The combustion chamber
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the field of engineering. The combustion chamber includes a housing located inside the flame tube with a burner having hazerswoude holes. Outside the housing is one or more fuel manifolds, which is in communication with the burners at least one inlet of the barrel. Lead trunk communicated with at least one burner through made in its wall opposite the nozzle holes of the barrel in the wall of the burner nozzle and the receiving holes. Between the walls of the barrel and the burner there is a gap. The receiving holes are made larger nozzle. The diameter of nozzle holes dcdetermined by the relation , where npnc- the number of communicated with each other hazaradous and nozzle holes; dp- diameter hazaradous holes; - the total hydraulic resistance coefficient of the burner, refer to speed in hazerswoude holes. The inner cavity of the inlet stem divided by internal walls into two or more channels, each of which is communicated with the respective fuel manifold and at least one burner. This embodiment of the combustion chamber leads to the definition, transport and chemical engineering and can be used in gas turbines.Widely known combustion chamber, comprising a housing inside which is located the flame tube with a burner having hazerswoude hole, and located outside the housing of the fuel reservoir, which is communicated with a burner inlet trunks . In these combustors have multiple burners and each of them has its inlet the barrel is provided with one collector. The disadvantage of this design is the large number of holes in the casing of the combustion chamber, which ultimately increases the weight of the hull and reduces the reliability of the combustion chamber.Known combustion chamber SIEMENS, comprising a housing inside which is located the flame tube with a burner having hazerswoude hole, and located outside the housing, one or more fuel manifolds, which is in communication with the burners at least one inlet barrel .In the combustion chamber SIEMENS adopted for the prototype, there are six diffusion burners and six pre-mixing burners are combined in pairs. Each of the diffusion burner is in communication with the first toplam collector one inlet of the barrel, from inside the housing to each individual burner tube and rigidly connected with the inlet of the barrel, and with the torch.The disadvantage of this design, also as described above, is the large number of holes in the casing of the combustion chamber. In addition, when the combustion chamber flame tube and pipe, indicating the supply trunk with premixing burners have different thermal expansion, which reduces the reliability of the combustion chamber and increase the complexity of its design is the necessity of using elastic joints.The problem to which the invention is directed, is to simplify the design and increase the reliability of the combustion chamber.The technical result that can be achieved with the implementation of the invention is to reduce the cost of manufacture and operation of the combustor.The problem is solved by the fact that in the known combustion chamber, comprising a housing inside which is located the flame tube with a burner having hazerswoude hole, and located outside the housing, one or more fuel manifolds, which is in communication with the burners at least one inlet styh in the wall of the nozzle hole and the receiving hole, performed in front of nozzle holes of the barrel in the wall of the burner, and between the barrel walls and the burner there is a gap, and the receiving apertures larger than the nozzle.Possible that the diameter of nozzle holes dcdetermined by the relation
< / BR>where
npnc- the number of communicated with each other hazaradous and nozzle holes;
- the total hydraulic resistance coefficient of the burner, refer to speed in hazerswoude holes.Alternatively, when the inner cavity of the inlet stem divided by internal walls into two or more channels of the trunk, each of which is communicated with the respective fuel manifold and at least one burner.The essence of the invention is that due to the fact that the supply trunk with a burner indicated by made in the wall of the nozzle hole and the receiving hole, which is opposite the nozzle holes of the barrel in the wall of the burner, and the gap between the barrel walls and the burner barrel and the gun is not connected to each other, i.e., can move freely relative to each other and at the same time supplied top the compensation mutual displacements of the trunk and the burner due to thermal expansions of the nodes of the combustion chamber in its design. In addition, the lack of connection of the barrel and burner allows you to freely extract lead the barrel from the housing during maintenance of the combustion chamber without time-consuming disassembly operations of the housing and the burner.Due to the fact that the receiving apertures larger than the nozzle, ensures reliable supply of fuel gas from the inlet bore in the burner when their mutual displacements due to thermal expansion of the nodes of the combustion chamber, and in the presence of inaccuracies of manufacture and Assembly of parts of the combustion chamber. In addition, the increase in the size of the receiving holes compared to deployme must compensate for the increasing diameter of the jet of fuel gas during its flow in the gap between the walls of the inlet stem and burners, as well as the deviation of the fuel jet transverse flow of air in the gap.Thus, in General, the condition of the "hit" of the fuel jet into the receiving hole can be written as:
dp= 2technology+t++w+dc, (2)
dndcthe diameters of the intake and nozzle holes;
technology- the offset of the intake and nozzle holes due to inaccuracies of manufacture and Assembly;
b- increase the diameter of the jet of fuel gas during its flow in the gap;
w- the deviation of the axis of the fuel jet transverse flow of air in the gap.The factor of 2 in the first summand in the right part of formula (2) reflects the fact that the direction of displacement of the intake and nozzle holes due to inaccuracies of manufacture and Assembly is not known in advance, while the remaining components of this direction can be predicted in advance.Methods of determining the above values are known and do not go beyond conventional engineering calculations.To achieve the specified speed of the output of the fuel jets from hazerswoude holes it is necessary that the stream of gas emerging from the nozzle holes of the barrel, possessed the energy, i.e., have a sufficient initial velocity. Otherwise hazerswoude holes will restrict the gas flow through the burner to lock the burner"), which will inevitably lead to fuel leakage in the gap between the barrel walls and the burner. Such leakage is unacceptable, as it may lead to overheating of the burner elements and malfunction.The required exit velocity of the fuel jets from the nozzle holes is received, on the basis of the following.To provide a given flow rate of fuel through the burner kinetic energy of the gas jet flowing from the nozzle holes should be not less than the total energy losses in ducts of the burner, i.e.< / BR>where
- the pressure loss at the local hydraulic resistance of the burner.Friction losses are neglected, because the paths of the burner relative to short.The relation (3) can be written in the form
< / BR>where
- the total hydraulic resistance coefficient of the burner, refer to speed in hazerswoude holes;
Vpthe velocity of the gas in hazerswoude the holes of the burner.Because the speed of the holes is inversely proportional to their area, you can write
< / BR>where
FcFp- total bushing square communicated with each other nozzle and hazaradous holes.Let's rewrite the inequality (5)
< / BR>where
ncnp- the number of communicated with each other nozzle and hazaradous holes;
dcdpthe diameters of these holes.From here we will obtain the relation (1)
< / BR>Total factor hydraulicengineering practice techniques and experimentally by blowing burner models.An important advantage of the proposed design of the combustion chamber is that one trunk can be used to supply gas to two or more burners. This is achieved in that the inner cavity of the inlet stem divided by internal walls into two or more channels of the trunk, each of which is communicated with the respective fuel manifold and at least one burner.The advantages of the proposed design becomes apparent when conducting ecological modernization of combustion chambers operated gas turbines. The essence of this modernization is to replace the existing combustion chamber diffusion burners combined, i.e., containing two burners: diffusion and pre-mixing burner. The use of dual fuel burners can significantly reduce the toxicity of exhaust gases of the gas turbine.Continuous condition of this modernization is maintaining constant the hull design of the combustion chamber. The proposed design of the combustion chamber solves this problem and allows you to bring the fuel to the diffusion burner, and the burner premixing with p the initial section of the combustion chamber; in Fig. 2 - relationship between the size of nozzle holes of the barrel and the receiving holes of the burner.The combustion chamber includes (see Fig.1) case 1 is located within the flame tube 2 burners: diffusion burner 3 and the pre-mixing burner 4. Diffusion burner 3 has hazerswoude holes 5, which are located at the exit of the blade swirl of air 6. The pre-mixing burner 4 contains a number located at the entrance to swirl air 6 radial pipes 7, which are communicated with the annular chamber 8 in the sleeve swirl 9. In the radial pipes 7 are hazerswoude holes 10. Outside of the housing 1 are fuel reservoir 11 and 12, which is in communication with the burners 3 and 4 the inlet of the barrel 13. Lead the barrel 13 is communicated with the pre-mixing burner 4 through is made in the wall of nozzle holes 14 and the receiving holes 15, which are made in front of nozzle holes of the barrel 14 in the wall of the pre-mixing burner 4, and the receiving hole 15 is larger than the nozzle 14. Between the walls of the barrel 13 and the burner 4 has a gap 16. The diameter of nozzle holes 14 depends on the number and diameter hazaradous holes 10 and is defined and 19. Channel 18 communicates with the fuel reservoir 11 and the pre-mixing burner 4 through the nozzle 14 and receiver 15 holes. Channel 19 is in communication with the fuel manifold 12 and hazerswoude holes 5 diffusion burner 3. In Fig. 1 also illustrates: 20 - inlet flange of the barrel; 21 - flange cover.When the combustion chamber, the combustion air is supplied through the annular channel formed by the housing 1 and the header pipe 2, and then through vane swirler 6, the output of which is formed a swirling air jet.Fuel in the combustion zone serve as a diffusion burner 3 and the pre-mixing burner 4, which includes alternately depending on the load of the combustion chamber.Fuel to the burners 3 and 4 is supplied from the fuel reservoir 11 and 12 through the inlet of the barrel 13. Of the collector 12, the fuel is fed into the bore 19, which through hazerswoude holes 5 diffusion burner 3 it goes directly into the combustion zone.To the pre-mixing burner 4, the fuel is conveyed from the reservoir 11 through the bore 18 and the nozzle openings 14. At the exit of the nozzle apertures 14 jet fuel have a high skornia 4, from which the fuel is fed in the radial pipe 7 and through hazerswoude hole 10 is fed into the air stream before the swirl of air 6. In the annular cavity 8 of the kinetic energy of the fuel jet flowing out of the holes 14, is converted into potential energy of pressure sufficient to overcome the hydraulic resistance of the internal ducts of the burner premixing 4 and to provide at the output of hazaradous holes 10 set speed fuel jets.Existing between the conductive walls of the barrel 13 and the burner premixing 4 gap 16 provides liberty mutual displacements of the trunk and the burner as when the combustion chamber, and in the process of Assembly and installation work. In order to extract the inlet the barrel 13 of the housing 1, for example, in order to conduct routine maintenance on the diffusion burner 3, just enough to disassemble the flange connection 20. If the supply shaft 13 was rigidly connected to the pre-mixing burner 4, and to extract stem 13 would have to dismantle the cover by dismantling the flange 21, which is much more complicated. The reliability of fuel supply to the burner premixing with the mutual perambalur 14.In Fig. 2 shows diagrams explaining the relation (2) between the sizes of nozzle 14 and receiver 15 holes. In Fig. 2,and shows an increase in the diameter of the receiving holes due to the mutual movement of the inlet shaft 13 and the burner 4 in thermal expansions of the nodes of the combustion chamber (the end position of the axes of the nozzle holes when these movements are indicated by numerals I and II).A similar pattern is observed due to inaccuracies of manufacture or Assembly, with the only difference that the sign (direction)technologyunknown.Fig. 2, b explains the necessity of increasing the diameter of the receiving holes 15 in comparison with the diameter of the nozzle hole 14 due to the increase of the diameter of the jet of fuel gas during its flow in the gap 16.In the presence of the gap 16 of the air flow with velocity W (see Fig. 2) jet fuel gas may deviate a drifting flow valuewthat should also be considered when choosing the diameter of the receiving hole 15.As can be seen from Fig. 1, 2 and descriptions, offer the combustion chamber contains commonly used in these devices, elements: cylindrical and conical shells, pipes, vane swirler surrounding the housing, inside the flame tube with a burner having hazerswoude hole, and located outside the housing, one or more fuel manifolds, which is in communication with the burners at least one inlet of the barrel, characterized in that the inlet stem at least one burner is indicated by a made in the wall of the nozzle hole and the receiving hole, which is opposite the nozzle holes of the barrel in the wall of the burner, and between the barrel walls and the burner there is a gap, and the receiving apertures larger than the nozzle.2. The combustion chamber under item 1, characterized in that the diameter of the nozzle holes dwithdetermined by the relation
< / BR>where npnwith- the number of communicated with each other hazaradous and nozzle holes;
dp- diameter hazaradous holes;
- the total hydraulic resistance coefficient of the burner, refer to speed in hazerswoude holes.3. The combustion chamber under item 1, characterized in that the inner cavity of the inlet stem divided by internal walls into two or more channels of the trunk, each of which is communicated with the respective fuel manifold and m is
FIELD: gas-turbine plants.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes changing of fuel rate depending on power by metering out delivery of fuel into manifolds of coaxially installed pilot and main burners of burner assemblies with preliminary mixing of fuel and air. Burner assemblies are installed in two tiers, and fuel is delivered into burners of both tiers. At starting fuel is fed into manifold of pilot burners of outer tier and before idling, into manifold of pilot, burners of inner tier. At idling amount of fuel fed into pilot burners of outer and inner tiers is maintained equal. Then fuel delivery into pilot burners of outer and inner tiers is increased. Prior to operation under no-load conditions fuel is fed to main burners of outer and inner tiers. In the range from no-load to rated load, fuel delivery into main burners is increased with simultaneously decreasing relative portion of fuel fed through pilot burners. Invention provides reduction of content of nitrogen oxides NOxin exhaust gases of gas-turbine plant.
EFFECT: provision of stable burning of lean mixtures under any operating conditions.
4 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: gas-turbine engines.
SUBSTANCE: proposed fuel-air burner has fuel injector in the form of body with fuel feed and spray holes as well as axial- and tangential-flow air swirlers, air flow regulator disposed between rear side of injector body and inlet end of axial-flow swirler that forms slit duct together with its inlet end. Axial- and tangential-flow air swirlers are made in the form of open-end channels accommodating blades and each is provided with converging-diverging nozzle having internal and external channel walls. External channel wall of converging part of axial-flow swirler nozzle has curvature inverse relative to internal channel wall of tangential-flow swirler nozzle. Diverging part of axial-flow swirler is made in the form of cone whose vertex is disposed upstream of nozzle critical section. Angle between burner axis and generating line of cone is 30 to 90 deg. Critical section of axial-flow swirler converging-diverging nozzle is disposed upstream of point of intersection between external channel wall and fuel spray cone generating line.
EFFECT: reduced emission of pollutants in exhaust gases, improved starting characteristics and fuel economic efficiency, enhanced reliability of combustion chamber.
1 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; gas-turbine engines.
SUBSTANCE: proposed gas-turbine engine has central stage arranged in gas duct of engine from its part arranged higher relative to direction of main gas flow to part lower in direction of main gas flow and provided with exhaust gas cone forming device in direction of main gas flow, and guide arrangement. Gas-turbine engine has group of blades, group of fuel nozzles and group of igniters. Guide arrangement is located in zone of edge of exhaust gas cone-forming device arranged higher relative to direction of main gas flow. Group of blades is located in gas duct out of the limits of central stage. Blades are provided with atomizing guides extending through blades. Fuel nozzles are installed on inner ends of corresponding atomizing guides. Each nozzle is provided with input, output and passage between input and output. Passage has part arranged to direct fuel flow to first part of passage surface located across and widening downwards in direction of flow with subsequent deflection fuel flow by first part of surface and its outlet from nozzle. Igniters are arranged in corresponding atomizing guides for igniting fuel from corresponding fuel nozzle.
EFFECT: provision of reliable lighting up in afterburner, improved recirculation of fuel in flow.
13 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: fuel systems.
SUBSTANCE: the fuel-injection nozzle for a turbo-machine combustion chamber outfitted with two fuel-injection nozzle units has the first fuel-supply tube, connected to which is an annular nozzle end for injection of primary fuel into the combustion chamber, the second fuel-supply tube that envelops the mentioned first tube, and connected to which is a cylindrical extension piece for injection of secondary fuel into this combustion chamber. The extension piece has an annular groove, whose diameter exceeds the diameter of the mentioned second fuel supply tube and runs over its entire length. The third tube is provided that envelop the second tube, an connected to which is a tubular separating component introduced in the mentioned annular groove of the cylindrical extension piece in such a way that two annular cavities are formed, in which the cooling agent can circulate up to the end of the fuel-injection nozzle within 360 degrees in the whole cross-section of the mentioned cavities.
EFFECT: provided protection of the fuel systems, prevented clogging of the fuel-injection nozzles with coke due to effective cooling without considerable variations of the nozzle overall dimensions.
8 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: fuel systems.
SUBSTANCE: the device for supply of fuel to the combustion chamber has at least one main nozzle and one preliminary-injection nozzle, pump, the first actuator valve installed in the first pipe-line connected to the preliminary-injection nozzle, the second actuator valve used for control of fuel consumption in the secondary pipe-line connected to the preliminary-injection nozzle through the first actuator valve rated at a lower consumption rate. The first pipe-line is also connected to the main nozzle for control of consumption of fuel supplied to the nozzle by the first actuator valve, provision is made for a direction- selecting valve installed past the first valve, and an intermediate line connecting the first and second lines that are used for fuel supply to the main nozzle and/or to the preliminary-injection nozzle.
EFFECT: provided stable fuel supply to the combustion chamber.
8 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: continuous combustion chambers using liquid or gas fuel.
SUBSTANCE: fuel nozzle comprises first valve that closes when the pressure of inflowing fuel reaches a given value and second batching valve mounted at the outlet of the first valve, which is opened under the action of the second given value of fuel pressure. The second valve is open when the pressure increases so that to provide the inflow of fuel to the consumers. The batched fuel flow rate is a function of the flowing sections of the openings made at the level of the second valve. The nozzle is additionally provided with means for individual adjusting of the second threshold value of pressure made so that to provided the uniform injection of fuel to the combustion chamber.
EFFECT: expanded functional capabilities.
4 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: continuous combustion chambers.
SUBSTANCE: combustion chamber comprises hollow cylindrical housing whose wall receive scroll and air radial swirlers with blades that provide swirling in opposite directions, shells, bushings mounted for permitting movement in radial direction, branch pipe, swirling chambers, and nozzle. Each combined nozzle has centrifugal nozzle whose outer side is in a contact with inner side of the bushing and jet nozzle with cylindrical housing mounted coaxially in the inner space of the branch pipe between the outer wall of the housing of the jet nozzle and inner wall of the branch pipe. The outlet section of the housing of the jet nozzle is bent to the passage of the scroll spiral of the radial swirler. The outlet section of the jet nozzle is parallel to the wall of the inlet section of the branch pipe and is at a distance of 0.8-1.2 of the diameter of the jet nozzle housing from it.
EFFECT: reduced hydraulic drag and oxides emission.
FIELD: engine engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises filling with solder the radial spaces made in the ring nozzle tip provided with the first nozzle openings for injecting primary fuel and in the cylindrical nozzle that embraces the ring nozzle tip and has second nozzle openings for injecting secondary fuel, setting the ring nozzle tip inside the cylindrical nozzle, mounting both of the members on the first fuel supply pipe for primary fuel and second fuel supply pipe for secondary fuel that embraces the first pipe and on the outer wall of the fuel nozzle, and setting the nozzle spryer assembled into the chamber where it is heated to provide adhesion of the members with solder.
EFFECT: expanded functional capabilities and eased assembling.
6 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: gas-turbine engine engineering.
SUBSTANCE: ring combustion chamber comprises fire tube and vortex burners arranged over periphery of its face and made of fuel-air scroll and air swirlers with outlet conical branch pipe having cylindrical section. The shell is secured to the face coaxially to each branch pipe defining a ring space. The outer side of the end cylindrical section or inner side of the shell located above it is provided with longitudinal ribs distributed uniformly over periphery and defining insulated passages. The through openings connected with the ring space are made in the face of the fire tube under the shell.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability and expanded functional capabilities.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: gas-turbine engine engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises separating the fuel supply through small fuel nozzle from that through high-flow rate nozzle, with controllable fuel supply realized directly in the device. The device comprises outer housing, high-flow rate nozzle made of outer housing of the small fuel nozzle and secured to it, piston-slide valve, and spring, interposed between the outer housings of the device and high-flow rate nozzles provided with the passages for fuel supply. The fuel supply is controller by opening passages for supplying fuel to the small nozzle and closing the passages for supplying fuel to the high-flow rate nozzle. When the pressure of fuel increases, the passages for supplying fuel to the high-flow rate nozzle are opened, and the passages for supplying fuel to the small nozzle are simultaneously closed.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
2 cl, 5 dwg