The method of clipping the graphic material in the image processing apparatus and image processing

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to computing. Its use in creating systems that reproduce graphics, you can simplify the task of tracing the line circuit along the edge of the window. The method includes tracking on the border of the element to determine the exit point (EX), in which the element boundary crosses the border of the window and beyond the preview window, and follow up on the border of the element to determine the point of entry (EN), in which the element boundary crosses the border of the window and is included in the viewing window. The technical result is achieved due to the fact that determine crosses if an imaginary line 12, starting at a given point P on the boundary of the window and away from her actually infinite distance, the border of the element outside the viewing window between the exit point and entry point an odd number of times or an even number of times, and if an imaginary line crosses an odd number of times, build a trailing line on the border of the window between the exit point and entry point, passing through a predetermined point on the border of the window, and if an imaginary line crosses an even number of times, build a trailing line g is but proper means to perform these operations. 2 C. and 8 C. p. F.-ly, 7 Il.

The invention relates to a method and apparatus for processing image data. In particular, the present invention relates to a cut-off in such conditions for processing graphical data graphical elements, including the area defined by the border, covering an area of.

In most systems, reproducing graphics, there is a need clipping image data. An example of such a system is the IBM Graphical Data Display Manager (GDDM) (administrator graphical display) manufactured by IBM Corporation (GDDM, and IBM are trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation). The GDDM program runs in the system including a main computer connected to several terminals. The host computer stores and processes graphics information and then transmits it to the corresponding terminal for display. These operations are performed under control of the program GDDM. One of the functions that must be performed by software such as a program GDDM is clipping graphics.

There are a number of known methods clipping zones graphics, limited its border, the so-called observation Windows or views can be found in the book by Foley. J. D. , Van Dam, A., Fundamentals of Interactive Computer Graphics (Fundamentals of interactive computer graphics) ed. Addison Wesley, 1982, S. 450 - 457.

The algorithm, Sutherland-Hodgeman works on the principle that the viewing window is considered as a collection of going to infinity line clipping. The task of clipping the polygon under consideration on a single vanishing at infinity line clipping is relatively simple. Collecting the results of a successful cuts on these lines cut, you can define the part of the polygon to be displayed. One of the emerging problems determining how to draw the so-called line circuit between the points on the boundary of the polygon obtained in those places where it intersects the viewing window. The standard algorithm, Sutherland-Hodgeman gives foreign (alien) line circuit, which must be removed by additional processing steps (data). The need for this additional processing to eliminate extraneous edges reduces the effectiveness of clipping.

Alternatively, an algorithm is used Weiler-Atherton. The effect of this algorithm is to trace around the border of the considered polygon in the clockwise direction is in a viewing window, the algorithm then goes along the side of the polygon under consideration. If the side of the polygon leave the preview window, the algorithm makes the first turn and follows the edge of the viewing window. In any case, the intersection is stored and used in order to accurately to ensure a single tracking on all trajectories. Although the algorithm Weiler-Atherton is no problem associated with the formation of extraneous lines of the circuit, it is more complex than the algorithm, Sutherland-Hodgeman that irrational.

The present invention relates to the technical problem arising in the device processing image data associated with ensuring draw a corresponding line circuit along the edge of the viewing window between the two points where the boundary of the display area intersects the viewing window, without complicating the irrational, the solution of the problem.

On the one hand, in accordance with the invention, a method of clipping the graphic element with the border element to the viewing window, with the window border, in the system of processing image data, including tracking over the boundary of the element to determine the exit point (EX), vcno, and tracing over the boundary of the element in order to determine the point of entry (EN), in which the element boundary intersects the specified window border and is included in the specified viewing window, wherein the determined crosses if an imaginary line beginning at a given point (P) on the boundary of the window away from her actually infinite distance, this area of the specified boundaries of the element outside the specified viewing window between the specified exit point and the specified entry point an odd number of times or an even number of times, and/or (1) if the imaginary line intersects the specified plot an odd number of times, draw a line circuit along the specified window border between the specified exit point and the specified entry point, passing through the specified target point on the boundary of the window, or (2) if the imaginary line intersects the specified area an even number of times, draw a line circuit along the specified window border between the specified exit point and the specified entry point not passing through the specified target point.

According to the invention provides a method, wherein after determining the points of entry and exit may be issued and login while the invention then would be the task of determining how to draw the line circuit along the border of the window. This process of trimming would have no problem with conventional algorithm, Sutherland-Hodgeman associated with the generation of the erroneous lines of the circuit, which should be removed by subsequent additional steps of data processing. In addition, the process of clipping would be undesirable complexity, which is inevitable when using algorithm Weiler-Atherton. None of the methods of clipping in the preceding technical level is not controlled by the specified point is on the border of the window to determine how to draw the line circuit.

Rationally, if the preview window and the graphical elements can have many configurations, and the invention in the application is not limited to any particular configurations of type rectangular viewing Windows or polygonal graphics. The idea of actually infinite distances requires explanation. It is necessary that an imaginary line would have gone on far enough to be sure that the far end of this line is outside the clip graphic element, and rationally, if to achieve this voobrazhaemyje, if you could count the total number of intersections and check whether it is odd or even, but equally possible that a single-bit flag set to 1 or 0 at each crossing, thereby fixing the only parity of the number of intersections. Also rationally, if the actual goes to infinity, the line would be a straight line (curve), curved or hook-shaped, but preferably simple designs would be used in a straight line.

As a preferred feature is that specified an odd number of times or an even number of times is determined by tracing at the specified the specified plot. The advantage of this is that when you are tracing around a given area, you can be sure that you have addressed each intersection. Alternatively, you could do a follow up by actually going into the infinity line, but at the same time he could not be sure that you have addressed all intersections until you reach the end of the line, it would be desirable a lot of time and, in addition, in this case, does not exclude the consideration of the intersections, which do not lie between the points of entry and exit.

In balanna point was the peak on the border of the window and this line was a continuation of the plot of the specified bounds of the window, forming a given vertex. This characteristic is desirable, so as to determine the exit point and entry point, the system will perform the clipping actually going to infinity of lines forming the edges of the window, as discussed in connection with the algorithm, Sutherland-Hodgeman. Respectively control whether the specified point is inside or outside the bounds of the window, can be performed with a minimum number of additional commands.

Still no mention of the difficulties that arise when there are special geometric conditions, for example when matching a specified point with the point of exit or entry, or in a situation where actually goes to infinity line touches but does not intersect a given area. One would expect that such situations are rare, and sometimes prevent the possible formation of erroneous lines of the circuit, but the preferred execution of the invention include a mechanism for handling these exceptions. One of the ways to solve these problems is to perform a check that crossed if the specified the specified area specified line if the specified the specified site vaasanai line, and then checked, not crossed if the specified specified specified area line, if it leads to a specified line and then touches her or concerns and then leads from the specified line on the other side of the line. It is clear that any party going into the infinity line can be designated as the first or second side.

An example might be the fact that will not be deemed a crossing, if the specified area is nearing actually going into the infinity line with the second hand touches her and then leaves her on the other side. On the contrary, if the border element comes to actually going into the infinity line with the first hand, touches her and then leaves her with the first hand, it will be treated as two intersections. If the border of the item or included in a viewing window or exits through the given point, the presence of crossing the border of an element is actually going into the infinity line is set by determining, does it make a specified area outside the viewing window, the passing from actually going into the infinity line, with the first side or the second side. If he goes with the first hand, it is considered as the intersection, and if he the duty to regulate, when the specified point lies at the point of exit or entry point, and checking to determine whether the line circuit connecting points of entry and exit, through the given point is very similar. If the line circuit goes from a given point with the first party from actually going into the infinity line, then it is considered that it passed through the given point. On the contrary, if the line circuit goes from a given point on the other side of the line, then it is considered that it has not passed a given point. Another preferred characteristic of the invention, to avoid repeating already conducted audits, is that if the specified tracking begins at the point outside the viewing window, then the first entry point is a couple with the last point of exit, and the number of intersections of the line between the specified start point and the specified entry point is stored and added to the number of intersections of the line between the last mentioned point output and the specified starting point.

On the other hand, in accordance with the invention, a device processing image data having a display for displaying graphic elements and a logic circuit for useche asana logic circuit for clipping includes the block to trace on the boundary of the element to determine the exit point, in which the element boundary crosses the specified threshold (frame) window, and exits the specified viewing window, and the block to trace on the boundary of the element in order to determine the point of entry, in which the element boundary intersects the specified window border and is specified in the preview window, characterized in that it includes a unit for determining, crosses if an imaginary line beginning at a given point on the boundary of the window and away from her actually infinite distance, the specified area to the specified limits of the element outside the specified viewing window between the specified exit point and the specified entry point an odd number of times or an even number of times, and/or (1) if the given imaginary line intersects the specified plot an odd number of times, draw a line circuit along the specified window border between the specified exit point and the specified entry point, passing through the specified target point on the boundary of the window, or (2) if the imaginary line intersects the specified area an even number of times, draw a line circuit along the specified window border between the specified exit point and the specified entry point, not the item is to be placed; in Fig. 2 - the effect of the invention in a more complex configuration of the graphic element than in Fig. 1; Fig. 3 - use of actually going into the infinity line, which is a continuation of the side viewing window of Fig. 4 - the situation in which the boundary element comes to actually going into the infinity line, but not crossing it; Fig. 5 - a situation in which the entry point or exit point coincides with a predetermined point; Fig. 6 is a enlarged block diagram showing the implementation of the invention; Fig. 7 - typical hardware that can implement the invention, schematically.

In Fig. 1, a graphic element 2 and a viewing window 4. Graphic element 2 has a border 6 of the element. A viewing window 4 has a border 8 of the window. The border 6 of the element inside the viewing window 4, the same as in case a and in case Century. Beginning at a point on the border 6 of the element, which is inside the viewing window 4, and performing follow-up on the border 6, the system first determines the exit point EX, in which the border 6 item crosses the border 8 of the window and extends beyond the viewing window 4. Performing further follow up on the border 6 of the element, the observation window 4.

The border 6 element within a viewing window 4 and the position of the exit point EX and entry point EN the same in both cases. The system needs some way to determine where to draw the line circuit 10. The line circuit 10, it was possible to trace along the boundaries of the window 8 directly from the point EX to EN, or it could be trace along the boundaries of the window 8 from point EX to the point EN through the corners b, c, d and a. As you can see in the analysis of the case And correct the trajectory lies directly between the point and EX point EN, while in the case In the correct trajectory passes through the angles b, c, d and a.

To distinguish these two cases, the system checks to see how much time actually goes to infinity imaginary line 12 crosses the border 6 of the element outside the viewing window 4 between the exit point and EX entry point EN. This test gives zero (even) number of intersections, showing that the line circuit shall not pass through the point P, i.e., the line circuit 10 is plotted along the border of the window 8 directly from the point EX to the point of EN. In case the check is one (odd) crossing, showing that the line circuit 10 must pass through the point P, i.e., the line circuit 10 is plotted along the military area within a viewing window 4 is defined and it can be dimmed with conventional methods of painting areas on the display screen, to select the area of the graphic element 2, which is visible in the viewing window 4. Rationally, if the line circuit 10 shown in Fig. 1, has an increased thickness, but in practice you can draw a line circuit 10 of any thickness. In some cases, the line circuit 10 may have zero thickness and will just serve as boundaries when performing painting.

The border 6 of the element defined by a list of commands/vectors, for example, the initial region, the vector 1, vector 2,..., the end region. Vectors can be represented in the form of coordinates of the start and end curves can be defined starting point, the ending point and the curvature or any other convenient method of presentation. Follow up on the border 6 element includes processing top-down list of vectors and the definition for each vector that crosses the line, he sets the window border. Sequential read vectors, their cut-off relative to a viewing window 4 and displayed on the display in clipped form known from the prior technical level, for example from the program GDDM. To well-known process trim adds additional steps of data processing to determine the correct line zamykanie processor to display.

Fig. 2 shows the effect of the invention in the case of more complex configuration of the graphic element 2. The task of the system is to perform follow-up on the border 6 of the element outside the viewing window 4 between the point of exit EX and EN input to determine the number of intersections this section of the border 6 element with an imaginary line 12, in fact, going into infinity from point R.

Considering the point P and the line 12, as shown in the figure, you can see that there are three intersection points i1, i2, and i3. It's an odd number of intersections indicates that the line circuit 10 must pass through the point P. As you can see, this result corresponds to the given point P. Also shows a point P' and the line 12'. Here are the two intersections of the line 12 at the points i4 and i5. This shows that the line circuit 10 should not pass through the point P'. Again, you can see that this is the correct result for a point P'.

Fig. 3 shows the preferred verification method shown in Fig. 2. Actually goes to infinity line 12 represents a continuation of one of the sides of the viewing window 4. The point P coincides with the angle b. This solution is preferable, since the definition of a point you and, includes side viewing window will be already defined. If the border 6 item gives the intersection of i1, the line circuit will pass through the point P, and if the border 6 item does not intersections, the line circuit will not pass through the point P.

Fig. 4 shows how the system works in case of boundary elements relate to the line 12, but not cross it. The border 6 of the element or suitable to the line 12 and then on her, or on and then diverging from the line 12 from the first side 14 from line 12, is seen as crossing the line. Accordingly it is considered that the graphic element 22 crosses the line 12 twice. Section 18 of the border 6 of the element that comes and then goes away from the line 12, is seen as crossing the line.

On the contrary, the border 6 of the element, or suitable to the line 12 and then on her, or on and then diverging from the line 12 from the second side of the line 12, is seen as not crossing the line 12. Accordingly, the graphical element 24 is considered as not crossing the line 12.

Fig. 4 shows that the system works in a situation where a given point P coincides or exit point EX or entry point EN. Point P p and above. The rule to determine whether the line circuit 10 through the point P, must be made consistent with rule determine crosses whether the border 6 of the element line 12. The line circuit 10 with the end, which coincides with the point P, is considered as passing through the point P, if the line circuit 10 has a plot that leads to the point P or the point P from the first side 14 from line 12. The plot, leading to the point P or the point P with the second side 16, is not considered as passing through point P.

Respectively in Fig. 5 graphic element 26 has a border 6 element, which is seen as crossing the line 12, because it has the border 6 of the element that comes and then goes away from the line 12 from the first side 14. In the shown case, the test for determining whether there is a point P inside (within) the graphic element 26, provides that the point P is inside the graphic element 26 and the line circuit 10 must pass through the point P. the Line circuit 10, drawn directly from point EX to the point of EN, will be considered as passing through the point P, since the portion of the line circuit 10 leads from a point P on the first side 14. Thus is formed a true line circuit.

Nab is to as part of the border 6 of the element, which touches the line 12 and then goes away from the second side 16, is seen as not crossing the line 12. At zero (even) number of intersections is determined that the point P is outside of the graphic element 28, and should draw the line circuit 10, not passing through point P. the Line circuit 10, passing from point EX to the point EN through the corners b, c, d and a, is considered as not passing through the point P, since the plot, radiating from a point P, making it the second side 16. Again produces the correct line circuit.

Fig. 6 represents a consolidation flowchart showing the operation of one of the alternative embodiment of the invention. In step 32 determines the point at which the boundary of the element is out of the viewing window and enters the room. In step 33 is checked, the value is the number of zero crossings. If Yes, it means that or graphic element is completely inside the viewing window or the preview window is completely inside the graphic. These two situations differ with step 34, which counts the number of intersections of the imaginary lines. This number sooner or zero (even the graphic element within the viewing window), or equal to one, three, five,... (nectarinia and graphic plotted within a viewing window (step 35). If this number is odd, then the line circuit is plotted along the border of the window (step 36).

If at step 33 were identified points of entry and exit, then at step 37 draws the border elements that are inside the window. In step 37 identified exit point and entry point, which directly follows it. This is done by performing a trace around the edge of the element from the starting point on the boundary, which may be located inside or outside the boundaries of the element. If the starting point is inside the viewing window, then the first will be the exit point and the corresponding point of entry. In step 39 is determined by the number of intersections and steps 40 and 41 or 42 will provide drawing the right line circuit. However, if the initial point lies outside the viewing window, then the first crossing of the border of the window will be at the entry point. Corresponding exit point (for the purposes of construction of a line circuit) will be the last exit point, which is reached before returning to the line circuit. To avoid unnecessary repetition, is determined by the number of intersections of an imaginary line between the starting point and the first point of entry, it is stored and is the and the direction of the line circuit so as previously. Finally, at the step 43 is checked whether all lines of the circuit drawn, and if not, returns to step 38.

Rationally, if the invention is in the standard manner (typically) implemented as part of the machine program such as the above program GDDM. This software implementation of the invention can be executed on any machine language. Alternative it is possible to implement the invention using hardware of a special purpose. Another alternative, obvious to specialists in this field is the application of existing techniques (technical equipment) to the problem of determining the direction of the line circuit when drawing the area of the graphic zone, which lies outside the specified viewing window. Essentially, you can use the same method.

Fig. 7 schematically shows an example computing system that may be implemented in this invention. All that is shown in Fig. 7, may be called by the device 48 graphics processing. This device consists of a Central universal computer 68, managing a number of displays/terminals 50 and 52. The computer 68 includes a Central processor 54 stored in memory stood out lists of vectors) 58, be processed and displayed. The CPU 54, working under the management program 56, serves as a logic circuit cut-off, performing the required cut-off graphic elements 64 and 66, which should play on the displays 50 and 52. As shown, various graphic elements 64 and 66 are cut off by using a logic circuit cut-off 54 and 56 so that shows only those parts that are visible within a viewing window 60 and 62.

1. The method of clipping the graphic element (2) having a border (6) of the element to the viewing window (4), with the boundary (8) window, in the system for processing graphics data, comprising operations of: tracking on the border of the element to determine the exit point (EX), in which the element boundary crosses the border of the window and beyond the preview window, and follow up on the border of the element to determine the point of entry (EN), in which the element boundary crosses the border of the window and is included in a viewing window, wherein define crosses if an imaginary line (12), starting at the given point (P) on the border of the window and away from her actually infinite distance, the border of the element outside the viewing window between lockcases odd number of times, build a trailing line on the border of the window between the exit point and entry point and passing through a predetermined point on the border of the window and, 2) if an imaginary line crosses an even number of times, build a trailing line on the border of the window between the exit point and entry point and not passing through the predetermined point.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the imaginary line is a straight line.

3. The method according to p. 2, characterized in that the specified point is in the top (b) on the border of the window, and an imaginary line is a continuation of the plot window border, forming the top.

4. The method according to any of paragraphs.1 to 3, characterized in that the odd or even number of times determined by the tracking section.

5. The method according to any of paragraphs.1 to 4, characterized in that determines that the area has crossed the imaginary line, if the plot leads to an imaginary line and then touches (18) or her concerns and then leaves (20) from an imaginary line from the first side (14) from an imaginary line, and determines that the border element is not crossed an imaginary line, if the plot leads to an imaginary line and then touches or comes and then goes away from an imaginary line from the second to the tion passes through the given point, if the line circuit departs from a given point with a first side of an imaginary line, and determines that the line circuit does not pass through the given point, if the line circuit departs from a given point with the second side of the imaginary line.

7. The method according to any of paragraphs.1 - 6, characterized in that if the tracking start point outside the viewing window, then the first entry point is paired with the last point of exit, and the number of crossings of the line between the starting point and the entry point to remember and put the number of intersections of lines between the last exit point and starting point.

8. Device (48) processing image data having the display (50, 52) for displaying graphic elements and logic clipping (54, 56) for clipping the graphic element with the border element to the viewing window, with the window border, and the logic circuitry includes means for tracking the boundary of the element to determine the exit point where the edge crosses the border of the window and extends beyond the viewing window, and a means for tracking the boundary of the element to determine the point of entry, in which the element boundary crosses the border of acne line (12), which starts at a given point (P) on the border of the window and away from her on the window border, so its far end lies outside of the graphic element, crosses the border of the element outside the viewing window between the exit point and entry point an odd number of times or an even number of times, (1) if an imaginary line crosses an odd number of times, build a trailing line on the border of the window between the exit point and entry point and passing through a predetermined point on the border of the window and, 2) if an imaginary line crosses an even number of times, build a trailing line on the border of the window between the exit point and entry point and not passing through the predetermined point.

9. The device under item 8, characterized in that the specified point is in the top (b) on the border of the window, and an imaginary line is a continuation of the plot window border, forming the top.

10. The device under item 8 or 9, characterized in that if the tracking begins at the point outside the viewing window, then the first entry point is paired with the last point of exit and the number of intersections of lines between the start point and the entry point is stored and is formed with a number of crossings of the line between

 

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