(57) Abstract:The invention relates to heat engineering, namely to solar stills salt water small performance used in everyday life. The unit consists of a solar collector and multiple vacuum distiller. Evaporative heat exchanger and the evaporating-condensing heat exchangers distillation is made in the form of spiral tubes. The vacuum distillation is carried out using water-air ejector. Specific capacity of the plant depends on the number of sections and is 5 to 15 liters of water per day with 1 m2the manifold. 6 Il. The invention relates to heat engineering, namely to solar stills salt water small performance used in everyday life.Known Heliophysical small performance, made by the scheme with a single cycle of evaporation-condensation (Kakharov S., Batirov K. the Results of many years of field testing of solar desalination plants. The solar engineering, No. 4, 1985, USSR Academy of Sciences). Used in these stills distillation scheme provides the simplicity and reliability for individual use in the home.N is Known heliophila the closest to the technical essence is a desalination plant with a capacity of approximately 100 l/day, which includes a solar collector and a multi-section with a vertical arrangement of sections distiller, interconnected using forward and reverse pipelines, described in the work (Jose L., Fernadez and Norberto Chargoy, Multi-Stage, indirectly Heated Solar still, Solar Energy, 44(4), 1990) in which the distillate is produced in a multistage process of evaporation and condensation are not surfaces of distillation at normal pressure in an atmosphere of air.The disadvantage of this water distiller is a low specific capacity , explain the low effectiveness of the heat exchangers and the presence in the cavity of the distillation of the atmospheric air.The present invention is to increase the specific productivity of the domestic water distiller.The technical result of the invention is the implementation of more effective due to the spin-off discharging the design of heat exchangers distillation while ensuring the reliability of their work.This technical result is achieved by the fact that in heliopolitanus installation that contains the Wallpaper on the carrier using forward and reverse pipelines, evaporation and evaporation-condensation heat exchangers distillation is made in the form of spiral tubes to the heat exchanger condenser connected water-air ejector, and sprinklers designed as a removable spray and set them under rastically.Evaporation and evaporation-condensation heat exchangers distillation is made in the form of spiral tubes strung with washers on them.In Fig. 1 shows a diagram of the proposed heliopolitanus the installation of Fig. 2 is a structural diagram of a heat exchanger of the distiller of Fig. 3 and 4 - a fragment of the evaporation-condensation heat exchanger of Fig. 5 and 6 is a structural diagram of the fill.Heliophila installation (Fig. 1) contains a solar collector 1, multiple distiller 2, including an input evaporator 3 heat exchanger 4 and a sprinkler comprising a spray can 5 and the rastekatelem 6, the output capacitor 7 with the heat exchanger 8 and sections combined evaporation-condensation devices 9, 10, water-air ejector 11, the pump for pumping the fluid and salt water 12, 13, 14, tanks for distillate 15 and brine 16 and the drain distillate 17.The number of partitions diest is entrusted 100 l/day number of sections: 4 - 6. In Fig. 1 for example, 4-section distiller.Heliophila installation operates as follows.The coolant circulating through the pump 12 in the circuit of the solar collector 1, provides heat input to the evaporator heat exchanger 4 3 (Fig. 1). Salt water from the tank 16 by the pump 14 is supplied to the spray 5 fill the evaporator and with the help of rastekatelem 6 is sprayed on the surface of the heat exchanger 4. Part of the water evaporates, and part flows into a downstream section and there through the nozzle is sprayed on the surface of the heat exchanger evaporation-condensation device 9. Formed in the upper section of the steam is discharged in the downstream section and there condenses inside the spiral tube, vaporizing the current on the surface of the water (Fig. 2). The resulting condensate flows into the drain 17 and is discharged into the lower part of the condenser, and then by gravity into the container 15. This procedure is repeated in all sections, except the bottom. The brine from the penultimate section drained by gravity into the container 16. The condensation heat released by the condensing vapor in the condenser 7, being sucked into the fluid circuit of the heat exchanger 8.Distiller is the sector 11, included in the circuit of the heat exchanger 8 of the capacitor 7.Heat of evaporation-condensation device made in the form of spiral tubes (Fig. 2). Salt water flows over the surface of the surface of the tubes from top to bottom in a thin film that provides high efficiency of the processes of heat and mass transfer. A possible runoff of salt water along the tube, which may lead to its partial drainage, if not to make the angle of inclination of the helix is small, preventing the installation of washers 18 (Fig. 3 and 4), strung on the tube and fixed predefined intervals.Sprinklers still made according to the scheme shown in Fig. 5 and 6. These include easily removed and installed the sprinkler 5 and placed under him rastekatelem 6.The performance of heat exchangers evaporation-condensation device in the form of spiral tubes (Fig. 2) significantly simplifies the design of the distiller in comparison with other known vacuum distillers, while providing high efficiency of heat and mass transfer.The inclusion of water-air ejector in the path of the heat exchanger of the condenser allows you to simultaneously ensure effective heat dissipation small share of work in the atmosphere of water vapor, water-air ejector simple and reliable in operation.The performance of spray 5 of the fill (Fig. 5) easy to remove and install improves the reliability and durability of the installation. Durability and reliability desalting plants is largely determined by the reliability of sprinklers are very sensitive to the deposition of salts. In industrial installations, the question salinity is solved by pre-softening salt water, which is absolutely impossible for household stills individual use. The execution of the spray easy to remove and install solves the problem of salinization by periodic trapping, and purification of salt. Heliophila installation comprising a solar collector, multiple distiller with a vertical arrangement of sections interconnected by fluid using forward and reverse pipelines, evaporation, and evaporation-condensation heat exchangers and heat exchanger of the condenser, wherein the evaporator and the evaporation-condensation heat exchangers made in the form of spiral tubes mounted with washers, to the heat exchanger of the condenser is connected to the of Bridgeville and installed them under rastically.
FIELD: separating materials by evaporation.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises evaporating in several stages. In the preliminary stage, the aluminate solution is evaporated by the secondary steam supplied from the final stage and heated up to 20-60oC before supplying to the intermediate stage. In the intermediate stage, the solution is evaporated by live steam. Before supplying to the final stage, the solution is mixed with the circulating solution and is evaporated by the secondary steam supplied from the intermediated stage. The device comprises evaporating apparatus with vertical heat exchanging pipes. The end stage is connected with pipelines for supply of initial aluminate solution and secondary steam from the second housing and pipe line for discharging evaporated solution which is connected with the first housing and provided with a heater. The first housing is in communication with the second housing provided with circulation circuit and chamber for boiling of solution arranged above the heat exchanging pipes. The first housing is provided with circulation pipe and external chamber for boiling of solution.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 2 ex