The combustion chamber

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the field of engineering. The combustion chamber includes a housing located inside the flame tube with a burner having hazerswoude holes. Outside the housing is one or more fuel manifolds, which is in communication with the burners at least one inlet of the barrel. Lead trunk communicated with at least one burner through made in its wall opposite the nozzle holes of the barrel in the wall of the burner nozzle and the receiving holes. Between the walls of the barrel and the burner there is a gap. The receiving holes are made larger nozzle. The diameter of nozzle holes dcdetermined by the relation , where npnc- the number of communicated with each other hazaradous and nozzle holes; dp- diameter hazaradous holes; - the total hydraulic resistance coefficient of the burner, refer to speed in hazerswoude holes. The inner cavity of the inlet stem divided by internal walls into two or more channels, each of which is communicated with the respective fuel manifold and at least one burner. This embodiment of the combustion chamber leads to the definition, transport and chemical engineering and can be used in gas turbines.

Widely known combustion chamber, comprising a housing inside which is located the flame tube with a burner having hazerswoude hole, and located outside the housing of the fuel reservoir, which is communicated with a burner inlet trunks [1]. In these combustors have multiple burners and each of them has its inlet the barrel is provided with one collector. The disadvantage of this design is the large number of holes in the casing of the combustion chamber, which ultimately increases the weight of the hull and reduces the reliability of the combustion chamber.

Known combustion chamber SIEMENS, comprising a housing inside which is located the flame tube with a burner having hazerswoude hole, and located outside the housing, one or more fuel manifolds, which is in communication with the burners at least one inlet barrel [2].

In the combustion chamber SIEMENS adopted for the prototype, there are six diffusion burners and six pre-mixing burners are combined in pairs. Each of the diffusion burner is in communication with the first toplam collector one inlet of the barrel, from inside the housing to each individual burner tube and rigidly connected with the inlet of the barrel, and with the torch.

The disadvantage of this design, also as described above, is the large number of holes in the casing of the combustion chamber. In addition, when the combustion chamber flame tube and pipe, indicating the supply trunk with premixing burners have different thermal expansion, which reduces the reliability of the combustion chamber and increase the complexity of its design is the necessity of using elastic joints.

The problem to which the invention is directed, is to simplify the design and increase the reliability of the combustion chamber.

The technical result that can be achieved with the implementation of the invention is to reduce the cost of manufacture and operation of the combustor.

The problem is solved by the fact that in the known combustion chamber, comprising a housing inside which is located the flame tube with a burner having hazerswoude hole, and located outside the housing, one or more fuel manifolds, which is in communication with the burners at least one inlet styh in the wall of the nozzle hole and the receiving hole, performed in front of nozzle holes of the barrel in the wall of the burner, and between the barrel walls and the burner there is a gap, and the receiving apertures larger than the nozzle.

Possible that the diameter of nozzle holes dcdetermined by the relation

< / BR>
where

npnc- the number of communicated with each other hazaradous and nozzle holes;

- the total hydraulic resistance coefficient of the burner, refer to speed in hazerswoude holes.

Alternatively, when the inner cavity of the inlet stem divided by internal walls into two or more channels of the trunk, each of which is communicated with the respective fuel manifold and at least one burner.

The essence of the invention is that due to the fact that the supply trunk with a burner indicated by made in the wall of the nozzle hole and the receiving hole, which is opposite the nozzle holes of the barrel in the wall of the burner, and the gap between the barrel walls and the burner barrel and the gun is not connected to each other, i.e., can move freely relative to each other and at the same time supplied top the compensation mutual displacements of the trunk and the burner due to thermal expansions of the nodes of the combustion chamber in its design. In addition, the lack of connection of the barrel and burner allows you to freely extract lead the barrel from the housing during maintenance of the combustion chamber without time-consuming disassembly operations of the housing and the burner.

Due to the fact that the receiving apertures larger than the nozzle, ensures reliable supply of fuel gas from the inlet bore in the burner when their mutual displacements due to thermal expansion of the nodes of the combustion chamber, and in the presence of inaccuracies of manufacture and Assembly of parts of the combustion chamber. In addition, the increase in the size of the receiving holes compared to deployme must compensate for the increasing diameter of the jet of fuel gas during its flow in the gap between the walls of the inlet stem and burners, as well as the deviation of the fuel jet transverse flow of air in the gap.

Thus, in General, the condition of the "hit" of the fuel jet into the receiving hole can be written as:

dp= 2technology+t++w+dc, (2)

where

dndcthe diameters of the intake and nozzle holes;

technology- the offset of the intake and nozzle holes due to inaccuracies of manufacture and Assembly;


b- increase the diameter of the jet of fuel gas during its flow in the gap;

w- the deviation of the axis of the fuel jet transverse flow of air in the gap.

The factor of 2 in the first summand in the right part of formula (2) reflects the fact that the direction of displacement of the intake and nozzle holes due to inaccuracies of manufacture and Assembly is not known in advance, while the remaining components of this direction can be predicted in advance.

Methods of determining the above values are known and do not go beyond conventional engineering calculations.

To achieve the specified speed of the output of the fuel jets from hazerswoude holes it is necessary that the stream of gas emerging from the nozzle holes of the barrel, possessed the energy, i.e., have a sufficient initial velocity. Otherwise hazerswoude holes will restrict the gas flow through the burner to lock the burner"), which will inevitably lead to fuel leakage in the gap between the barrel walls and the burner. Such leakage is unacceptable, as it may lead to overheating of the burner elements and malfunction.

The required exit velocity of the fuel jets from the nozzle holes is received, on the basis of the following.

To provide a given flow rate of fuel through the burner kinetic energy of the gas jet flowing from the nozzle holes should be not less than the total energy losses in ducts of the burner, i.e.

< / BR>
where

- the pressure loss at the local hydraulic resistance of the burner.

Friction losses are neglected, because the paths of the burner relative to short.

The relation (3) can be written in the form

< / BR>
where

- the total hydraulic resistance coefficient of the burner, refer to speed in hazerswoude holes;

Vpthe velocity of the gas in hazerswoude the holes of the burner.

Because the speed of the holes is inversely proportional to their area, you can write

< / BR>
where

FcFp- total bushing square communicated with each other nozzle and hazaradous holes.

Let's rewrite the inequality (5)

< / BR>
where

ncnp- the number of communicated with each other nozzle and hazaradous holes;

dcdpthe diameters of these holes.

From here we will obtain the relation (1)

< / BR>
Total factor hydraulicengineering practice techniques and experimentally by blowing burner models.

An important advantage of the proposed design of the combustion chamber is that one trunk can be used to supply gas to two or more burners. This is achieved in that the inner cavity of the inlet stem divided by internal walls into two or more channels of the trunk, each of which is communicated with the respective fuel manifold and at least one burner.

The advantages of the proposed design becomes apparent when conducting ecological modernization of combustion chambers operated gas turbines. The essence of this modernization is to replace the existing combustion chamber diffusion burners combined, i.e., containing two burners: diffusion and pre-mixing burner. The use of dual fuel burners can significantly reduce the toxicity of exhaust gases of the gas turbine.

Continuous condition of this modernization is maintaining constant the hull design of the combustion chamber. The proposed design of the combustion chamber solves this problem and allows you to bring the fuel to the diffusion burner, and the burner premixing with p the initial section of the combustion chamber; in Fig. 2 - relationship between the size of nozzle holes of the barrel and the receiving holes of the burner.

The combustion chamber includes (see Fig.1) case 1 is located within the flame tube 2 burners: diffusion burner 3 and the pre-mixing burner 4. Diffusion burner 3 has hazerswoude holes 5, which are located at the exit of the blade swirl of air 6. The pre-mixing burner 4 contains a number located at the entrance to swirl air 6 radial pipes 7, which are communicated with the annular chamber 8 in the sleeve swirl 9. In the radial pipes 7 are hazerswoude holes 10. Outside of the housing 1 are fuel reservoir 11 and 12, which is in communication with the burners 3 and 4 the inlet of the barrel 13. Lead the barrel 13 is communicated with the pre-mixing burner 4 through is made in the wall of nozzle holes 14 and the receiving holes 15, which are made in front of nozzle holes of the barrel 14 in the wall of the pre-mixing burner 4, and the receiving hole 15 is larger than the nozzle 14. Between the walls of the barrel 13 and the burner 4 has a gap 16. The diameter of nozzle holes 14 depends on the number and diameter hazaradous holes 10 and is defined and 19. Channel 18 communicates with the fuel reservoir 11 and the pre-mixing burner 4 through the nozzle 14 and receiver 15 holes. Channel 19 is in communication with the fuel manifold 12 and hazerswoude holes 5 diffusion burner 3. In Fig. 1 also illustrates: 20 - inlet flange of the barrel; 21 - flange cover.

When the combustion chamber, the combustion air is supplied through the annular channel formed by the housing 1 and the header pipe 2, and then through vane swirler 6, the output of which is formed a swirling air jet.

Fuel in the combustion zone serve as a diffusion burner 3 and the pre-mixing burner 4, which includes alternately depending on the load of the combustion chamber.

Fuel to the burners 3 and 4 is supplied from the fuel reservoir 11 and 12 through the inlet of the barrel 13. Of the collector 12, the fuel is fed into the bore 19, which through hazerswoude holes 5 diffusion burner 3 it goes directly into the combustion zone.

To the pre-mixing burner 4, the fuel is conveyed from the reservoir 11 through the bore 18 and the nozzle openings 14. At the exit of the nozzle apertures 14 jet fuel have a high skornia 4, from which the fuel is fed in the radial pipe 7 and through hazerswoude hole 10 is fed into the air stream before the swirl of air 6. In the annular cavity 8 of the kinetic energy of the fuel jet flowing out of the holes 14, is converted into potential energy of pressure sufficient to overcome the hydraulic resistance of the internal ducts of the burner premixing 4 and to provide at the output of hazaradous holes 10 set speed fuel jets.

Existing between the conductive walls of the barrel 13 and the burner premixing 4 gap 16 provides liberty mutual displacements of the trunk and the burner as when the combustion chamber, and in the process of Assembly and installation work. In order to extract the inlet the barrel 13 of the housing 1, for example, in order to conduct routine maintenance on the diffusion burner 3, just enough to disassemble the flange connection 20. If the supply shaft 13 was rigidly connected to the pre-mixing burner 4, and to extract stem 13 would have to dismantle the cover by dismantling the flange 21, which is much more complicated. The reliability of fuel supply to the burner premixing with the mutual perambalur 14.

In Fig. 2 shows diagrams explaining the relation (2) between the sizes of nozzle 14 and receiver 15 holes. In Fig. 2,and shows an increase in the diameter of the receiving holes due to the mutual movement of the inlet shaft 13 and the burner 4 in thermal expansions of the nodes of the combustion chamber (the end position of the axes of the nozzle holes when these movements are indicated by numerals I and II).

A similar pattern is observed due to inaccuracies of manufacture or Assembly, with the only difference that the sign (direction)technologyunknown.

Fig. 2, b explains the necessity of increasing the diameter of the receiving holes 15 in comparison with the diameter of the nozzle hole 14 due to the increase of the diameter of the jet of fuel gas during its flow in the gap 16.

In the presence of the gap 16 of the air flow with velocity W (see Fig. 2) jet fuel gas may deviate a drifting flow valuewthat should also be considered when choosing the diameter of the receiving hole 15.

As can be seen from Fig. 1, 2 and descriptions, offer the combustion chamber contains commonly used in these devices, elements: cylindrical and conical shells, pipes, vane swirler surrounding the housing, inside the flame tube with a burner having hazerswoude hole, and located outside the housing, one or more fuel manifolds, which is in communication with the burners at least one inlet of the barrel, characterized in that the inlet stem at least one burner is indicated by a made in the wall of the nozzle hole and the receiving hole, which is opposite the nozzle holes of the barrel in the wall of the burner, and between the barrel walls and the burner there is a gap, and the receiving apertures larger than the nozzle.

2. The combustion chamber under item 1, characterized in that the diameter of the nozzle holes dwithdetermined by the relation

< / BR>
where npnwith- the number of communicated with each other hazaradous and nozzle holes;

dp- diameter hazaradous holes;

- the total hydraulic resistance coefficient of the burner, refer to speed in hazerswoude holes.

3. The combustion chamber under item 1, characterized in that the inner cavity of the inlet stem divided by internal walls into two or more channels of the trunk, each of which is communicated with the respective fuel manifold and m is

 

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