Forging press, the way to improve performance of the forging press and major structural element made in this press

 

(57) Abstract:

The present invention relates to the processing of metals by pressure, in particular to improve the operation of the forging press by increasing the size of the workpiece that can be effectively pracovat using the power of this forging press. Forging press involves the application of a set of stamps, of which one or more dies are made sectional, i.e., divided into two or more, and preferably three or more parts. Sectional stamp tools with extensions that allow the selective nominate each of the sections to other sections along the axis of the forging and commit it. Stamps mounted in the forging press by mounting each stamp directly or on the corresponding punch the pillow. The workpiece proceviat so that the extended partition is a primary forging agent, i.e., it transmits harvesting the bulk of the effort. Nevidimuyu section are secondary forging agents, i.e., they serve only to control the reactions of the other pieces. Then section switch roles, so that the former levidiotou section extends behind nominated former sec the section or sections. Thus, the total force of the forging press consistently applied to multiple areas of the workpiece so that each section of the workpiece is effectively exposed to a large pressure forgings and, therefore, the workpiece can be performed more forging. Conversely, given the available force of the forging may be used to form a larger piece. 4 C. and 20 C.p. f-crystals, 14 ill.

The present invention relates to the forging of large pieces of metal and similar materials, especially large structural parts.

In the process of forging large structural parts for aerospace and related devices, the total force of the forging press usually sets the upper limit for the magnitude square of the procurement plan. When reaching the upper limit of the square in plan, specific to the particular media, the manufacture of structural parts of large size usually requires to forge a detail of the several parts, and then assembling large detail. The increasing complexity of aerospace structures and other similar devices increases the need for larger and larger constructionmachinery economic and practical problems associated with the Assembly of smaller subcells to obtain large forged parts has resulted in serious difficulties in producing large wrought-iron structural parts. These and other difficulties had to face so far, is eliminated by the new approach proposed by the present invention.

Closest to the claimed technical solution is the Japan patent N 1-289531, B 21 J 5/00, 1/06, 1989.

In connection with the foregoing, the main purpose of the present invention is to offer a system that allows you to increase the size of the workpieces that can be processed on this forging press.

Another purpose of this invention is to offer a system that allows you to proceviat this billet to a forging press of smaller capacity.

With these and other objectives of the specialists in this field of technology should be obvious that the invention is represented in the combination of the description and the attached claims of the invention.

The present invention relates to a system for improving the operation of the forging press by increasing the size of the workpiece that can be effectively pracovat with the use of the multiple dies segmented, i.e., divided into two or more, and preferably three or more parts. Segmented stamp tools with extensions that allow the selective nominate each of the segments to other segments along the axis of the forging. Stamps mounted in the forging press by mounting each stamp directly or on the corresponding punch a pillow or next to it. Tools extension used for the nomination of one of the segments and fixed before another segment. The workpiece proceviat so that the extended segment is the primary forging agent, i.e., it passes on the workpiece the bulk of the effort. Nevidimuyu segments are secondary forging agents, i.e., they serve only to control the reactions of the other pieces. Then the segments change roles, so that the former nevidimom segment extends followed former advanced segment. After that, the forging process is repeated again, and the primary forging agent is again extended segment or segments. Due to such manual operation of forging in closed dies with segmented stamp total effective force is successively applied to multiple phase is entrusted, on the workpiece can be performed more forging. Conversely, given the available force of the forging may be used to form a larger piece. In a preferred implementation, the segments should be chosen for the nomination so that the size of the workpiece, which in the course of each step affect the primary forging agent, were placed symmetrically relative to the center axis of the forging. In addition, segmented stamp must be enclosed in the enclosing frame segmented stamp, which must in the process to hold the segments together.

The invention, however, can best be understood on the example of one of the structural solutions, illustrated in the accompanying drawings, in which:

in Fig. 1 shows an image of a front partial section of the forging press embodying the principles of the present invention before application to the procurement process which is the subject of the present invention; Fig. 2 shows the forging system of Fig. 1, in which the workpiece is subjected to an initial rough forging of Fig. 3 shows a forging press of Fig. 1, which raised Central segment of the segmented stamp; Fig. 4 while the second block; in Fig. 5 shows the forging system of Fig. 1, which is forging between non-segmented stamp and the Central segment of the segmented stamp; Fig. 6 shows the forging system of Fig. 1, in which the Central segment is raised, and the cushioning unit is removed; Fig. 7 shows the forging system of Fig. 1, in which the Central segment is returned to its original position; Fig. 8 shows the forging system of Fig. 1, in which raised two lateral segment; Fig. 9 shows the forging system of Fig. 1, where two lateral segment placed cushioning blocks; Fig. 10 shows the forging system of Fig. 1, which is forging between non-segmented stamp and two nominated by the lateral segments of the segmented stamp; Fig. 11 shows the forging system of Fig. 1, in which the raised lateral segments; Fig. 12 shows the forging system of Fig. 1, in which segmented the stamp is returned to the initial position; Fig. 13 shows the forging system of Fig. 1, in which the final compression of the workpiece of Fig. 14 shows the forging system of Fig. 1, in which the finished product is in open dies.

As can be seen in Fig. 1, which shows the main parts of this image is the cushion 11, which, in this embodiment, is fixed, and a movable or second punch cushion 12, which moves forging actuator 13. The lower punch cushion 11 and the actuator 13 is connected along the frame 14. On the stationary punch cushion 11 has a Shoe 15 segmented stamp, and the Shoe 15 segmented stamp set segmented stamp 15. Unsegmented stamp 17 is installed on the movable punch the pillow 12.

In Fig. 1 shows the location of the equipment prior to the workpiece 18 will be applied to this particular process. At this point, the workpiece should serve almost rectilinear block of titanium or another metal with high performance. In Fig. 1, the workpiece 18 is laid on the work surface is segmented stamp 16. In the implementation shown in Fig. 1, the segmented stamp includes a first or Central segment 20 and two lateral segments 21 and 22 located on opposite sides of the Central segment. Segmented stamp is located in the cavity 23 on the upper surface of the Shoe 15 segmented stamp. In turn, the Shoe 15 segmented stamets to place locks 24 and 25.

The actuator 13 moves the second or movable punch cushion 12 along the axis of the forging 42 and in the direction of forging 43, which translates two punch 16 and 17 to the closed position.

In Fig. 2 shows the result of the first forging operation in which the workpiece 18 affects the maximum force of the forging system 10, and the workpiece is given only rough shape, because the size of the procurement plan is large enough, so that the full capacity of the press is not enough for a full circuit die and the complete filling of the recesses or cavities in the dies.

In Fig. 3 schematically shows the operation in which lifting means 26 is used for lifting the Central segment 20 segmented punch 16 to the top of the side segments 21 and 22. As practiced earlier, the Central segment 20 must be connected to the first or movable punch pillow 12 by plates 27, partially shown in subgures without incision and adapted for connection of the rolling stamp 12 with the Central segment 20. The lifting device raises the segment on the Shoe 15 segmented stamp.

In Fig. 3 shows the uplift of the Central segment 20, vypolnyalas permutation of the segments of the segmented stamp can be implemented relatively quickly. In practice, however, it often happens that the process of rearrangement of segments of the stamp requires so much time that it is necessary to remove the workpiece from the cavity of the die and place it in the oven to re-heat to the desired operating temperature. After rearranging the segments of the stamp blank return into the cavity of the dies for further processing.

In Fig. 4 shows the tool extension 28. In this implementation it is a solid spacer block 29, which is placed under the Central segment 20, in order to maintain it in extended position along the axis and direction of forging relative to the side of die segments 21 and 22.

In Fig. 5 shows the forging process, implemented a segmented stamp 16 is extended from the Central segment 20. The area of the Central segment of the stamp in the plan are selected so that the maximum force of the forging press 10 was sufficient to ensure complete filling this part of the cavity of the stamp associated with the Central segment of the segmented stamp. The Central segmented stamp only serves as a primary forging agent and affects only sufficient area in terms of workpiece 18, so that this part of the frame of the stamp 16 is recessed relative to the working surface of the Central segment 20, the side segments 21 and 22 act as secondary forging agents. This secondary forging step includes a passive constraint of the side pieces, or may include simultaneous lateral support lateral parts of the workpiece in order to prevent bending of the workpiece along the borders of the Central segment in response to the forging process, or may include some limited action forging. In the second and third of these cases this aspect is secondary forging should lead to a reduction in the effectiveness of efforts that can be applied to the Central part by the primary forging agent or the Central segment 20.

The secondary role of the forging agent in the process which is the subject of the present invention can be optimized by choosing values of nominating primary forging agent is carried out by means of nomination. In this case, the degree of extension should be determined by the thickness of the strip in the direction of the axis of the forging. Optimization should generally be performed for each desired shape of the workpiece and must depend on the area of the Central segment and pairs of lateral segments in the plan.

In the case of manufacturing a typical large to the kami, the optimal thickness of the strip in half inch (12.7 mm). In the case of applying strips of thickness less than one half of the secondary of the forging action of the recessed segments is so significant that affect the primary forging agent. When the thickness of the strip exceeded half inch and features a one inch (25.4 mm), side of the workpiece has been bent in the process of forging an unacceptable degree.

In Fig. 6 shows the process by which the Central segment 20 rises again, from under it, remove the gasket 29.

In Fig. 7 shows the Central segment 20, is returned to its original position.

In Fig. 8 shows the operation in which two lateral segments 21 and 22 are raised by the lifting means 26 on the Shoe 15 segmented stamp. In this variant implementation of the lifting tool 26 is implemented by connecting mobile or second punch cushion 12 with the side segments 21 and 22 by means of plates 31 and 32.

In Fig. 9 shows the means of the extension 33 and 34, which in the preferred embodiment, the implementation is represented by strips 35 and 36. They are located under each of the side segments 21 and 22, to lock them in position, put forward segmentierung stamp 17 and the side segments 21 and 22 segmented stamp 16.

In General, the total area in terms of lateral segments 21 and 22 must be equal to the area of the Central segment 20. In practice the size of the side segments 21 and 22 may be slightly larger than the area in plan of the Central segment 20, as from the Central segment is not usually required support for procurement and reduce thus the efforts of the forging press to the same extent that it is considered to be optimal during the operation in which the primary forging agent is the Central agent.

In Fig. 11 shows the lifting means 26 used to raise the lateral segments 21 and 22 and retrieves strips 35 and 36.

In Fig. 12 shows the segments 20, 21 and 22 segmented stamp returned in their original, not the extended position.

In Fig. 13 shows the final forging operation in which the workpiece 18 is subjected to final compression to get close to the final form.

In Fig. 14 shows the finished product disclosed in the stamps.

In the design shown for the preferred embodiments, there is a possibility of forging billet, the area in which the plan is almost twice that m is to be understood, the concept of a pair of side segments may be supplemented by a second pair of lateral segments located outside of the first group of the side segments. In General it is found that should be constructed in segments so that at each operation step of the forging process in the segmented dies being initially forging the land of the workpiece located symmetrically relative to the center of mass of the workpiece and the axis of the forging forging system. Thus, in the case of the use of the Central segment and two pairs of lateral segments, the effective power of the forging process can be almost tripled.

As mentioned above, one of the most important aspects of equipment design intended for the implementation of the process which is the subject of the present invention is the selection of thickness of the strip under the Central segment, in order to achieve simultaneous lateral support to the sides of the workpiece. Undesirable bending of the workpiece during forming the process operations can be minimized by designing the degree of extension segments so that at a time when the primary forging agent executes the main deforming action and absorbs the bulk h which minimize bending down side portions of the workpiece. You should generally assume that the minimum force absorbed supporting effect of the secondary forging items that cannot be achieved with a fixed extension of the primary forging agent relative to the recessed segments. As soon as recessed segments reach the workpiece, it can be expected that the force will be absorbed by the secondary forging agent and therefore does not apply to primary forging agent, will grow very quickly. In practice found, however, that the interaction at the contact between the sloping sides of the edges of the workpiece and the inclined sides of the cavities for edges in the secondary stamp forging items unexpectedly provide during a significant part of the travel stamps minimum holding force between the secondary forging elements and the workpiece. By careful selection of the angles of the edges of the workpiece and the thickness of the strip may full use of deforming and forging action of the primary forging agent, while the secondary forging the agent applies to the work piece minimum holding force when moving the segmented stamp. This unexpected result allows to speed about what and which cannot be predicted or expected.

It is obvious that the shape and design of the subject invention can be made small changes without deviating from the substance of the invention. Should, however, not to limit the invention shown and described specific example, but it is advisable to include all the features specified in the claims.

1. Forging press in which the shape and thickness of the workpiece varies greatly and grain boundary formed over and slip lines, i.e., drawings, identified by macrocrania of the workpiece caused by the lengthening of heterogeneous components and grain structure of the workpiece during processing in the molding process, comprising upper and lower punch pillows and forging tool, characterized in that the forging tool is a set of closed dies having upper brook stamp, mounted on the upper punch a pillow associated with the plunger of the forging press, the bottom strand stamp mounted on the lower punch the pillow and separated by at least first and second section of the forging press is equipped with a tool extension section having a gasket placed between nipani of the conditions for the second section minimal effort, required for the passive holding of the workpiece.

2. Press under item 1, characterized in that it comes with a second tool, extension having a second gasket that is installed with the possibility of substitution between the lower punch pad and the second section of the stamp with the possibility of extension of the second section before the first, and the thickness of the strip is selected from a condition of maintenance in the first section of the minimum effort required for the passive holding of the workpiece.

3. Press under item 1 or 2, characterized in that the plane of the upper surface of the lower punch parallel to the surface of the lower punch pillows, the first and second sections separated from the upper surface of the stamp to the surface of the lower punch pillows, for the nomination of one of the sections between its bottom surface and the surface of the punch pillows formed a working window for placing in and removing from it the strip.

4. The press according to any one of paragraphs.1 to 3, characterized in that it is provided with a Shoe stamp and locks to hold the sectional die and to prevent separation of the sections from one another by a dividing surface in the forging process.

5. The press according to any one of paragraphs.1 to 4, characterized in that the lower the section.

6. The press according to any one of paragraphs.1 to 5, characterized in that the lower stamp contains two second sections located on the sides of the first section symmetrically with respect to the forging axis.

7. The press according to any one of paragraphs.1 - 6, characterized in that the thickness of the strip in the direction of the forging axis ranges from 12 to 25 mm

8. The way to improve performance with upper and lower punch pillows forging press, which produce a significant change in the shape and thickness of the workpiece and form a grain boundary flow and slip lines, i.e., drawings, identify microtraining of the workpiece caused by the lengthening of heterogeneous components and grain structure of the workpiece in the process direction in the molding process, characterized in that the press has set a set of closed dies, including upper brook stamp, which is fixed on the upper punch a pillow associated with the plunger of the press, and the bottom strand stamp separated by at least first and second sections, which is mounted on the lower punch the pillow, using the extension with the gasket placed between the first section and the lower punch a pillow, put forward the first section of the t forging, working actively by the first section of the first part of the workpiece, when the thickness of the strip is chosen from the condition of providing the second section minimal effort required for the passive holding of the workpiece, and after the disclosure of the press and retrieve strip return the first section in the initial position, followed by a second forging operation, actively influencing the second section on the second part of the workpiece in the first section provide the minimum effort required for the passive holding of the workpiece.

9. The method according to p. 8, wherein using the second tool extension containing a second gasket, place it between the lower punch pad and the second section have a second section before the first section and produce a second forging operation, actively influencing the second section on the second part of the workpiece, and the thickness of the second strip choose from a condition of security in the first section of the minimum effort required for the passive holding of the workpiece.

10. The method according to p. 8 or 9, characterized in that use solid strip.

11. The method according to p. 8 or 9, characterized in that use gaskets made in the form of cushioning blocks.

13. The method according to p. 8 or 9, characterized in that use seals made in the form of a solid cushioning blocks.

14. The method according to any of paragraphs.8 to 13, characterized in that during the initial forging operation in the second section provide the minimum effort required to hold the workpiece without moving, and when the second forging operation in the first section provide the minimum effort required to hold the workpiece without moving.

15. The method according to any of paragraphs.8 to 13, characterized in that during the initial forging operation in the second section provide the minimum force to prevent bending of the workpiece, and when the second forging operation in the first section provide the minimum force to prevent bending of the workpiece.

16. The method according to any of paragraphs.8 to 15, characterized in that, before hammering in the first section make a preliminary forging simultaneously in all the shares in contact with the bottom punch a pillow.

17. The method according to any of paragraphs.8 to 16, characterized in that use the two second sections, placing them on the sides of the first section symmetrically with respect to the forging axis so that the forces occurring during forging on kadomstev the pillow.

18. The method according to any of paragraphs. 8 to 17, characterized in that the total area of the forging of the second side sections of approximately equal to or larger than the area of forging the first section.

19. The method according to any of paragraphs.8 to 18, characterized in that the upper punch a pillow actuate the plunger.

20. The method according to any of paragraphs.8 to 19, characterized in that when crafting use the gasket, the thickness of which in the direction of the forging axis is 12 - 25 mm

21. Major structural element of the titanium or titanium alloy for products with high performance, custom forging, characterized in that it is manufactured in closed die a method according to any of paragraphs.8 - 20 in one product area of the surface 5 m2.

22. The way to improve performance of the forging press with a closed matrix, characterized in that it comprises the following steps: installation in the press kit closed die having first and second strand dies, at least one of which contains at least the primary forging part and the retaining part and the primary forging part moves relative to the holding part toward the other R is mu placing the workpiece between the dies, the first operation of forging the workpiece in a closed die so that the primary forging part has mostly full pressure on the workpiece and the holding part has on the remainder of the billet pressure less than the pressure of the forging part, and so that the forging and retaining of the stamp act on the workpiece as a whole, the disclosure of the press without removing the workpiece, reinstalling the dies so that the primary forging part was interacting with another part of the workpiece, the next step of forging so, to the primary forging part provided on said another part of the workpiece mostly full pressure, and holding part provided less pressure on the remaining portion of the workpiece, and repeating steps disclosure press reinstall stamps and further forging up until all procurement will not be processed primary forging part.

23. The method according to p. 22, characterized in that the stages of revelation press reinstall dies and forging perform before the workpiece has cooled down or significantly recrystallized.

24. The method according to p. 23, wherein the step of resetting the stamps you the

 

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