The method of thermal neutralization of harmful substances in the backburner

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the chemical, refining and other industries and agriculture and can be used for neutralization heat by the method of liquid and solid hazardous waste and unusable pesticides, including those containing dioxynaphthalene elements. To improve the efficiency and reliability of neutralization of the mixture of fuel and preheated oxidant to form and ignite before entry into the reaction zone. High temperature products of combustion with an excess of oxidant is served in the reaction zone, warming it flow part and forming in her twisted turbulizing stream. Sprayed heated oxidant delaborated substances are served in a heated flow part of the reaction zone and is burned in a twisted turbulations the flow of high temperature products of combustion in sufficient time and with an excess of oxidant, which provides the decomposition and oxidation of harmful substances to simple oxides and simple substances. The exhaust gases are cleaned known "wet" method.

The invention relates to chemical, oil refining and Druidic (in powder form) hazardous substances (waste) and unusable pesticides and insecticides.

There is a method of firing disposal of liquid wastes in a cyclone furnace, which consists in the fact that thermal treatment of waste is carried out in the swirling flow of high-temperature products of combustion of air-fuel mixture, and waste is served with a speed of 20-40 m/s against the flow of products of combustion in the zone of their speed of 60-100 m/s

The disadvantage of this method is its low efficiency, especially when the neutralization dictinoary harmful substances due to the inability of the achievements in the area of neutralization sufficiently high temperature (>1400oC).

Closest to the present invention is a method of afterburning of harmful substances, which consists in the fact that the mixture digemid harmful substances with the oxidant to form at the entrance into the setting of the afterburner, heat it up to the ignition temperature of the mixture and set it on fire, and the flow of products of combustion are directed to the liquid part of the reaction zone of the afterburner, the walls of which are pre-heated to the adiabatic temperature of combustion of the mixture (ed. mon. USSR N 1800230, CL F 23 G 7/06, 1993 - prototype).

The disadvantages of this method are low efficiency, effectiveness and reliability of the neutralization due to negozi flow neurbaniziranim movement of the mixture in the reaction zone, need warming up outside teplootvodom wall of the flow part of the reaction zone to the adiabatic temperature of combustion of the mixture and the complexity of the regulation of the temperature of combustion of harmful substances of different calories, especially during thermal neutralization of harmful substances containing dioxynaphthalene elements (chlorine and bromine), for which it is required to ensure the temperature in the reaction zone over 1400oC with an excess of oxidant and stay in it products of combustion greater than 0.5 (Fedorov, L. A. Dioxins as environmental hazard: retrospective and prospects, Science, 1993).

The aim of the invention is to improve the effectiveness, efficiency and reliability of neutralization by providing pre-heating of the wall of the flow part of the reaction zone temperature is twisted turbulation flow of products of combustion of the mixture of fuel and oxidant, the intensification of the processes of mixing and combustion of harmful substances with the oxidizer in the same thread and preheating of the oxidant prior to forming mixes it with fuel and harmful substances.

This goal is achieved by the fact that in the proposed method, thermal and introducing it into the preheated flow part of the reaction zone of the afterburner, the oxidizer is heated before forming mixes it with fuel and harmful substances, the liquid part of the reaction zone is pre-heated by the combustion products of the mixture of fuel and oxidant, forming in her twisted high temperature turbulizing the thread in which sigaut mixture of harmful substances with oxidising agent.

The method is implemented as follows.

The oxidizer before generating mixes it with fuel and harmful substances is heated to a temperature of 400 - 700oC in an electric heater.

The mixture of fuel and preheated oxidant with an excess of the last form in the combustion chamber type combustion chambers of jet-propulsion engines, spark ignited block ignition and burned, and the combustion products to a temperature of up to 1600oC served in the flowing part of the reaction zone of the afterburner tangentially to its axis, forming in her twisted high temperature turbulizing stream and simultaneously heating the wall. Control the temperature of thermoelectric Converter of the type TPD, and adjust it depending on the composition of the hazardous substances (as defined in the input control) simply and reliably change the power e is Telem forming device type ejector and also served in the flowing part of the reaction zone of the afterburner with the already heated wall, where it ignites and burns at high temperature twisted turbulations flow of combustion products of fuel and oxidant. When harmful substances are decomposed into simple substances, some of which are oxidized to less harmful protozoa oxides.

Preheating of the oxidant can provide a high (>1400oC) the temperature in the flowing part of the reaction zone, necessary for the effective neutralization of harmful substances, particularly those containing dioxynaphthalene elements.

Hot exhaust gases from the afterburner before emission into the atmosphere is cooled and purified from the resulting oxides and simple substances neutralizing an aqueous solution of alkali or soda by known methods "wet" cleaning.

Advantages of the proposed method are the high efficiency, the effectiveness and reliability of thermal treatment of liquid and solid substances and unusable pesticides and toxic chemicals, including and containing dioxynaphthalene elements.

The method of thermal neutralization of harmful substances in the backburner, based on the formation of mixtures of hazardous substances with the oxidant and the introduction of a pre-razogretyie mixes it with fuel and hazardous substances, flowing a portion of the reaction zone is pre-heated by the combustion products of the mixture of fuel and oxidant, forming in her twisted high temperature turbulizing the thread in which burn a mixture of harmful substances with the oxidant.

 

Same patents:

The invention relates to industrial ecology and can be used for flameless abatement of industrial enterprises

The invention relates to the purification of gaseous emissions from toxic impurities thermocatalytic technique and can be used in chemical, food, microbiological and other industries

The invention relates to industrial ecology and can be used for purification of waste gases in industry

Afterburner waste // 2083923
The invention relates to the thermal treatment of waste

Flare pipe // 2062950
The invention relates to metallurgy, and more specifically to the refractory lining of metallurgical vessels

The invention relates to techniques for thermal cleaning of waste gases from toxic impurities and can be used in industrial ecology in detoxification of exhaust air and in the food industry for drying of food products and flue gases

FIELD: burning waste gases of pyrolysis furnaces in reworking solid domestic wastes.

SUBSTANCE: proposed combustion chamber includes mixing chamber with active and passive nozzles mounted at its inlet; active and passive nozzles are connected respectively to compressed air source and to waste gas source; mixing chamber is made in form of diffuser at aperture angle of 10-18 deg; ratio of diameters of active and passive nozzles is equal to: Dact:Dpas=0.35-0.4.

EFFECT: enhanced economical efficiency of use of vapor-and-gas cycle.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: the invention refers to apparatus of regenerative thermal oxidation with multi pass valves.

SUBSTANCE: the apparatus for regenerative thermal oxidation for gas processing has a combustion zone, the first heat exchanging layer keeping heat exchanging surroundings and connecting with the combustion zone; the second heat exchanging layer keeping heat exchanging surroundings and connecting with the combustion zone; a valve for alternate direction of the gas flow between the first and the second heat exchanging layers. At that the valve has the first valve passage and the second valve passage separated from the first valve passage; a flow distributor having an admission passage communicates with the help of fluid medium with the admission opening of the surroundings and an exhaust passage communicates with the help of fluid medium with exhaust opening of fluid surroundings. At that the distributor is fulfilled with possibilities of its the first and the second valve passages between the first position in which the first valve passage communicates with the help of liquid with the admission passage and the second valve passage communicates with the help of liquid surroundings with exhaust passage and the second position in which the indicated the first valve passage communicates with the help of the fluid surrounding with exhaust passage and the second passage of the entry of the valve with the help of liquid surroundings communicates with the admission passage. At that the distributor of flow has a blocking surface which blocks the flow through the first part of the first valve passage and through the second part of the second valve passage when the distributor of the flow is between the first and the second positions and is fulfilled with possibility of its turning to 180o between the first and thesecond positions. At that valve passage is divided as the first so is the second at least into two chambers and the first and the second parts of the valve passages are congruous.

EFFECT: simplifies the construction, provides comfort of controlling and exploitation and deep removal of volatile organic combinations.

22 cl, 12 dwg

FIELD: technologies for combustion of flush gases, including those under high pressure, during extraction and processing of natural gas and oil.

SUBSTANCE: body of burner, mounted on gas inlet pipe, is made conical with widened portion at upper portion, in the body additionally mounted are two catalyst elements, at lower portion on inlet section first catalyst element is positioned, and above on outlet section - second catalyst element, rotary shutters are mounted on base of conical body in additional way, so that in closed position they are in contact with first catalyst element, and open position between first catalyst element and body gap is formed, also, device is additionally provided with one or more main torches, mounted in gas inlet pipeline below rotary shutters and first catalyst element. Relation of diameters of first and second catalyst elements matches relation of debits of hydrocarbon gas, fed in normal mode and during salvo exhaust. Catalyst elements are manufactured either in form of cell-like structured blocks with direction of channels in parallel to direction of feeding of flush gases, or in form of block sections with granulated catalyst, for example, Rachig rings, or in forms of block sections with active-catalyst metallic shavings, or in form of blocks with active-catalyst metallic meshes.

EFFECT: higher ecological safety and fullness of combustion of flush gases in broad flow range, simplified construction and comfort of maintenance.

6 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: the invention refers to industrial ecology and may be used for flameless purification of ejections of industrial enterprises.

SUBSTANCE: the reactor for catalytic purification of gaseous ejections has a cylindrical body, which interior surface is covered with a catalyst with a source of infrared radiation placed in the body, a tube heat exchanger located in the lower part of the body, a turbine mixer located in the upper part of the body and additionally - a permeable cylindrical drum out of the catalyst so that the axles of the symmetry of the drum and body coincide. The drum embraces the mixer and the source of infrared radiation fulfilled in the shape of a six-ends star is installed in the middle of the body so that its flatness is perpendicular to the axle of the symmetry of the reactor. The drawing off socket is connected with the tube space of the heat exchanger, and the feeding socket is located so as to provide heating of gaseous ejections with the heat of the gases moving out of the reactor.

EFFECT: increases effectiveness of purification of gaseous flow and reduces power inputs for heating the gas flow.

1 dwg

FIELD: burning combustible gas at pressure above atmospheric.

SUBSTANCE: proposed plant is used for burning lean gases; it consists of unit for burning gas at pressure above atmospheric including lean gas chamber, combustion chamber, heat regeneration section and exhaust; pipe line supplying lean gas to lean gas chamber; heat removal and pressure equalizing chamber and preheated air chamber; plant is also provided with pipe line supplying the compressed surrounding air to heat removal and pressure equalizing chamber, preheated air pipe line for delivery of preheated air to preheated air chamber; provision is made for hole for delivery of lean gas from lean gas chamber to combustion chamber and hole for delivery of preheated air from preheated air chamber to combustion chamber. Heat removal and pressure equalizing chamber is made for heat exchange between lean gas chamber, preheated air chamber and combustion chamber and compressed surrounding air; lean gas and preheated air are burnt in combustion pressure at pressure above atmospheric.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency; minimum difference in pressure between gas and air chambers.

12 cl, 12 dwg

Head of torch plant // 2285863

FIELD: arrangements or devices for treating smoke or fumes.

SUBSTANCE: head comprises gas supply pipe with gas gate and protecting shield mounted outside and coaxially at the top end of the gas supply pipe. The protecting shield is composed of two baffles made of two hollow trancated cones mounted one on the other. The grater base of the top baffle faces downward, and that of the bottom baffle faces upward. The smaller base is connected with the gas supply pipe.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability and prolonged service life.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: valve comprises rotatable housing provided with passage, outer unmovable ring seal of the housing, ring seal between the rotatable housing and outer unmovable ring seal of the housing that has bore made for permitting gas to flow to the passage or from the passage. The ring seal is movable with respect to the outer ring seal of the housing. The passage and the bore are made for permitting receiving the compressed gas to provide continuous sealing between the outer ring seal of the housing and ring seal when the housing rotates. The valve is additionally provided with means for permitting gas to flow through the radial passage and between the ring seal and outer unmovable ring seal of the housing and setting ring connected with the rotatable housing and locking ring that is mounted at a distance from the setting ring and connected with the rotatable housing. The ring seal is interposed between the setting ring and locking ring.

EFFECT: simplified structure and enhanced efficiency.

16 cl, 30 dwg

FIELD: toxic flue gas combustion technology for fuel-burning units.

SUBSTANCE: flue gases are neutralized in combustion chamber; total fuel flow is bifurcated; first fuel flow is mixed up with flue gases supplied to combustion chamber and second one is conveyed to combustion-chamber burners wherein it is burned in air environment and then passed to combustion chamber. Coke gas, flue gas, or blast-furnace gas, or generator gases, or mixture thereof can be used as fuel; total flowrate of flue gases (B"G) at combustion chamber outlet, total flowrate of fuel (BF) supplied to combustion chamber, flowrate of air (BA) supplied to combustion chamber, and flowrate of fuel (BFBRN) supplied to burners are found from following set of equations (1), (2), (3), (4):

, where B'G is flowrate of flue gases from combustion chamber outlet, kg/h; T'G is temperature of flue gases at combustion chamber inlet, °C; O'2 is oxygen content in flue gases at combustion chamber inlet, %; C'G is heat capacity of flue gases at combustion chamber inlet, kcal/kg; B"G is total flowrate of flue gases at combustion chamber outlet, kg/h; BF is total flowrate of fuel supplied to combustion chamber, kg/h; BFBRN is fuel flowrate to burners, kg/h; QFL is fuel low heating value as fired, kcal/kg; O2" is oxygen content in flue gases at combustion chamber outlet, %; VAO is theoretical air flowrate for burning 1 kg of fuel, kg/h; BA is air flowrate to combustion chamber, kg/h; TG" is gas temperature at combustion chamber outlet, °C; CG" is heat capacity of flue gases at combustion chamber outlet, kcal/kg; α is excess air coefficient. Temperature within combustion chamber is maintained between 850 and 1150 °C.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of flue gas neutralization in fuel-burning units.

1 cl, 1 dwg, 3 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: chemical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises using gas made of a mixture of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the plasma burner. The plasma burner ionizes gas thus producing carbon monoxide and reactive oxygen that removes ash from the gas. Oxygen and vapor are sprayed and injected to chamber (3) that receives the device with plasma burner. The control system (6) is provided with feedback and controls the concentration of the production gas, nozzle, and plasma burner.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability.

29 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: the invention is designed for ventilation and may be used at equipping industrial objects.

SUBSTANCE: the system of ventilation of an industrial object has local units of suction air with polluting substances, an airway connecting the local suction units with the suction branch pipe of a boiler's blow fan. The airway is connected through drainage with the pipeline located below it with condensed and liquid fractions of polluting substances. The pipeline is switched to the suction branch pipe of the boiler's blow fan.

EFFECT: increases reliability, economy of the ventilation system of an industrial object.

3 cl, 1 dwg

Up!