(57) Abstract:The proposed hygrometer relates to techniques for measuring the humidity of gases and can be used for measuring low dew point compressed gases directly at high pressures. Hygrometer includes a housing, input and output of the gas pipeline, the throttle device, the detector dew point and condensing mirror. At the channel inlet drosselweg gas to the throttle device is a heating element. The throttle device equipped with a temperature sensor, with which it is possible to maintain the given temperature difference between the throttle gas and condensing mirror. The result is improved accuracy of determining the temperature at which condensation begins vapors. The base of the condensing mirror made cyclodialysis form. This avoids the braking effect drosselweg gas and to increase the cooling rate of the mirror. 1 Il. The invention relates to techniques for measuring the humidity of gases. The predominant use is measuring low dew point compressed gases directly at high pressures.Known hygrometer, soderzhateley (see, for example, , c. 138).Its disadvantage is that used in the hygrometer cooler with heater, which is a thermopile, it is not possible to cool the condensing mirror to low temperatures, for example to minus 90oC provided in . In the case of measuring the dew point of compressed gases directly at high pressure cooling capacity of thermopile is significantly reduced.Known hygrometer, containing the input and output of the gas pipeline, the condensing mirror, the detector dew point, the cooling unit and the heater (see, for example, , S. 165).The disadvantage of this hygrometer is that as the cooler condensing mirror is used, cooling the mixture, which does not allow to obtain a sufficiently low negative temperatures. In addition, this hygrometer is not possible to measure the dew point of compressed gases directly at high pressures.Known hygrometer, containing the input and output of the gas pipeline, the condensing mirror, the detector dew point, the throttle device and the heater (see, for example ) adopted for the prototype. In this condensation hygrometer zircaloy spiral, installed at the outlet of the throttle device. This hygrometer allows you to measure the dew point of compressed gases directly at high pressures. With the throttle device can be cooled condensing mirror to the required negative temperatures.Its disadvantage is that the electric coil heater placed in the grooves of the casing of the heater is installed in the cavity of the base of the condensing mirror, and therefore in contact with the gas in a relatively narrow layer. In addition, the heater is located after the throttle device, i.e. in the zone of low pressure, but drosselweg the gas flows around the whole surface of the condensing mirror. As a result, significantly degrade the accuracy of regulation (maintaining) the temperature of the condensing mirror and increases the accuracy of the dew point of compressed gases.The result of the present invention is to improve the accuracy of measurement of the dew point of the gases.This result is achieved in that the hygrometer, comprising a housing, input and output of the gas pipeline, the condensing mirror and the detector together with gas to a throttle device, thus condensing mirror made cyclodialysis form, and the throttle device equipped with a temperature sensor.Distinctive features of the prototype of the features of the invention lie in the fact that in the proposed hygrometer heating element is located before the throttle device and installed in the channel, for example, in the form of a pipeline, which is supplied drosselweg gas. As a result of this substantially improves the heat transfer between drosselweg gas and heating element, which ensures the efficiency of the heating element and, accordingly, the accuracy of controlling and maintaining the desired temperature of the condensing mirror. Thus condensing mirror made cyclodialysis form that allows you to reduce its dimensions and to avoid the braking effect drosselweg gas, which reduces the cooling rate of the condensing mirror. In addition, the throttle device equipped with a temperature sensor, with which it is possible to maintain the given temperature difference between drosselweg gas and condensing mirror, resulting in improved accuracy in determining the temperature at which nachinaetsja, showing the hygrometer in the section.Hygrometer includes measuring chamber 1, the light source 2, a condenser 3, a protective glass 4, a sight glass 5, a lens 6, a protective glass 7, the photodetector 8, the base of the condensing mirror 9, the condensing mirror 10, the temperature sensor 11, the sleeve 12, the insulation 13, the throttle device 14, a throttle 15, 16 channels, the manifold 17, the heater 18, the heating element 19, the cover 20, the input sample gas line 21, valve 22, the output sample gas line 23, the pressure gauge 24, valve 25, the flowmeter 26, highway drosselweg gas 27, valve 28, the pressure gauge 29, and a discharge line 30 and the temperature sensor 31.The light source 2, the condenser 3 and the photodetector 8 represent the detector dew point. The condensing mirror 10 is made in the form of a circular plate and is connected, for example, by soldering to the base of the condensing mirror 9 cyclodialysis forms, insulated from the sleeve 12 and the throttle device 14. The throttle device 15, which is a washer with throttle opening is fixed in the hollow body of the throttle device 14, in which the channels 16 and the manifold 17 to exit drosselweg gas. the spiral channels, in which is placed a heating element 19, for example, in the form of electric spiral. Spiral channels of the heater 18 are simultaneously channels drosselweg gas. The heater 18 is electrically isolated from the throttle device 14. Highway drosselweg gas 27 supplied to the spiral channels of the heater 18 through the opening and the cavity in the cover 20. The manifold 17 is connected to the discharge line 30. The output of the throttle 15 is installed the temperature sensor 31, the outputs of which opened in an electronic control unit (not shown) to set the desired temperature difference between drosselweg gas and condensing mirror 10.Hygrometer works as follows. First open the valves 22, 25 and transmit the analyzed gas through the measuring chamber 1 above the surface of the condensing mirrors 10. The analyzed gas through the valve 22 and the input line of the sample gas 21 flows into the measuring chamber 1, which surrounds the condensing mirror 10 and through the output sample gas line 23, valve 25 and the flowmeter 26 is discharged into the atmosphere. The necessary pressure of the sample gas in the measuring chamber 1 and the flow rate set via valves 22, 25. Kye rays from the light source 2 through the condenser 3, protective glass 4 are directed to the condensing mirror 10 and is reflected, through the protective glass 7 fall on the photodetector 8 with a maximum value of the signal. Simultaneously open the valve 28 and serves drosselweg gas to the reactor 15. Drosselweg gas through the valve 28, line drosselweg strip 27, the hole and the cavity in the lid 20 is supplied to the spiral channels of the heater 18, in which is placed a heating element 19. Flowing the heating element 19, drosselweg gas enters the reactor 15 and roselius, lowers its temperature and consequently the temperature of the substrate condensing mirror 9 and the condensing mirrors 10. When this cooled gas washes cyclododecane the basis of the condensing mirror 9 with almost no braking. Next, the cooled gas through the channels 16 is supplied to the manifold 17 and the discharge line 30 is directed to podgladanie drosselweg gas. The control pressure in the line drosselweg gas 27 is a pressure gauge 29. Using temperature sensors 11, 31 electronic control unit (not shown), set the required temperature difference between the condensing mirror 10 and drosselweg gas to reduce page temperature condensing mirrors 10 at the required temperature level is provided by the arrangement of the heating element 19 in the area of high pressure to the reactor 15 and improve heat exchange between him and drosselweg gas.Visual observation of the condition of condensing mirrors 10 is made through a lens 6 and a sight glass 5.During the formation of dew condensation on the mirror 10 light signal on the photodetector 8, sharply decreases. The temperature of the condensing mirrors 10, measured at this point is the dew point of the sample gas at a pressure established in the measuring chamber 1. For heating condensing mirror (for evaporation of dew) reduce the pressure in the line drosselweg gas 27 and include a heating element 19.The economic effects expected to result from the proposed use of the hygrometer to determine at this stage of development is not possible.Sources used
1. The humidity. Measurement and control in research and technology. So 1. Principles and methods of measuring humidity in gases. Proceedings of the international Symposium on alagomeji. Washington, 1963. Leningrad: Gidrometeoizdat, 1967, 568 S.2. GOST R 5055-93. Classes purity gases.3. Automatic photomultiplier humidity indicator DDN-1. Technical description and operating instructions, 1987, 52 S. Hygrometer containing the device and the heater, characterized in that the heating element is located at the channel inlet throttling gas to a throttle device, and the base of the condensing mirror made cyclodialysis form, and the throttle device equipped with a temperature sensor.
FIELD: measurement technology.
SUBSTANCE: working body of indicator is made in form of thin metal membrane which is subject to cooling according to linear law by means of thermo-electric cooler. Direct measurement of temperatures of body and cooler is provided. At the moment of water vapor condensation the speed of cooling of membrane reduces abruptly due to consumption of cold used for cooling of moisture that condenses on surface of membrane turned to atmosphere.
EFFECT: improved precision of indication.
FIELD: measurement technology.
SUBSTANCE: device has two units. The first one combines mechanical units and has casing, connection tube with gas duct. The tube branches into the main one and internal one placed inside, electrically connected to each other. Filter collecting moisture is mounted on entry to the internal tube. The third tube having entry closed from the gas flow side is formed above the internal tube surface. The fourth tube is located in the third tube. The fourth and the third tube go out from the main one. The fourth one is connected to pump which outlet is separately connected to cooler and heater. Dielectric layers cover external surface of the third tube and internal surface of the fourth one. Its dielectric properties depend on moisture amount. The dielectric layers are covered with reticular electrodes bearing temperature gages attached to them. The second unit is electric circuit for shaping, processing and recording electric signal. It has generator, bridge circuit, differential amplifier, recorder and two-channeled amplifier.
EFFECT: high accuracy in concurrently measuring humidity and temperature.
FIELD: measuring technique.
SUBSTANCE: hygrometer comprises measurement chamber with sight and protecting glasses, pipelines for gas to be analyzed and cooling gas, cool conductor with condensation surface and temperature gage, base, throttle, and control members. The throttle may be mounted in the bottom section of the cool conductor with condensation surface or in the base.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of measurement.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: measurement engineering.
SUBSTANCE: controlled gas is subject to cool down due to passing it through layer of liquid, temperature of which liquid is kept equal to preset value of "dew point temperature for higher hydrocarbons". Correspondence of gas quality according to "of "dew point temperature for higher hydrocarbons" is determined by absence or presence of higher hydrocarbon film on surface of liquid. For the case, the liquid is chosen with density being higher than density of liquid state of hydrocarbons and in which liquid the liquid higher hydrocarbons do not solve. Water, diethylene glycol and methanol should solve in the liquid, which matter normally are present in controlled gas. Calcium chloride water solution of required concentration can be used as the liquid.
EFFECT: improved truth of quality control.
1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: measuring technique.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises step cooling of solid body, maintaining a constant temperature at each step for a time period, and step cooling down to a temperature of onset condensation. The condensation temperature is determined from the formula proposed.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of measurements.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: measurement technique.
SUBSTANCE: humidity of natural gas is measured by means of dewpoint hygrometers. According to method, hydrate formation onto mirror is prevented due to introduction of vapors of fluid to gas coming for analysis into dewpoint hydrometer. Freezing point of fluid is lower than -80°C and tangent of angle of loss is small at measurement of dew point temperature by means of SHF/EHF hygrometer. Amount of vapor is measured from reduction in temperature of hydrate-formation at 8-10°C in relation to overload capacity of dew point temperature for tested gas. Methyl, ethyl, propyl alcohols or acetone are taken as fluid.
EFFECT: reduced systematic error; prevention of hydrate formation.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns gas humidity measuring techniques. Hygrometer contains casing, coaxial source and receiver of light beams between which there is mounted flat optically transparent condensation mirror, temperature sensor and cooler unit. One version of hygrometer implies that condensation mirror is provided with not less than two through channels perpendicular to axis of source and receiver of light beams which lateral surfaces are parallel to condensation mirror planes. The second version of hygrometer implies that casing is provided with internal grooves, and condensation mirror with at least one through channel, and lateral surfaces of through channels being parallel to condensation mirror planes.
EFFECT: increased accuracy of measurements.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: physics; measurement.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to measurement techniques and more specifically to measurement of humidity of gases particularly natural gas, containing a high level of technical trace constituents - compressor oil, vapours of desiccant alcohols (glycols), and higher hydrocarbons. Gas is passed over the cooling surface of a metallic mirror and the dew point temperature (DPT) is recorded. At operating pressure the gas is fed into an enclosed volume. Using the mirror, the entire gas is cooled to a temperature invariably lower than the dew point. Thermohygrometric equilibrium is established between the falling condensate and the surrounding gas and mass of the water precipitated on the mirror is measured. The absolute moisture content, adjusted to normal conditions, is found, corresponding to saturated gas at temperature of the mirror, using known tables or graphs which link humidity of gas with dew point temperature at operating pressure. The complete normalised humidity of the initial natural gas is calculated using a given mathematical relationship, and then using the same tables or graphs, the dew point temperature is found.
EFFECT: reduced errors.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to relative humidity sensors. In the device, metal chrome-plated mirror plate is provided with a number of conical vertical holes and conical metal movable electrodes with micrometric thread placed in them. Control of interelectrode gap is provided by movement of electrodes along axis of conical vertical holes. Moisture microparticles allow closing circuit of electrode with plate, which allows measuring dew point temperature.
EFFECT: providing sufficient accuracy in actual operating conditions.
FIELD: instrument making.
SUBSTANCE: low-temperature humidity metre includes light generator for formation of light flux, and two mirrors. At that, one mirror is equipped with cooling system with thermometre to cool its surface when dew point value is being determined. Temperature of the other mirror is kept stable and equal to the temperature of layers enveloping its atmospheres. As light generator there used is semiconductor laser or laser diode, or light-emitting diode, or luminescent diode generating light flux. On the way of light generator there located is plane convex lens. Light flux after the lens interacts with divider so that it can be split into two beams of equal intensity. Beams are directed through plane convex and rod lenses to the appropriate mirrors. On the way of light fluxes reflected from surface of mirrors there installed in series are plane convex lenses and photodetectors. The latter generate the signals proportional to intensity of light fluxes. Outputs of the above photodetectors are connected to the appropriate two inputs of information processing unit. The third input of information processing unit is connected to the output of semi-conductor thermometre. Outputs of the above unit are connected to information board and to cooling system. At that, light flux on its way from light generator to photodetectors is enclosed in light guides.
EFFECT: enlarging the range of working temperatures, improving measurement accuracy.
7 cl, 1 dwg