes. Under heat pipes placed drainage pipes. The ends of the heat pipes are connected in consecutive alternation with the sockets on the distribution and Assembly of the piping at one end of the lawn and nozzle Assembly and distribution pipes on the other end of the lawn. Heated sports turf such a device ensures the conduct of sporting events throughout the calendar year. 7 Il. The invention relates to sports facilities, in particular for heating sports turf football pitches, asphalt and cinder tracks, Cycling tracks, tennis courts, playing fields for Rugby, as well as in greenhouses and greenhouse agriculture.Known electronic tar, diisocyanate TG and graphite, in which, in order to reduce energy consumption during heating of the coating, it additionally contains magnetite with a particle diameter of 50 to 500 μm, in the following ratio, wt.h.:
Polyester resin is 80 - 120
Diisocyanate TG - 80 - 120
Graphite - 10 - 110
Magnetite - 10 - 110
(ed. St. USSR N 630334. class. E 01 C 11/26, H 05 B 3/34. Baranov, L. N. and Kuzmenko Y. C. electrically Conductive composition. 1978.Sports turf unlike ornamental lawns and other types of lawns have their own characteristics. Grass football fields shares to be completely flat, low, elastic, able to endure frequent grooming to be resistant not only to adverse weather conditions (frost, drought, and so on), but also to trampling. According to the film, at 1 m2the surface of the field for one football game, there are 130 - 180 shock pulses, and loaded on 1 cm2the surface of the field reach 200 to 250 kgf.Grass, growing in ground cover, its root system forms a divot. The turf should be linked and so dense with well-developed root system, so that after damage to the grass cover your feet and shoes, the grass could grow.For the RAM to pick up the soil with favorable mechanical structure, and if this soil is not in a natural way, to create artificially, by ostrukturivaniyu different factions and additives. On the other hand, should be selected herbs taking into account soil and climatic conditions in the area. A vegetative layer of the earth in the whole field must be homogeneous and of uniform thickness. The soil should absorb the water and allow air to have some water-holding capacity, is needed to supply plant roots with moisture.Soil structural with vodoprochnost not swim during the rains, artificial irrigation and do not form a crust when dry, whereas restructurini soil when wet, become solid viscous mass. As a consequence, the filtration capacity of the upper vegetative layer soil is sharply reduced. These soil properties are of paramount importance for sports turf. The best mixture of land for sports turf is one in which the content of sand, silt and clay particles is in a certain ratio.The approximate particle size distribution of the soil of a football field next %: sandy and krupnoperistye soil particles (2 - 0.5 mm) 62 - 54; silt particles (0.05 to 0.005 mm) 28 - 30; clay hanicheskih substances, and most importantly its quality - active humus, fresh humus (decomposition of organic matter in an anaerobic bacteria that are capable of binding the individual soil particles into aggregates and microaggregate).Organic fertilizers sports lawns the best result gives the compost. Soil acidity should be given most attention. The most appropriate reaction of the soil is pH of 5.0 - 7.0, i.e. soil for sports turf must have a neutral or slightly acid reaction. On the mineralogical composition of the soil of a football field must contain 4 to 12% limestone. You must apply ground limestone or crushed, not slaked lime, as it is better mixed with the surface soil layers and act quickly.In effect described the circumstances described above, the conductive composition may be included as components in the upper soil layer of a football field and thereby to obtain electrically heated lawns.Known also electric heating system turf football field, which includes heating cables placed under the turf at the specified depth, temperature sensors and switchboard installation (Football. ozdaet the possibility of football matches in the all-year-round in the conditions, almost close to summer. This system has a drainage-drainage qualities. It promotes rapid recovery of the lawn after heavy use, heavy rains, heavy snow and severe frosts. In addition, over the entire surface of a football field at a considerable height from the surface creates a microclimate, a positive effect on the athletes, this contributes to the appeal and attractiveness of the competition in late autumn and winter.The management system provides multistage electric (automatic or manual) adjustment of the surface temperature of the heating cable across the lawn or specific zones. The proposed system provides normal operation with a 10 - 65oC. warm-up Time of the lawn when the freezing depth of 1 m or less 3 days. Energy consumption taking into account the climatic conditions and mode of operation up to 400 kW. The efficiency of the system of 0.95. However, episodic activation of the control system electric lead to the fact that the root system of the vegetation cover under accelerated by warm soil from a state of suspended animation does not have time to log in normal mode and it imout, this is evidenced by the "yellow" zone on the surface of green grass of the football field.Electric heating does not take into account the specifics of thermal conductivity of the top layer of a football field and distribution of root systems of the vegetation cover. Soil (fertile top layer) used for the growth of conventional lawns, requires considerable improvement of the mechanical part: she silt, estructurada, as a result, the crops lawns strongly perepletajutsja under irrigation artificial precipitation (sprinkler or irrigation by flooding in a subsequent operation.The design is known in the world practice football fields have the following layer structure.Before laying special layers, the surface of the field must be carefully aligned to the design slope and compacted by heavy rollers. Precision leveling should be performed within 2 cm of the prepared Foundation laid water-retaining layer of peat (lignin) in the thickness of 3 - 5 cm thick Layer of peat is compacted heavy roller weighing not less than 1.5 so Laying the peat produced in the wetted state and held in this state before installation of the next top layer. On a layer of peat (lignin) ukladyvaete 2 x 2 m Compaction of each layer should be rollers weighing 100 - 150 kg of Upper layer formed from a special mixture of the following composition, %:
The land is fertile, taken from the top fertile layer Pasha - 48
Peat - 27
Rotted manure (2-year) - 5
Gravelistoe quartz sand with a diameter grains 5 - 6 mm - 5
Coarse-grained quartz sand with a diameter of grains in 2 - 3 mm - 15
This mixture is stirred in a mixer or by hand. After laying a layer thickness of 16 cm, injected uniformly across the field following fertilizer, kg:
Nitric crumbs (crushed bone) with a diameter of 2 cm
Dry blood - 250
Superphosphate - 200
Potassium chloride - 120
The ammonium sulfate - 170
Ammonium nitrate - 200
Copper sulphate - 20
Vitriol - 20
All of these materials evenly and carefully spread over the surface of a football field and carefully close up Zubov rake in the layer at a depth of 3 - 5 see special Surface layer permanently align the roller with a mass of 300 kg in two mutually perpendicular directions.After laying a special layer of the subsoil layer thickness 16 cm) begin laying the upper root layer thickness of 4 see the Composition of a mixture of DL is a (humus manure) - 16
Coarse sand, quartz with a diameter of 2 - 3 mm - 15
Sand gravelistoe, quartz with a diameter of 5 - 6 mm - 5
The upper root layer produced by leveling the marks in the center of a square of 2 x 2 m Layer compacted by the roller weighing 100 - 150 kg In this layer makes the following fertilizers, kg:
Superphosphate - 200
Potassium chloride - 10
Ammonium nitrate - 150
Known artificial ice track, including plates for ice cover with the pipe system, the base and movable supports, which, with the purpose of increase of reliability of work supports and improve their conditions of service, under the support mounted pier Foundation, and each bearing is made with the plate, thermal conductivity is in the range from 0,21 to 0.1 kcal/(SMSoC) installed on the bottom surface of the plate for the ice cover, and a support element with a friction coefficient of 0.05 and 0.03, and the supporting element is fixed on a pier Foundation (ed.St. USSR N 717208, CL E 01 C 13/00. Plugin P. I. Artificial ice track. 1980.The shortcoming of the ice track is imperfect system of pipes for the supply of the refrigerant. This leads to the fact that the thickness of the ice cover varies within Olena freely, and the base with ice and insulating coatings are moved relative to the pier foundations because of the linear compression at lower temperature. The described system of pipes cannot be borrowed for heated sports turf.Also known road, including the freezing concrete roadway surface and a closed system of circulation of the coolant in a sealed G-tubes, shelves are placed under a concrete floor, and the rack is directed into the road and is connected with the heat source located below the frost line, the porous material covering the inner surface of the closed pipe, in which, with the aim of enhancing considered horizontally isothermal surface when heated concrete pavement and reduce capital costs if the dangerous parts of the road within the city streets with a system of underground utilities, circulation system provided with a plate and additional pipes, directed along the longitudinal edges of the cover and connecting placed under the floor of the pipe loop-shaped in plan configuration, and a plate attached to the loop-like tube top, and a heat source combined with a pipe in the deepened portion of the limb directed towards the flow of wastewater and discretely placed perimeter thickening, and the circulation system has a thermal insulation covering the sealed tube located outside the wastewater pipes, sealed tube hook-shaped in plan configuration placed with a hydraulic gradient of 0.03 to 0.05; perimeter thickening on the limb sealed tubes placed with a relative step t = (l/h)opt) = 10... 15, where l is the distance between the perimeter thickenings; h - the height of the bulges; the distance between the individual loops placed under the floor sealed tubes made equal to the width of the loops (ed.St. USSR N 1482990 class. E 01 C 11/24. Vytchikov Y. S., Lux, A. L., Lux A., and Melnikov, L. I. road. 1989).The disadvantages of the design of the road should include the complexity of the system design of the brine and the difficulty of filling the coolant system pipes.Known devices for maintaining the technological regime of the cultural layer of the soil in greenhouses containing inclined below the drainage pipe, a device for heating, including the pump and the water heater, the feed fluid into the heating channels, nami and heating channels are drain pipes, perforated on the upper side, the inputs of which has a regulatory wells, and outputs settlers wells interconnected by means of a gravity pipeline, on which are mounted pump and water heater (ed.St. USSR N 363461, class A 01 g 9/24. Equipment to maintain the technological regime of the cultural layer of soil in the greenhouse. Kislenko N. K. Posypkin A. I., Terpigorev C. A., Strays R. I. and Sakaev L. I. 1972.This equipment has a low efficiency and is operable only when the temperature of the cultural layer of soil above 11 - 12oC. At low temperatures in the soil system unusable.A device for heating, greenhouse, comprising a heat exchanger in which, to avoid sudden changes in temperature in the greenhouse, the heat exchanger in the form of flat thin flexible opaque sheath of rubber or polymer material with the coolant channels and holes for plants (patent USSR N 528849, class A 01 G 9/24. The device for heating the greenhouse. Jean-Len Dahl, Maurice Dumont, Andre Furs, Aimee Praise and Andre guzi (France). The firm, "the Commissariat and l atomic energy" (France), 1976.In the channels of the heat exchangers serves GI 0.1 m of water. senior Small temperature difference between the coolant circulating in the shells, and the ground requires that the greenhouse was covered with a 50 - 100% of the ground surface. This fact prevents the use of the described device for heating sports turf, in particular on the surface of the football cover. Vegetation on the grass football fields create the following herbs that are sown in a complex mixture, kg:
Meadow fescue - 25 - 40
Kentucky bluegrass (bent grass) - 20 - 25
Ryegrass - 20 - 35
The fescue - 75 - 185
White clover - 10 - 15
Only 150 - 200 kg of grass seed for the area of a football field with dimensions of 72 x 110 m Seeding mixtures produced in the cultural layer at a depth of 0.5 - 1.0 cm with a binding powder (as earthing) structural agronomically valuable fraction of soil layer 2, see After sowing, the soil layer is rolled light of cylindrical rollers with a specific pressure of 1.2 - 1.8 kg/cm2.A known method of heating the soil with the irrigation water, including heating and supply it into the irrigation system with a porous humidifiers, in which, to ensure an even heating of the soil and maintaining optimum soil moisture and temperature, produce hot water after revealing bkin C. K., Sheikin Y., and Klimov centuries the Method of heating the soil when watering. 1979).The described method provides irrigation network, which includes the pump, the distribution pipeline with pressure gauge, microporous moisturizers like "Viagla", the discharge pipe with a valve, a container with a heater and a water line with a float locking valve.Microporous humidifiers put out when transplanting plants and removed after harvest. Depth bookmarks humidifiers is 7 to 10 cm, and the distance between them is 30 cm This provides a more uniform heating it is the top 20 cm layer, where the bulk of the roots of plants.A significant disadvantage of irrigation network is that seeding can be done only by narrow strips. For solid seeding mixtures of grass seed, the above described method of heating is unacceptable.A device for dewatering and heating the soil in greenhouses, including pipe heating inside drain pipes, in which, to reduce heat loss and reduce the thawing of the soil, the pipe heater is located in the upper part of the drainage pipe, and paired with her its surface (ed.with the selected fields during the match the intensity of the load on 1 m2the surface of the lawn in 103- 104times the load than on the surface of the heated soil in the greenhouse. Therefore, laying pipe heating in a drainage pipe under the vegetation in the cultural soil of a football field will result in local depressions exceeding the value of artouste, ( 2 cm in length 2 m).A device for heating of soil containing water heat generator, a closed coolant circuit and the automatic control system soil temperature regulator, temperature sensor soil temperature sensor direct coolant and water heat generator is made on a water heater, a closed coolant circuit includes installed on the return line of the circulation pump and mounted on the forward pipeline of the first three-way bypass valve with a control element, and the system of automatic control of the temperature of the soil made by the block diagram of series-connected and having the feedback of the first item of comparison information from the temperature sensor soil unit Converter with power and temperature controller of the soil (Borodin Imperial family and other Fundamentals of automation and automation the high precision temperature control soil.A device for heating of soil containing water heat generator, a closed coolant circuit and system of automatic control of the temperature of the soil with the regulator, temperature sensor soil temperature sensor direct coolant and water heat generator is made on a water heater, a closed coolant circuit includes installed on the return line of the circulation pump and mounted on the forward pipeline of the first three-way bypass valve with a control element, and the system of automatic control of the temperature of the soil made by the block diagram of series-connected and having the feedback of the first item of comparison information from the temperature sensor ground on the generator, inverter power and temperature controller of the soil, in which, to improve the accuracy of controlling the temperature of the soil, the system of automatic control of the temperature of the soil supply sensor return temperature of the heat carrier temperature sensor pipe surface water soil heating systems and level sensor solar radiation, and water heat generator provided with a flow regulator of the heat carrier and the second is odango heater, when this unit is equipped with a computing unit, an input connected to sensor return temperature of the heat carrier temperature sensor pipe surface water soil heating systems, temperature sensor direct coolant and level sensor solar radiation, and the output from the inverter and the first element of comparison, the Converter is supplied by the integrator, the error correction block, the adder, the second comparison element, and the input of the integrator is connected with the computing unit and the input unit correction - with the first element of comparison, the outputs of the integrator and correction block is connected to the adder sequentially connected to the second element of comparison, the temperature controller ground is two-channel, one output channel connected in series to the control element of the second three-way by-pass valve, and the second output channel is equipped with the third element of comparison, the input of which is connected with the coolant temperature sensor on a feed line of a closed coolant circuit, and the output of the third comparison element connected to the control element of the first three-way bypass valve (ed.St. USSR N 1028281, class A 01 G 9/24. Mikhailenko, I. M. and th design and low technical reliability level sensor solar radiation, leads to failure of the whole system of automatic control.The closest device to the same destination to the proposed facility on the totality of symptoms is a device for heating a sports turf containing a primary heat exchange system connected to Central heating city network and via a heat exchanger with secondary Autonomous closed system of circulation of the coolant is water and/or solution of water with glycole in the form of sealed heat pipes of the structural polyethylene, installed with a specified step in the cultural layer under the vegetation sports turf and hydraulically connected water distribution and Assembly pipeline of variable diameter, vysokoorientirovannogo polyethylene with heat exchanger primary system, double pump pump, expansion vessel with valves filling and ventilation valve control passage of fluid, thermostat and control unit in manual and automatic modes, and obliquely placed under heat pipes below the cultural layer of the soil of the lawn drainage pipes. (Brochure of the joint stock company company "WIRSBO Linig-System". Motomatic AG is the measure length 250 mm from each other at a depth of 200 - 250 mm Heat pipes can be laid parallel to or perpendicular to the direction of the football field. At the end of the field heat pipes are connected with power and distribution pipe Assembly and the outlet pipe of the water system. Heat pipes with a diameter of 3/4" stacked groups in the form of three lines with U-shaped knees on the opposite end of a football field. Outlet and inlet of the tube is conical with an external diameter of 160 mm at the inlet and 110mm at length 72 mThe obstacles to achieve the desired technical result when using the known device, taken as a prototype, are uneven heating of topsoil on the area of a football field and a large temperature difference of the coolant at the outlet of the inlet pipe in comparison with the temperature of the coolant at the entrance to the discharge pipe. U-shaped knee on the opposite end of the football field does not provide compensation for the working length of the heat pipe due to the linear expansion when changing the temperature regime of the fluid in the translation management system with a lean mode (between long intervals of sports or football rest of the ne. During winter break, the automatic control system switches the heating system of the coolant at a low temperature at which the liquid medium in the pipe is above the freezing point at a temperature of about +6oC. Liquid medium is constantly in a state of circulation. The outlet temperature is constantly changing in the course of every day. When the temperature drops to +3oC the system immediately changes the temperature of the coolant. For this reason, the heat pipes are always in thermal stress mode, and U-shaped knee on one end does not ensure normal operation of heat pipes.The problem to which the invention is directed, is the reduction of the temperature difference of the coolant along the length of the heat pipes and ensuring uniform heating of the lawn on the surface of the field.The technical result is an increase in the service life of the device for heating the lawn, reducing the energy for heating the fluid and maintaining the surface of the lawn for sports competitions throughout the year.This technical result in the implementation of the invention is achieved in that in the known device for heating a sports turf, including nice with secondary Autonomous closed-loop circulation system coolant - water and/or solution of water with glycole in the form of sealed heat pipes of the structural polyethylene, installed with a specified step in the cultural layer of soil under vegetation sports turf and hydraulically connected water distribution and Assembly pipeline of vysokoorientirovannogo polyethylene with heat exchanger by double-pumping pump, expansion tank, valves filling and ventilation valve control passage of fluid, thermostat and control unit in manual and automatic modes, and pan placed under heat pipes below the cultural layer of the soil of the lawn drainage pipes, distribution and Assembly of power piping connected to the middle of the long side of the sports turf and hydraulically connected with additional distribution and Assembly pipelines installed congruent to the ends of the lawn at the ends of parallel heat pipes are connected in consecutive alternation with the sockets on the distribution and Assembly of the piping at one end of the lawn and nozzle Assembly and distribution pipes on the other end of the field turf, and each end Teplova having an outer diameter correlated with the diameter of the heat pipe as (15,0 - 20,0) : 1.Due to the fact that the ends of the heat of parallel tubes in turn are connected with the pipes of the distribution and Assembly of pipelines, creates a jet of coolant in parallel heat pipes. The reduction path of the coolant in the heat pipe into the two slots and counterflows in adjacent tubes provide the above technical result.In Fig. 1 shows a sports facility with a heated turf on the football field in the center, type in the plan.In Fig. 2 - place the I in Fig. 1, a supply of coolant from the primary heat exchanger system mounted under the arena of sports facilities, to the secondary heat exchanger system installed under sports turf, in axonometric image.In Fig. 3 - heated football field with a system of heat pipes, type in the plan.In Fig. 4 - cross section a-a in Fig. 3, the cross section of the upper root zone of the lawn, the system of heat pipes and drainage collector that is installed obliquely under heat pipes.In Fig. 5 - section b-B in Fig. 3, the cross-section distribution and Assembly of pipelines DL the ring at the end.In Fig. 6 - section b-b In Fig. 3, a longitudinal section of the heat pipes and expansion joints in the form of curvilinear arcs connected with the pipes of the distribution and Assembly of pipelines.In Fig. 7 is a schematic diagram of the Autonomous secondary circulation system of the heat carrier.The design of the device for heating a sports turf consider the example of a heated football field, performed at the stadium. Device for heating includes a primary heat exchange system 1 connected to Central heating city network 2, and the secondary Autonomous closed-loop system 3 the brine (Fig. 1, 2 and 7). As the coolant using water and/or a solution of water with glycole.Secondary Autonomous closed-loop system 3 brine presents sealed installed heat pipes 4, placed with a specified step in the cultural layer of soil under 5 vegetation 6 sports turf and hydraulically connected to water distribution piping Assembly 7 and the pipe 8. Heat pipes 4 with a diameter of 3/4" made of molecular-structured polyethylene having a high thermal conductivity.wow polyethylene. Allow the performance of heat pipes 4 diameter 1" (25.4 mm) with a wall thickness of 3 mm Heat pipes 4 are placed in the cultural layer of soil under 5 vegetation 6 sports turf, at a depth of 160 - 180 mm Distribution tubing Assembly 7 and the pipe 8 is laid in parallel on the ends 9 and 10 football fields and along its long side 11. Heat pipes 4 can be stacked on each other with a distance of 180 - 250 mm In each case taking into account binding mounting system, taking into account the climatic conditions of the region. On heating of a football field with a size of 110 x 72 m required 40000 - 48000 linear feet of heat pipes 4. For submission of glycol from the heat exchangers of the primary system 1 requires 642 per meter plastic pipe low pressure with the trademark 159 PNDP diameter 160 mm to perform the distribution and Assembly of pipes 7 and 8. To fill the secondary coolant system 3 requires 2300 kg of glycol. Distribution piping Assembly 7 and a pipe 8 with a diameter of 160 mm is placed in the trench 12 of a width of 600 mm at a depth of 0.8 - 1.0 m of the Bottom 13 of the trench 12 is filled with sand layer 14 with a thickness of 10 - 12 see Trench 12 with the completion of the installation fill insulating material is United of synthetic material, or asphalt. Distribution and Assembly of power piping 7 and 8 from the heat exchangers announced first to the middle of the long side 11 a sports turf, and then they are distributed in two parallel sleeves, congruent sides 11 9 sports field turf, and its ends 9 and 10. The ends 18 and 19 of each heat pipe 4 is connected with the sockets on the control line 7 and the Assembly pipe 8 so that parallel heat pipes 4 in the cultural soil layer 5 are created by the jet of fluid. For this purpose, the end 18 of the heat pipe 4 is connected with a pipe distribution pipe 7 at the end of 10 football fields, and the end 19 of the same pipe 4 - pipe Assembly pipe, 8 on the end face 9 of the sports turf (Fig. 3 and 5). While the ends 18 of the next stacked with the first heat pipe 4 parallel pipelines 4 are connected in reverse order: the ends 18 of the heat pipe 4 in the trench 12 on the end face 10 with Assembly line 8, and the ends of the same pipe 4 - pipe distribution pipe 7, is laid in the trench 12 on the end face 9 of the football field. Each end 18 (19) heat pipe 4 (Fig. 5) equipped with a compensator 20, made in the form of a vertically installed from ccomproot polymeric materials heat pipes 4 compensators 20 in the form of rings perform during the preliminary heating of the ends 18 and 19 of the heat pipes 4. The expansion joints 20 may be made in the form of curvilinear arcs 21 and 22 (Fig. 6) so that the length of the arc 21 (22) and its chord 23 (24) was maintained in the ratio of (1,2 - 1,3): 1. The ends 18 and 19 of the heat pipes 4 weld with pipes distribution pipes 7 and Assembly of pipelines 8, pre-laid in trenches 12 on the ends 9 and 10 football fields. After completion of installation work is carried out a pressure test of the piping 4, 7 and 8 with a test pressure of 8 kgf/cm2(0.8 MPa). Working pressure in the secondary system 3 does not exceed 1,1 - 1,5 kgf/cm2(0,11 - 0,15 MPa).Cultural soil layer 5 (Fig. 4 - 6) for maintaining the upper vegetative layer 6 sports turf is created as follows. On the prepared substrate 25 is placed a water retaining layer 26 of peat (lignin) of a thickness of 3 see Last condense ice rink. The layer 26 is covered with a layer 27 of the subsoil capacity of 16 cm in two to 8 cm according to the design slope. After laying each portion to produce a seal. Layer 27 subsoil form of speciesi the following composition, %: land plant 48; peat 27; manure 5; gravelistoe quartz sand with a diameter grains 5 - 6 5 mm; coarse-grained quartz sand with a diameter of grains of 2 to 3 mm 15. The mixture A16 cm, make evenly over the entire area (72 x 110 m2the following fertilizers, kg: nitric crumbs 2 cm in diameter; dry blood 250; superphosphate 200; potassium chloride 120; ammonium sulfate 170; ammonium nitrate 200; copper sulphate 20; vitriol 20. After laying a layer 27 of the subsoil capacity of 16 cm begin laying the upper vegetative layer 28 with a thickness of 4 see part of a special mixture for the layer 28 includes the following components, percent: fertile soil 48; peat 16; organic fertilizer 16; coarse sand, quartz diameter of 2 to 3 mm 15; sand gravelistoe, quartz with a diameter of 5 - 6 mm 5. After laying layer 28 contribute superficially following fertilizer, kg: superphosphate 200; calcium chloride 10; ammonium nitrate 150.After final alignment of the micro-lows of plot start sowing seeds of grasses for sports turf. For seeding, use the following herbs with the following seeding rate, kg: meadow fescue 25 - 40; Kentucky bluegrass 20 - 25; ryegrass 20 - 35; fescue 75 - 85; white clover 10 - 15. After planting and seeding at a depth of 0.5 cm produce selevinia structural agronomically valuable soil with a capacity of 2 cm, which creates an upper vegetative layer 29 for the growth of the seed sown crops. Polastri mow the lawn mowers for cutting height 40 mm, which forms sports turf 30. Depending on the operating conditions of the sports turf based on 25 may first be laid in layer of sand with a capacity of 10 cm, and then stack the layers 26 and 28. Under the layers 26 and 29 on the basis of 25 made drainage collector 31.The primary heat exchange system 1, is connected with the secondary Autonomous closed-loop system 3 heat exchangers 32 and 33 (Fig. 7). In the heat exchangers 32 and 33 there are two different types of coolant, which are not mutually mixed. The first fluid is pure water - pressure pipe 34 through the valve 35 at the inlet of the primary heat exchange system 1 passes through the valve 36 and the controller 37 water temperature in the heat exchanger 32. The heat exchanger 33 with the pressure pipe 34 is connected in a similar manner through the valve 38 and the controller 39 water temperature. Of the heat exchangers 32 and 33 of the coolant of the urban system 2 heat through the opening of the valves 40 and 41 flows through the drain pipe 42 and through the valve 43 is fed into the heating system of the city network 2. The temperature of the coolant supply and return line and the pressure of the water in the heating system is fixed thermometers 44 and 45 and a pressure gauge 46 and 47.The cavity of the heat exchangers is - of the heat pipes 4 on Assembly line 8 is fed into the pump 48, which is included in the same network simultaneously with backup pump 49 coolant for heating the sport of lawn.Pumps 48 and 49 at their inputs and outputs have two pairs of valves 50, 51, 52 and 53. The coolant of the second kind under the working pressure in the pressure pipe 54 and through the valve 55 and 56 is served either in the heat exchanger 32 or the heat exchanger 33. Heat exchangers 32 and 33 mounted valves 57 and 58, which are hydraulically connected in parallel with the pressure pipe 59, and then through the valve 60 to a junction pipe 7.In the heat exchangers 32 and 33 thermal energy from the coolant from the city network 2 is transferred to the coolant from a closed Autonomous system 3. Autonomous system 3 is equipped with reserve capacity 61 of 10 m3to a solution of glycol. Capacity 61 pipe 62 through the valve 63 is connected with Assembly line 8.Uninterrupted operation of the device for heating a sports turf provided by the staging of the third heat exchanger 64, which is connected to the main boiler 65 or back boiler 66. Boilers 65 and 66 can be powered from the electrical network with n CLASS="ptx2">The main boiler 65 and back boiler 66 through the valve 67 and the suction of the water supply pipe 68 is connected to the tank 69 for feeding electric boilers 65 and 66. Capacity 69 has a volume of 4 m3.Boilers 65 and 66 is supplied by a pump 70 and 71 with electric drives.The heat exchanger 64 is connected by a pipe 72 with the boilers 65 and 66. The coolant (water) from the heat exchanger 64 at open gate valves 73 and 74 by pump 71 is supplied under pressure to the boiler 65, and again in the heat exchanger 64. When closed, the valve 74 coolant through the pipe 75 is fed to the valve 76 and through it into the pump 70, where running back boiler 66 is increased to the desired value of the temperature of the coolant, and then he pipe 72 is sent to the heat exchanger 64.In this mode, the brine from the boiler 65 (66), a water / glycol mixture from the heat pipes 4 into the heat exchanger 64 is routed as follows. The valve 60 to the distribution pipe 7 is closed, and the valves 77 and 78 of the heat exchanger 64 open. Precast pipe 8 glycol at low temperature (+3oC) flows through the suction communication to the pump 48 and motor pipe 57, bypassing the valves 55 and 56, through the valve 79 trues valve 78 under the working pressure is further supplied into the distribution pipeline 7. The temperature of the glycol when filing for heating of the lawn and back logged thermometers 80 and 81, and the pressure in the secondary network - gauges 82 and 83.Control heating system for heating a sports turf can be carried out in manual mode or in automatic mode with the use of appropriate sensors temperature of the soil in the rooting zone sports turf.Described the heated coolant from the water / glycol mixture provides for joint work of the external thermal networks 2 and boilers 65 and 66. For this purpose, the piping system 34 and 42 are provided with an additional water supply pipes 84 and 85 and valve 86 and 87.Device for heating a sports turf works as follows.Consider the operation of the device for heating a sports turf from an external source of heat, in particular from external thermal networks with a coolant temperature of 40 - 70oC (Fig. 7). For this purpose, the boiler operator, mounted under the stands of the stadium, checks that the valves gate valves 38, 58, 56, 86, 87, 52, 53, 63, 41, 79, 77, 78, 73, 74, 76 and 67 were installed in positions "Closed". Simultaneously, he checks the position of the valves the tel with temperature to= 40 - 70oC on the pressure pipe 34 through the valve 35 and the valve 36, the controller 37 temperature enters the heat exchanger 32 and then through open valve 40 through the drain pipe 42 and through the valve 43 is in circulation in the primary system 1 heat transfer. The coolant from the glycol in the heat exchanger 32 acquires almost the same temperature of water. From the Assembly pipe 8 glycol through the valve 50 is supplied into the suction cavity of the pump 48, which work under pressure through the valve 51, the fluid flows through the pressure pipe 54 and through the valve 55 in the heat exchanger 32 and exit through the valve 57 in the discharge pipe 59, and from him, through the valve 60, in the distribution pipeline 7.From the distribution pipe 7 through the pipes, the ends 18 and compensators 20 coolant through the heat pipes 4 are mutually opposite directions in adjacent parallel heat pipes 4 flows from the distribution pipes 7, installed in trenches 12 on the ends 9 and 10 of the football field in the Assembly of the pipe 8. The placement of the heat pipes 4 at a depth of 18 to 20 cm in the cultural soil of the sports turf feeding coolant temperature b is greater than +6oC. In this case, the root system of the vegetation cover of the sports turf comes out of suspended animation, while the stalks of the plants begin to vehetuvaty. Chilled glycol through the expansion joints 20 (21, 22) of the heat pipes and the ends 18 and 19 serves the coolant in the cavity of the Assembly of tubes 8 installed in trenches on the ends 9 and 10 sports turf. If the pump 48 in the boiler plant the cycle repeats.By reducing the temperature of the coolant, installed thermometer 83 on the Assembly line 8, below +6oC, include in the second heat exchanger 33. For this purpose, the operator opens the valve 38, 58, 56 and 41. The heat exchange process takes place as described above.In an emergency situation, the external thermal system 2 in the first valve 35 and 43 of the shut-off pipe 34 and the drain pipe 42 is switched to the "Closed" position. In the work enters the boiler 65 electric and the third heat exchanger 64. For the auxiliary boiler 65 operator valves 73, 74, 79 and 60 from the position "Closed" translates into the "Open" position, while the valves 55, 56 and 60 from the position "Closed" in the "Open" position. The fluid (pure water) from the heat exchanger 64 through valve 73 and 74, the servant of rowsets to the input of the heat exchanger 64. Simultaneously, from the Assembly pipe 8 connected to the ends 18 and 19 of the heat pipes 4, glycol through the valve 50 is supplied into the suction cavity of the pump 48, and from the pressure chambers of the pump - valve 51 and the pressure pipe 54, bypassing the valves 79 and 78 installed in the "Open" position, in the working cavity of the heat exchanger 64 and exits through the valve 78 to the distribution pipe 7 for supplying coolant to the working temperature of the heat pipe 4. When the temperature drops below (-15) - (-20)oC involves the main boiler 65 and back boiler 66.When conducting sports games (series of games) for heating a sports turf under intensive exploitation heating of the cultural layer of the soil is carried out with three operating heat exchangers 32, 33 and 64.During the break between sports (series) for more than 14 days, the mode of operation of heat exchangers 32, 33 and 64 set to "economy". Coolant temperature (solution, glycol) at the outlet of the heat pipes 4 should not fall below +3oC.Heater control sports turf the operator shall manually changing work, coordinating with the calendar providentially fluid (water / glycol mixture) leads to the linear expansion or compression of the heat pipes on the length of the sports turf (length, each heat pipe 4 is 112 m In this case, depending on the point of crushing heat pipe 4, the pipe 4 is either lengthened or shortened. The difference of the linear movements of the heat pipe 4 is compensated either by reducing the diameter D of the compensator 20 at the ends 18 or 19 of the tube 4 (Fig. 5), any increase (decrease) the length of the curvilinear arcs 21 and 22 (Fig. 6). Production, expansion joints 20, 21 and 22 at the ends of the heat pipes 4, and the serial connection of the ends 18 and 19 parallel adjacent heat pipes 4 with distribution piping 8 and the Assembly line 7 provides for the increase of their lifetime up to 50 years.Described heating of the sports turf provides the organization of sport competitions of any Gong throughout the calendar year.Underground irrigation system with drainage network 31 guarantee the conservation of the vegetation cover in the next 8 to 10 years.Thus, the above data confirm that the implementation of the use of the claimed invention the following cumulative conditions: a tool embodying the invention in its implementation, is intended for use in the construction of sports facilities and lawns; for from the of erigena the possibility of its implementation using the above in the application or known before the priority date tools and methods; the tool embodying the invention in its implementation, is able to achieve perceived by the applicant of the technical result. 1 Device for heating a sports turf containing a primary heat exchange system connected to Central heating city network and via a heat exchanger with secondary Autonomous closed-circuit circulation of the heat carrier is water or a solution of water with glycole - in the form of sealed parallel set of heat pipes of structured molecular polyethylene, installed with a step in the cultural layer of soil under vegetation sports turf and hydraulically connected water distribution and Assembly pipeline of vysokoorientirovannogo polyethylene with heat exchanger via a pump thermostat and control unit in manual and automatic modes, and obliquely placed under heat pipes below the cultural layer of soil and lawn drainage pipes, characterized in that the distribution and Assembly of power piping connected to the middle of the long side of the sports turf and hydraulically connected with additional distribution and Assembly t is determined as being interleaved with the sockets on the distribution and Assembly of the piping at one end of the lawn and nozzle Assembly and distribution pipes on the other end, and each end of the heat pipe is equipped with a compensator made in the form of a vertically installed from the part of the tube rings with an outer diameter corresponding to the diameter of the heat pipe as (15,0-20,0):1 or a curved arc with relation to own the chord as (1,2-1,3):1.
SUBSTANCE: greenhouse has vented space, apparatus for removal of carbonic acid gas from atmospheric air and carbonic acid gas generator for generating of carbonic acid gas with low content of carbon 14 isotope. Temperature mode inside greenhouse is reliably maintained by air conditioning and by employment of shock resistant light-transmitting covering tending to retain infrared heat energy. Self-cleaning of light-transmitting covering is provided by means of oxide coating. Sealing capacity of greenhouse is not affected by passage of personnel and equipment therein owing to employment of double door, wherein doors are mutually blocked. Soil air drainage is used for preventing gaseous carbonaceous soil decomposition products from getting into inner atmosphere of greenhouse. Intensified ripening of plants is enabled by addition of ethylene into inner atmosphere of greenhouse.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and simplified construction.
14 cl, 1 ex
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, cultivation of flowers, vegetables, decorative and tropical plants under home conditions.
SUBSTANCE: compact chamber is composed of at least two parts, that is, bath, extension rings-inserts, hood, and pan. Pan is placed into bath, ground is spilled, sown, watered and covered with hood. Said parts are secured to one another by adhesive tape. Compact chamber may have cylindrical or square volume of enclosure vessel subdivided into at least three main parts: lower part with bath for receiving of soil or other nutritive mixture, extension rings-inserts, and upper part with hood for creating closed space, wherein permanent humidity is maintained for creating advantageous conditions for plant growing. In case space is to be increased in vertical direction, ring-insert is positioned between bath and hood. For plant illumination, in case natural illumination is insufficient, lighting device is inserted into hood throat and switched to regulated pulse-duration power unit controlled from automatic program relay, which is turned-on and turned-off in accordance with set season, solar cycle, established at starting time by means of switches. Heating, air and moisture modes are regulated by means of vent windows defined by notches-depressions formed on vessel surface. Vent windows may be removed when necessary. Vent windows may be closed and opened by means of small windows set for predetermined threshold temperature values and automatically controlled by bimetal effect, and in case of necessity, heating system is switched on.
EFFECT: simplified and convenient maintenance, improved development of plants and reliable scientific results, when used in laboratory conditions.
10 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, method and equipment used in closed ground constructions, such as block greenhouses, for heating in winter or cooling in summer of useful air volume, as well as for regulating night and day temperature differences in autumn or in spring.
SUBSTANCE: method involves pumping out thermal energy from low-grade heat source into heating system with the use of heat pump; taking out low-grade heat from water of cooling system for cooling said water; spraying said water under roof for absorbing heat and collecting by means of water intake screen for further directing into cooling system tank, from which heat absorbed by water is pumped into heating system tank. Apparatus has heating system with water pump, heat pump equipped with evaporator and condenser, and cooling system comprising tank with heat pump evaporator built into tank, spraying pipes connected to tank through water pump and running to and under greenhouse roof, and water intake screen mounted under spraying pipes. Heating system is equipped with tank having heat pump condenser mounted into tank. Method and apparatus provide for year-round optimal temperature conditions for growing and development of plants.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of greenhouse production, reduced power consumed during heating period, provision for absorbing and utilizing excessive thermal energy during warm period of the year, and increased yield.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves heating trays and useful volume of greenhouse, with trays being heated with hydroponic solution having initial temperature below 300C and final temperature of at least 150C, when said solution is discharged from trays; keeping air temperature of at least 40C in useful volume of greenhouse; isolating useful volume of greenhouse from remaining volume.
EFFECT: reduced consumption of power for heating plants in hydroponic units of greenhouse, convenient maintenance and reduced costs of materials.
2 cl, 1 ex
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, constructions for protected ground.
SUBSTANCE: greenhouse has carcass for longitudinal walls, end panels and roof, light-transparent material for covering carcass openings, with part of carcass openings being adapted for closing and opening to provide for ventilation of green house interior, and drive for unit adapted to provide for automatic ventilation. Carcass openings are made in the form of air vents. Drive for automatic ventilation unit is equipped with system of levers pivotally secured to one another and to air vent flaps and rigidly fixed on member for securing of vacuum pipe with counterweight.
EFFECT: simplified construction and increased efficiency in creating of advantageous conditions.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, growing of agricultural crops with the use of multiple-flow apparatuses arranged at different levels for exposing plants growing in containers to light.
SUBSTANCE: lighting apparatus is composed of individual modules, each including light channel, comprising guides, and mini-hotbeds movable along guides. Mini-hotbeds are mounted on wheels of different diameter for moving by gravity so as to provide their horizontal position by placing them onto inclined guides. Each mini-hotbed may be used as independent module, is furnished with light-transparent hood which simultaneously serves as water accumulator and spreader. Lighting apparatus may be mounted in special industrial, household, supplementary and other rooms provided that stabilized temperature of 15-20° is maintained and phyto-sanitary requirements are fulfilled. Apparatus of such construction is characterized in that rigid coupling between mini-hotbeds is avoided and in that gravity is used for movement of mini-hotbeds along inclined guides in light channel. Apparatus of such construction provides year-round growing of pre-basic sanitated seed potato, seedlings of potato and other vegetables and flowers, as well as products of said crops, tree, fungi, algae seedlings and other biological objects under regulated artificial conditions while eliminating conditions for contacting of seedlings with pathogens.
EFFECT: simplified construction, enhanced reliability in operation and reduced consumption of power.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, plant growing in protected ground.
SUBSTANCE: greenhouse has at least one greenhouse unit equipped with irrigation device. Greenhouse unit has ventilation device and soil heating device. Automatic control system for controlling said devices has at least one temperature sensor and at least one moisture content sensor, whose outputs are connected through amplifiers-converters to part of inputs of arithmetic-logic device adapted for receiving signals generated by said sensors, comparing resulting data with control data and generating control signals for switching-on said devices. Other part of arithmetic-logic device inputs is connected to outputs of replaceable permanent memory unit wherein program for selected climatic zone and program for growing of selected plant of this climatic zone are recorded. Third part of inputs is connected to position outputs for members of said devices, whose inputs are connected through control unit and amplifiers-converters to outputs of arithmetic-logic device and to inputs of indication unit. Voltage of 12 V is supplied to automatic control unit.
EFFECT: increased efficiency in growing wide range of plants of any climatic zone with automatic system for controlling of irrigation, ventilation and heating procedures.
5 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: agriculture; growing plants at lesser consumption of electrical and thermal energy due to extended range of utilization of solar energy.
SUBSTANCE: proposed greenhouse complex includes base, transparent heat-insulating dome-shaped coat with round transparent heat-insulation aperture in center. Coat is secured on load-bearing supports mounted vertically on base; it is manufactured from roofing blocks made from light-tight material at low heat conductivity and provided with through holes in form of truncated cones or pyramids coated from the inside with beam-reflecting material with their vertices directed inside or outside the coat. Holes are closed with inserts from the outside and inside which are made from thin transparent material; surfaces of said blocks directed inside coat and not occupied by through holes and technological holes are coated with beam-reflecting material. Areas with plants being cultivated, main and auxiliary technological equipment and plant life support systems are located inside coat and helio-absorbing heat accumulating reservoir consists of two vessels: one of them is filled with water and is mounted on base in center of coat and other is mounted coaxially inside first one and is insulated at sides and from beneath with low-conductivity material. Second vessel is closed at the top by its own transparent heat-insulating coat and is filled with common salt, for example. Two light reflectors which are cooled with water are made in form of truncated cones or truncated polyhedral pyramids. First of them with outer side light-reflecting surface is mounted with vertex downward above coat, coaxially with it. Second reflector is hollow; it is provided with light-reflecting surfaces; it is mounted coaxially relative to first reflector with vertex upward inside coat above helio-absorbing heat-insulating reservoir. Flat beam-reflecting panels located on area adjoining the coat concentrically relative to it are arranged in two rows. Each said panel is mounted on output link of its two-coordinated swivel mechanism provided with controllable drive. Base of drive is secured on bearing strut vertically mounted on ground surface. Provision is made for additional energy channel together with two said light reflectors which is made in form of flux of sun beams reflected by beam-reflecting panels of helio-absorbing heat-accumulating reservoir concentrated and directed downward. If necessary, it may be spread over entire surface. Controllable drives of two-coordinate swivel mechanisms are connected by their inputs to output of automatic control unit realized at base of computer center. Electrical inputs of center are connected with sensors of media contained in helio-absorbing heat accumulating reservoir and in space under coat, as well as with wind velocity and direction sensors and with coordinate position sensors of two-coordinate swivel mechanisms.
EFFECT: reduced power requirements at intensified growth of plants due to extended range of utilization of solar energy.
13 cl, 13 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, protective complexes for plants, including greenhouses and hothouses equipped with electrotechnical and other equipment for care of plants and heat-loving bushes grown under home conditions or small-scale commercial plant growing conditions.
SUBSTANCE: protective complex has foundation pit with supporting carcass onto which transparent protective casing is put. Plastic walls of foundation pit are slightly extending beyond base of supporting carcass and are secured by means of drop screen. Foundation pit bed has ground provided with thermal layer and soil heating members. Foundation pit bed is connected through pipe to suspended closed reservoir hung under complex roof to define, in conjunction with foundation pit construction filled with ground and top layer of fertile soil, single reservoir with water influx-discharge regulated by means of electronic valves provided on branches as well as on pipe. Water is pumped through lower branch by means of water pump into suspension reservoir, and other branch equipped with electronic valve defines closed semicircle on pipe. Such construction provides water discharge by avoiding first branch from suspended reservoir into pipe equipped with corrugated insert provided at its lower end. Level of discharged water is controlled through bushing equipped with float having water level measuring ruler. Supporting carcass incorporates thermal sensors, humidity sensors, illumination sensors, air heating members, and illumination lamps. Valves are opened and closed by means of electronic device. All parts of protective complex are totally controlled by electronic instrument for maintaining optimal microclimate mode. On the basis of electronic instruments and with the use of communicating vessels principle, protective complex may be created, wherein, apart from setting optimal water level in ground soil and irrigation time, optimal heating and illumination mode may be maintained to thereby regulate plant development. Protective complex allows vegetable and other crops, as well as wild and exotic plants to be grown.
EFFECT: increased yield of vegetables and other crops.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, complex agricultural productions.
SUBSTANCE: method involves process and objects arranged in predetermined manner, and place planned according to relief, with geographic and other necessary factors being taken into consideration so that directions of natural air flows are corrected. Agricultural production includes complex greenhouses, heat accumulator, basin, garden, and wind shield. Air flow directed into garden is saturated with water vapors in gaseous state if increase in temperature is desirable when it is close to minimal admissible value, and in small droplet state when lower temperature is desirable. Processor functions as central controller. Objects of branches in agricultural production are selected so that objects of previous branches make raw material for objects of subsequent branches. Furthermore, joint mutually useful development of these objects at suitable conditions is possible. These conditions are created in complex greenhouse units intermediate with regard to said branches. General-purpose containers with raw material are conveyed through said complex greenhouse units. This results in multiple sequential-parallel utilization of raw materials in number of branches of industry. Method stipulates employment of useful relations between populations of organisms - objects of agricultural branches of industry: symbiosis and, according to kind of symbiosis, natural selection.
EFFECT: increased resource saving, reduced production costs of agricultural product and improved ecology of environment.
5 cl, 2 dwg