The heat exchanger
(57) Abstract:The heat exchanger is used in particular in installations operated with large load variations and/or temperature, for example in coolers cooling air for gas turbines. Heat transfer in the proposed device is a counter. Pipe (7) serving as flow channels for the heat-absorbing medium, are sinuously between the inlet (5) and outlet (6) collector pipes, and heat environment washes these winding pipe (7). The heat exchanger (1) reliably compensates arising frequent and rapid load changes and the associated fluctuations in pressure and temperature. In addition, economical in manufacture. For this collector pipes (5 and 6) are on both sides through the casing (2) heat exchanger (1). Collector pipes (5 and 6) from inlet and outlet are sealed and connected with the casing (2), and at the opposite end directed into the receiving chamber (11), which is tightly connected to the casing (2). Allows to reliably compensate for the resulting frequent and rapid fluctuations in the load, and the associated fluctuations in pressure and temperature. 4 C.p. f-crystals, 3 ill. The invention relates to a heat exchanger, in particular for ustanova the existing air for gas turbines, containing tubes for separation of heat environment, in particular air, and heat-absorbing medium, in particular water, and heat transfer occurs by backflow pipes that serve as flow channels for the heat-absorbing medium, are sinuously between the intake and exhaust manifold pipes and the heat-release environment washes these winding pipe.Cooling of blades of a gas turbine is usually by means of air flow, which often take away as a partial air flow from the compressed combustion air directed into the combustion chamber of the gas turbine. The heat supplied during the compression also to this partial air flow, should again be selected from the main air stream before feeding to the blades of the gas turbine in the cooler of the cooling air. Due to frequent starting and stopping, and also due to the large differences in pressure and temperature, this heat exchanger is exposed to limit the alternating stress, which can lead to premature failure of the heat exchanger. Cooler cooling air above kind is known from European application N 0203445. This generic heat exchanger inlet and outlet of the collector is placed on the load changes are compensated enough.Another cooler cooling air for the gas turbine is known from the application Germany N 4142375.5. This known heat exchanger massive tube plate serve to separate vodokanalnyh cameras from volume filled with a heat absorbing medium. The cooled air is directed through the pipes and connect the two massive tube plate, located on the upper and lower ends of the heat exchanger, and firmly fixed in them. To compensate for the resulting compressive and thermal stresses in this known heat exchanger one of the massive tube plates are made through one-sided clamp so that it can to some extent compensate for the compressive and thermal stresses. In addition, the exchanger casing provided with a bellows compensators for damping resulting length changes. This known heat exchanger provides, however, a compensation of pressure fluctuations and temperature at frequent and rapid load changes, however, hard clip, heat exchanger tubes between the two massive pipe boards prevents effective compensation of these loads. In addition, the use of massive tube plates has the disadvantages of the, the basis of the invention lies in the task of improving a heat exchanger of the aforementioned kind so that it is properly compensated for the resulting frequent and rapid load changes, and the associated fluctuations in pressure and temperature and, in addition, was economical in manufacture.As a technical solution to this problem, according to the invention, it is proposed that the collector pipes are on both sides through the casing of the heat exchanger and collector tube-side inlet and outlet are sealed and connected with the casing and at the opposite end directed into the intake chamber hermetically connected to the casing.Due to this elastic support collector pipes provides additional compensation arising stresses due to load changes, since the collector pipe at least one party is not firmly clamped in the casing of the heat exchanger. Instead, the collector tube may extend into the receiving chamber. This expansion in the transverse direction of the heat exchanger does not cause due to the elastic positioning of pipes additional stresses in them. In addition, by entering the sewer pipe through the casing of the heat exchanger in case of leaks in Canalou for heat-absorbing medium in the form of heat exchanger tubes, winding located between the two collector pipes can be particularly simple way to achieve compensation of the occurring pressure fluctuations and temperature, as sinuously curved beam pipe acts generally like a big spring. Passing backward and forward tubes of the heat exchanger can perceive thus resulting load change without the risk of unacceptably high stress States.According to a preferred form of execution of the invention, the winding pipe is surrounded by an inner housing which is open at the ends, is connected to the inlet side with an inlet connection to heat medium and forms a flow passage for her. Due to this, the inside of the incoming cooled air flow forced way goes along the winding tubes of the heat exchanger, so that it cannot flow laterally past them directly to the exhaust pipe.To the casing of the heat exchanger was not in direct contact with the hot cooling medium having a temperature of up to 500oC, between the exchanger casing and the inner covering of the pipe casing enveloping the intermediate space, and an exhaust pipe for heat and the housing prevents direct heat transfer to the casing of the heat exchanger. This isolation casing from the high temperatures of the cooling medium at the inlet can be increased so that the discharge port is located near the exhaust manifold pipes and, thus, near an inlet pipe for the heat environment, so that the medium cooled by the air flow along the heat exchanger tubes, before leaving him to wash away all the intermediate space between the casing and the casing, which also contributes to the isolation of the latter.In order to provide high heat resistance and, in addition, to exclude contaminants from entering the cooling medium, the surface in contact with the heat-release environment, made of austenitic steels.A significant aspect of the invention is that the heat exchanger can operate on water as a heat-absorbing medium as the heater, evaporator, superheater, air heater with evaporator, the evaporator with a superheater or reheater with the evaporator and the superheater. Thanks to this wide range of operation of the heat exchanger he finds a variety of applications without conversion depending on the respective conditions of pressure and temperature.The invention is illustrated section of the heat exchanger of Fig. 1, but rotated 90oaround the longitudinal axis;
Fig. 3 is a top view of the heat exchanger of Fig. 1 and 2.In Fig. 1 and 2 schematically shows a heat exchanger 1, consisting of welded casing 2 with an inlet 3 and outlet 4 pipes to heat medium and the inlet 5 and outlet 6 of the collector pipes for heat-absorbing medium, and both the collector tubes 5 and 6 are interconnected winding pipe 7.In order flowing through the intake pipe 3, a cooled environment was flowing along the tubes 7 of the heat exchanger, the tubes 7 are surrounded in the axial direction of the housing 8, which is open at both ends and connected with the inlet side with an inlet pipe 3. Arrows in Fig. 2 indicate the flow tilottama and heat-absorbing media in the heat exchanger 1. Heat medium flows through the inlet pipe 3 into the heat exchanger 2 and is sent to the casing 8 forming a flow channel for the heat-release environment, from top to bottom along the pipe 7, which, being filled telepopmusic environment, are washed from the bottom up. After leaving the housing 8 chilled now the environment depicted in the example is rejected by the bottom 9 of the heat exchanger 1 and flows into the intermediate space 10, is made between the casing 2 tepoorten in the depicted example, near the exhaust manifold pipes 6, so that chilled medium flowed as possible along the entire axial length of the casing 2, thereby insulated from the heat - sink heat-release environment.Heat-absorbing medium, in particular water, flows into the heat exchanger 1 through the intake manifold pipe 5 and washes upward winding tube 7 before after hitting the exhaust manifold 6 again will not heat exchanger 1. Due to the described design of heat and heat-absorbing environment contribute particularly effective perekrestenko heat transfer.Since, in particular, the use of such a heat exchanger 1 as the cooler of the cooling air for the gas turbine, the heat exchanger 1 is exposed to a large number of load changes and/or temperature, it is necessary that he and all located in its design elements were able to compensate for these frequent and rapid load changes. For this purpose the inlet 5 and outlet 6 of the collector pipe and connecting thin-walled elastic tube 7 is suspended, and the pipes 5, 6 in comparison with the known from the prior art pipe boards made thin.Elastic suspension inlet 5 and outlet 6 kollektory, 6 from the inlet and outlet are sealed and connected with the casing 2 and at the opposite end directed in a tightly connected to the housing 2 receiving chamber 11. Due to this elastic connection of the collector tubes 5, 6 with the casing 2 of the heat exchanger, they can compensate voltage that occurs when the load changes. To the pipe 7 connecting the collector tubes 5, 6, due to changes in load and elastic support of the latter could not be unacceptable voltage, the tube 7 is located between the inlet 5 and outlet 6 of the collector pipes winding, so that the entire tube bundle 7 is made in a General elastic-elastic and can, thereby, to effectively compensate for the resulting voltage. 1. Heat exchanger, in particular for installations operated with large load variations and/or temperature, for example as a cooler of the cooling air for the gas turbine containing tubes (7) to separate the heat medium, in particular air, and heat-absorbing medium, in particular water, and heat transfer occurs by a counter-flow pipe (7) serving as flow channels for the heat-absorbing medium, are sinuously between the inlet (5) and outlet (6) collector pipes, and taproot through the casing (2) heat exchanger (1) and from the inlet and outlet are sealed and connected with the casing (2), and at the opposite end directed into the receiving chamber (11), which is tightly connected to the casing (2).2. The heat exchanger under item 1, characterized in that the winding tube (7) surrounded by the inner housing (8) which is open at the ends, is connected to the inlet side with an inlet pipe (3) for heat protection and forms a flow channel for her.3. Heat exchanger according to p. 2, characterized in that between the cover (2) heat exchanger (1) and the inner covering of the pipe (7) casing (8) is made around the intermediate space (10) and the outlet (4) for heat environment is located near the exhaust manifold pipe.4. Heat exchanger according to PP.1 to 3, characterized in that in contact with the heat medium surface is made of austenitic steels.5. Heat exchanger according to PP.1 to 4, characterized in that the heat-absorbing medium is provided by water and it is made in the form of a heater, evaporator, superheater, heater evaporator, evaporator with a superheater or reheater with the evaporator and the superheater.
FIELD: mechanics, heating.
SUBSTANCE: in compliance with the invention, the heat exchanger-modular water heater incorporates one or two modules each comprising, at least, two heat exchanger units integrated by a diffuser to feed a cooling medium and a confuser to withdraw the medium to be cooled, primarily, a turbine hot exhaust gas. It also comprises the manifolds feeding and withdrawing the medium being heated, primarily, air, each communicating, via a tube plate, with, at least, one multi-row bank of multipass heat exchange pipes, the various pipes being furnished with bends varying in number from four to six and forming four rectilinear runs combining their three bends. Note here that the spacing in, at least, one direction, within the band cross section, of a part of the pipes or within their limits, or of, at least, one bank of the pipes out coming from the medium feed manifold, or, at least, in one of the next runs in the same direction does not comply with that of the pipes or a part of them in their bank run right nearby the manifold withdrawing the medium being heated and/or in one of the previous bank runs. The unit of the heat exchange-modular air heater comprises four runs of the heat exchanger pipe multi-row four-pass bank, the said pipes being laid in horizontal rows spaced in horizontal and vertical planes, the manifolds feeding and withdrawing the medium being heated, each being connected, via separate tube plates, with heat exchanger pipes, each tube plate being mounted in the aforesaid manifold walls. Note here that the spacing in, at least, one direction, within the band cross section, of a part of the pipes or within their limits, or of, at least, one bank of the pipes out coming from the medium feed manifold, or, at least, in one of the next runs in the same direction does not comply with that of the pipes or a part of them in their bank run right nearby the manifold withdrawing the medium being heated and/or in one of the previous bank runs. In compliance with the proposed invention, the aforesaid heat exchanger unit-modular air heater comprises a carcass, a bottom, and upper and lower casing walls, a diffuser to feed the medium to be cooled and a confuser to feed the aforesaid medium, manifolds feeding and withdrawing the medium to be heated and furnished with tube plates that form, in every row, an even number of rectilinear multi-pipe banks including, at least, two inner and two outer banks integrated by constant-radius bends. Note here that the unit housing bottom, cover and one of the side walls represent panels with a reinforcement framing elements forming a flat rod systems, while the unit carcass is formed by a set of the aforesaid flat rod systems with intermediate posts inter jointing the aforesaid systems and the manifolds housings rigidly fixed thereto and, in their turn, attached to the unit bottom and inter jointed via two-ring diaphragms and a pipe medium displacer. Note that the parts of the aforesaid manifolds housings with the aforesaid tube plates and pipe medium displacer fitted therein form, when combined, the unit housing rigid face wall while the side walls allow fastening the diffuser and confuser elements. Note here also that the spacing in, at least, one direction, within the band cross section, of a part of the pipes or within their limits, or of, at least, one bank of the pipes out coming from the medium feed manifold, or, at least, in one of the next runs in the same direction does not comply with that of the pipes or a part of them in their bank run right nearby the manifold withdrawing the medium being heated and/or in one of the previous bank runs. In compliance with this invention, the aforesaid heat exchanger unit-modular air heater incorporates a multi-row heat exchanger pipe bank made up of, at least, two bundles of two-pass U-pipes forming, within one bundle, two-run horizontal rows of pipes spaced apart both in rows and between rows, manifolds of feeding and withdrawing the medium being heated and, at least one bypass chamber arranged there between. Note here that the aforesaid manifolds and the bypass chamber communicate with the heat exchanger pipes via a common tube plate or separate tube plates, at least, one part of the said plates forming a part of the aforesaid manifolds enclosure walls. Note also here that the spacing in, at least, one direction, within the band cross section, of a part of the pipes or within their limits, or of, at least, one bank of the pipes out coming from the medium feed manifold, or, at least, in one of the next runs in the same direction does not comply with that of the pipes or a part of them in their bank run right nearby the manifold withdrawing the medium being heated and/or in one of the previous bank runs.
EFFECT: higher heat exchange efficiency, lower metal intensity of regenerative air heater.
34 cl, 15 dwg
FIELD: mechanics, heating.
SUBSTANCE: in compliance with the invention, the heat exchanger-modular water heater incorporates one or two modules each comprising, at least, two heat exchanger units integrated by a diffuser to feed a cooling medium and a confuser to withdraw the medium to be cooled, primarily, a turbine hot exhaust gas. It also comprises the manifolds feeding and withdrawing the medium being heated, primarily, air, each communicating, via a tube plates fitted directly in the said manifold walls, with the multi-row bank of the four-pass heat exchanger variable standard-size pipes, the said standards sizes being calculated from the ratios covered by this invention and the aforesaid tube plates being secured by appropriated spacers. The multi-row bank can be made up of, at least, two trains of two-pass U-shape pipes integrated by the aforesaid manifolds and, at least, one bypass chamber.
EFFECT: high-efficiency heat exchanger, lower heat exchanger metal input, optimum design and spacers, higher design rigidity, simpler assembly of heat exchange pipe banks.
21 cl, 16 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in feed water heaters of thermal and nuclear power plants. Proposed heat exchanger consists of a shell inside which a central header and vertical tube platens connected with their ends to appropriate central header chambers are installed. At that each platen is made at least of one "П"-shaped section with transverse parts installed in the shell one above the other, and intermediate part wherein external tubes are installed longitudinally on the shell side, and internal tubes are located on the header side. Internal tubes of the intermediate section part are made with additional sections bent in the direction of central header and located between transverse parts of this section. In this case average tube length makes bigger in each platen, which leads to less number of tubes used in each platen, and therefore to velocity increase in tube and intertube spaces of platens and heat exchange intensification, which finally reduces heat exchanger specific amount of metal.
EFFECT: reducing thermal and hydraulic maldistributions in platens, which also improves platen heat exchange and reduces to a greater degree the heat exchanger specific amount of metal.
FIELD: heating systems.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to heat engineering and can be used during arrangement of high thermally stressed heat exchanger of nuclear power plant. In heat exchanger consisting of bank of heat exchange coil tubes the ends of which are fixed in tube sheets arranged in the form of a platen, straight sections of several coil tubes are located consequently in one plane, and bent sections are opened to the side from location plane of straight sections; at that, opening of bends of opposite ends, straight sections, is made to different sides.
EFFECT: providing maximum compactness of tube bank of heat exchanger and reaching high degree of heat exchange efficiency owing to arrangement of heat removal surface itself during operation, increasing life time of reliable operation of heat exchanger design at high specific thermal stresses of the volume occupied with it.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to heat engineering and can be used as heat exchanger of nuclear power plant operating in variable load conditions. In heat exchanger containing a bundle of heat exchange zigzag-shaped tubes with external finning in straight sections, which is installed in the housing, spacers arranged between tubes of the bundle so that mixing chambers are formed in the bending area of the latter, the spacers have thickenings in straight tube sections and grooves evenly spaced relative to them so that an individual channel is formed around each tube, which interconnects mixing chambers to each other.
EFFECT: providing forced heat exchange for obtaining small overall dimensions of equipment owing to increasing uniform temperature field in cross section of tube bundle, and decreasing relative tube deformation at thermal elongations.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: heating device of high-viscous oil products and their mixtures includes cylindrical housing with inlet and outlet covers with the appropriate inlet and outlet connection pipelines, tube grids located inside the housing, and distributing inlet and outlet boxes equipped with inlet and outlet tubes respectively and interconnected with ends of tube grids for pumping of heat carrier. Housing is located vertically, lower outlet cover is tapered with outlet connection pipe in lower part, which is enveloped below that cover with inlet distribution box which has the possibility of exchanging the heat with taper surface of lower cover, and upper inlet cover is equipped with inlet connection pipe installed coaxially with the housing; at that, tube grid is made in the form of hopper bent inside the housing and converging downwards; inside that hopper there located is baffle plate distributing the flow of oil products to tube grids and uniformly connected along the perimetre at least to three tubes of the grid with heat-conducting plates.
EFFECT: device is reliable-to-operate, and uniform resistance to flow of oil products is provided.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: plant comprises a jacket that passes in longitudinal direction between the head end and the base end, inside which there are inbuilt elements that form a heat-exchange and a mixing structure. Besides, there is coolant medium supply as an internal flow into pipes of inbuilt elements from the base end to the head end and fluid supply as an external flow from the head end to the base end. The plant comprises reinforcement elements to stabilise inbuilt elements in longitudinal direction from pressure gradients developed by fluid, besides, in the main area they are joined with reinforcement elements into a partial structure, which is not exposed to thermal expansion, and in the side area they remain at least partially non-reinforced to form a partial structure capable of thermal expansion in longitudinal direction.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of heat exchange, improvement of the plant.
14 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: heat exchanger-reactor comprises a vessel in the form of a truncated cone, with a surface concave towards its vertical axis with bottoms, nozzle for coolant inlet and outlet from tube and shell spaces. Inside the vessel 1 there is a tube bundle arranged, comprising at least two rows of cone-shaped pipes fixed with ends in holes of plates along concentric circumferences. Tubes are installed with an inclination simultaneously in two directions: with an inclination to a vertical axis of the vessel and with an additional inclination arranged by displacement of ends in a circumferential direction, i.e. along arcs of circumferences of their installation in tube plates. At the same time inclination angles are arranged within the limits of 0.5-50.0 degrees from the vertical plane stretching via the vertical axis of the vessel.
EFFECT: no necessity to increase input parameters of a coolant, which helps to save thermal and electric power.
5 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in the heat exchanging device the finned heat exchanging tube with the diameter d is made serpentine-shaped with an outer finning diameter D and the thickness of the fins L1, located at a distance L2 from each other. The amplitude of the serpentine A on the outer finning diameter is not less than
EFFECT: intensification of heat exchanging due to turbulence in the flow passing inside the finned serpentine-shaped tubes, and increase in the area of heat exchanging of the device.
23 cl, 8 dwg, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: heat exchange device includes elements in the form of spirally wound pipes with alternating straight and ring-shaped sections located opposite each other. The elements are installed in each other with ring-shaped sections. The straight sections of adjacent elements in the heat exchange device are located on one side, and the ring-shaped sections are located on the other side; with that, the elements in the cross section of the heat exchange device are located about its axis in a circumferential direction, with orientation of the ring-shaped sections to the above said axis. The straight sections in the elements can be located in different planes at an angle to each other. In this case, rings of the ring-shaped sections have different diameters, which are maximum in the middle of the elements and minimum in its end sections. At alignment of direction of windings of the adjacent elements, the planes that adjoin the outer side of the ring-shaped sections intersect the axis of the heat exchange device at an acute angle. At mutually opposite direction of the windings of the adjacent elements, the above planes and the axis are parallel.
EFFECT: reduction of overall dimensions of the heat exchange device due to a sealed layout of adjacent elements in it; possibility of arranging it in cylindrical, annular, toroid-shaped and spherical cavities.
4 cl, 14 dwg