A method of manufacturing a multilayer composite material, the composite multilayer material, a method of manufacturing a multilayer board basis printed circuits and printed circuits

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to a method of manufacturing a composite multi-layered material, preferably a material with cross-orientation of reinforcing fibers, whereby parallel spaced fibers covered with a matrix substance and together with the pre-formed non-leaking tracks arranged in parallel fibers or overlapping systems arranged in parallel, the fibers are passed through a zone of overlap, and the orientation of the fibers in the joined layers has at least two directions. In particular, the invention relates to the manufacture of composite materials, primarily intended for use as the basis of printed circuits boards. The method in accordance with the invention involves primarily the use of the pressing device for manufacturing a pre-formed non-leaking compositions reinforced fibers arranged in parallel, and for the manufacture of the final material. The invention also relates to the manufacture of printed circuits boards (PPP) and multi-reason PPP. The technical result - the creation of ptena relates to a method of manufacturing the composite layered materials, in particular multilayer materials with cross-spaced layers, in which the system of parallel fibers, supplied not yet fallen into the fixed form of the matrix substances pass through the connection zone in the form of layers in which the fibers are arranged in at least two different directions, and matrix substances are recorded. In particular the invention relates to a method of manufacturing composite materials, primarily intended for use as a basis for printed circuits, i.e., as a printed circuit Board, hereinafter abbreviated marked PPP.

A similar method is presented in the patent EP 478051. According to this patent, a continuous method of manufacturing a flat structure consisting of reinforced fibers of the matrix, is to use at least two moving layers of parallel systems of fibers intersecting at right angles, not interconnected in the form of fabric (parallel fiber systems), the application of these systems parallel fibers, which are located in two intersecting directions, the matrix substance and pass them through the connection zone, for example, made in the form of two pressed obom possible to produce multilayer materials primarily intended for use as PPS, thanks, by the way, good surface quality, relatively low coefficient of linear thermal expansion (clcr) in the longitudinal and transverse directions, possible to vary within wide limits fiber content and satisfactory dimensional stability.

The disadvantage of this method is that the laying of the fibers in two directions and the introduction of matrix substances before or after the specified laying fibers are held to termofikacij matrix substances immersed in their fibers, which requires the use of relatively sophisticated equipment. Another disadvantage is the fact that to maintain the desired orientation of the fibers, typically at an angle of 90osystems arranged in parallel, the fibers must be held under tension during the entire process. In addition, it is desirable that the performance of the process was higher.

Another method of manufacturing a multilayer composite material reinforced by systems of parallel fibers, also intended for use as a PPP, as described in U.S. patent N 4943334. In this way reinforcing Monovolume monofilament is applied hot-melt matrix substance by spraying or impregnation. Matrix, which contains intersecting systems of parallel fibers, then thermofixed. The advantage of this method is the low coefficient of expansion obtained in this way material. A possible disadvantage of this method is the high residual stress between the layers made of the material resulting from the anisotropy of the layers that make up this structure. There are concerns that these stresses can cause delamination of the material. The high cost of production is another major disadvantage of this method. The obvious fact is also relatively large losses in the form of scraps edges.

In U.S. patent N 4420359 disclosed a method of manufacturing a reinforced laminated plastic, which consists in joining one or more layers impregnated with latex and containing fiber hard plastic with flat panels. The patent describes a device for implementing this method, which uses two conveyor cloth, between which the connection occurs. Finally, in U.S. patent N 4659425 described method for the production of PS, which consists in coating the surface of the metal fo the example fiberglass) to obtain a structure consisting of a foil and fabric, and then pass this structure through the press, consisting of two conveyors, to obtain a multilayer material.

The use of a press consisting of two conveyor belts, for the manufacture of multilayer structures is known per se from European patent N 120192, N 203368, N 215392 and N 327838. However, these publications do not mention reinforced systems arranged in parallel fiber composites.

Composite materials for the manufacture of PPP, in which individual systems arranged in parallel, fiber cross-laid, well-known from US patent N 4814945. This patent describes a structure for manufacturing PPP, consisting of resins, reinforced arranged in parallel aramid fibers. Several layers of resin heated to profilirovannogo state (stage B), and then these layers, reinforced fibers arranged in parallel, stacked on one another and thermofixing. The disadvantage of the process in which resin used in stage B (including flows that occur when the connection layers), is that the tension and, consequently, the orientation of the fibers in the joined layers cannot lastnosti is considered to be a significant drawback. Another disadvantage of this method associated with use of resin su stage B, is that we have to solve the problems of storage substances in the active state.

The search area includes: U.S. patent N 4609586, which also described the material for the manufacture PPP, consisting of cross-laid layers. This material, however, is a metal matrix reinforced with carbon fibers, and is not used as a valid basis of PPP (the role of which is performed in this case, the typical composite material consisting of epoxy matrix reinforced with fiberglass), and serves as an additional basic component.

U.S. patent N 3150026 on the device for manufacturing non-woven reinforced plastic material, in which parallel spaced main thread serves on the reference plane, and they consistently stack oriented parallel between the weft threads and then put on the structure of the binder resin and thermofixing.

U.S. patent N 4186044 on the device for continuous pressing and heat-setting the reinforced multilayer structure, impregnated with resin, and manufacturing elongated multilayer is the feeding two webs of two reinforced in the longitudinal direction of the material, filing reinforced in the transverse direction of the material, the formation of a continuous fabric reinforced in two directions, causing the binder and bond the entire structure.

French patent N 2333638 on the method of manufacture of conveyor rubber sheet, which consists in extruding reinforced cloth, cut in the same way obtained the conveyor canvas panel, the overlap in the transverse direction of these panels on the said canvas and subsequent extrusion and vulcanization.

The technical task of the invention is to provide a simple, relatively inexpensive method of manufacturing a reinforced composite material, devoid of the disadvantages inherent in the known methods described above. The method involves the fabrication of reinforced composite parallel-arranged fibers of the material, mainly intended for the manufacture of a PPP basis.

The invention differs in that the above-mentioned known system of parallel fibers coated with an even flow substances pass through the zone of connection with the pre-formed non-leaking kompozicionnogo oriented reinforcing fibers, immersed in a matrix of substances, hardened (consolidated) to the extent that we are not moving in fluid form within other processes this way. This means that during storage and processing of non-leaking reinforced composite structures they are in such conditions (pressure and temperature) under which these structures are not softened (for example, at a temperature below the softening temperature or close to it). Several stages of the condition of the matrix substance (matrix resin) identified known in the art method positions A, B and C, where:

stage defines A unripe fruit state of the resin (i.e., in the case of thermosetting resin is a stage determinirovannogo status);

stage B in the General case, means the partial curing (in the case of thermosetting resin is a reaction cured passed through the stage of formation of long molecular chains, but has not completed the formation of crystal lattice);

stage C defines the complete curing (heat setting).

For convenience of storage and processing is preferred for curing stagnant reinforced composition to bring it to stage C, and resins, which is the development and processing can be achieved non-leaking condition on the stage, indicated by the position B. However, it is noteworthy that, if the connection zone (laminating) the pressing is carried out at constant pressure, it can also be used resin in stage A. the Concept of stages A, B and C are known to specialists in this field and do not require further explanation.

The concept still unripe fruit of the matrix substance is a substance that has a sufficiently low viscosity at the stage of applying them in parallel spaced fibers to ensure their impregnation, such as a thermoplastic resin in the liquid phase. Still unripe fruit thermosetting resins are typically in stage A or B (with the exception of thermosetting resins mentioned above, which means that they no longer have the fluidity in stage B).

It should be noted that the passage through the zone of connection of parallel fibers coated with another unripe fruit matrix substances allows to use non-leaking composites that do not meet the strict requirements from the point of view of application of the binder, and sufficient binder is applied in the form of these unripe fruit matrix substances. Unripe fruit matrix substances usually beaulne located fiber.

The orientation of reinforcing fibers in a pre-made stagnant composites differs from the orientation of the fibers, which is applied matrix material and with which the first connect.

To obtain a multilayer reinforced structures having the desired isotropic properties, it is preferable that the two systems are arranged in parallel fibers crossed at right angles. From a practical point of view, it is preferable that the orientation of the fibers, which is applied matrix substances, coincided with the longitudinal direction of the device for the manufacture of the material, in which is performed the process.

As you know, the layered structure with the location of the cross parallel systems of fibers preferably have an isotropic balanced and symmetric properties. The term "balanced" refers to the sameness of properties in mutually perpendicular directions (for example, when the same number of fibers in the longitudinal and transverse directions), and the term "symmetric" means flipping properties on the thickness of the structure, i.e., a multilayer structure is symmetrical relative to the Central plane. A method of manufacturing mnogoelementnym way for example, submission of parallel fibres, covered by another unripe fruit of the matrix substance in such a way that they are located on both sides of the stagnant composite elements reinforced fibers arranged in parallel. The words "both sides" here refers to the outer surface of stagnant composite elements reinforced fibers arranged in parallel, which are usually thin flat panel.

It should be noted that the described process can be repeated several times. In this case, instead of stagnant composite elements reinforced fibers arranged in parallel in one direction are used in each subsequent stage duplication stagnant compositional elements, usually reinforced in mutually intersecting directions, which are described way. In this way stagnant elements, reinforced in mutually intersecting directions, must be passed through a zone of overlap in the direction in which it turns out balanced and symmetric with respect to the Central plane of the structure.

Usually it is advisable to expose termitaria ensure complete utverjdenie state matrix management across all layers.

The main advantage of the method of manufacturing a non-leaking composite panels reinforced fibers arranged in parallel in the first stage, is that you do not have to hold parallel spaced fibers under tension throughout the entire manufacturing process, so as stagnant matrix substance maintains the desired orientation of the fibers. In comparison with the known methods, the described method provides a simple and easy preservation of orientation of the fibers, which is vital in the manufacture of composites reinforced with fibers arranged in parallel.

Another advantage of the method according to this invention is that it is very suitable for use resins with high molecular weight without the use of solvents, as well as catalyzed resins (this is especially important when using electroplating method metallization). These commercially important resins are not sufficiently impregnate the fibrous structure, in which different layers of parallel fibers are superimposed on one another and subsequently impregnated (EP 478051).

A method of manufacturing a non-leaking compositions reinforced couples who iality in this area are free to choose one of several known methods for the production of composite elements, reinforced fibers arranged in parallel. One suitable method is, for example, impregnated with a synthetic resin layer of reinforcing fibers fed from the bobbins mounted on the Creel. Impregnation can be carried out, for example, pass the fibers through a bath containing the liquid or soluble matrix material.

Alternatively, you can use the matrix substance in the form of a powder, emulsion or suspension. Preferably, however, use of the matrix substance in the form of liquid or solution supplied metering device on the fiber coiled from the bobbins mounted on the Creel. Matrix substances, reinforced fibers arranged in parallel, thus obtained, then otverzhdajutsja (to the extent required), preferably without any process interruption. In the case of thermosetting matrix substances curing takes place during heat-setting. Heat setting is preferably carried out at elevated temperature, but depending on the type of resins can also be used with ultraviolet or microwave radiation. In the case of thermoplastic substances which ristalliceski substances should be cooled below their melting point. In the case of amorphous plastics they must be cooled to the glass transition temperature.

In accordance with the invention using a pressing device consisting of two conveyor paintings can be considered to be preferred, because it is the best possible means of obtaining composites reinforced arranged in parallel threads. With this pressing device consisting of two conveyor canvases, fibers at least are about dosing device, causing one of them of the matrix substance, and through the press nip. Depending on the type of matrix substances it has impregnated fiber is passed through one or more zones curing, although the formed composition may in addition be put through a purification zone or cooling, if necessary. If required, the process can be repeated to obtain thicker compositions. In this case, reinforced compositions obtained in the previous process, are introduced into the zone of overlap between pressing conveyors and connected with the systems of parallel fibers coated with uncured matrix substance, and direction parallela direction of the device.

Not a significant method of applying a matrix material in parallel spaced fibers passing through the zone of overlap with the pre-formed non-leaking reinforced compositions. One possible method consists in coating a layer of fibers and matrix materials. Another method consists of passing each monofilament through a bath containing a matrix material. In the alternative case can be used pre-impregnated fibers. It is preferable to pass the fiber through the power zone, during or after which they are applied in the matrix substance. The zone diet includes devices for distribution (broadening) of the bundle of monofilaments and to regulate tension and orientation. Preferably in the area of nutrition to organize the site, where there is pressurized and pre-heated. One of the possible ways of heating is the direct use of gas burners.

For production of the final composite composite fabrics one or more layers of such pre-formed non-leaking flat reinforced compositions must be duplicated with parallel-arranged fibers coated with the compositions differed from the orientation of the fibers, covered matrix substances, which are duplicated with reinforced compositions.

It is preferable to create a cross-location systems fibres at right angles and, as noted above, balanced and symmetrical relative to the Central plane of the multilayer structure. The plane of symmetry, which passes through the center of the multilayered structure and parallel to the outer surfaces of either coincides with the boundary plane between two layers of parallel fibers, or is an imaginary plane passing through one layer of parallel fibers depending on the number or order of layers of parallel fibers in the thickness of the multilayer material. Balanced and symmetrical relative to the Central plane of the multilayer material containing cross-spaced reinforcing layers arranged in parallel fibers, known as multilayer material with cross reinforcement. The main advantage of such multilayer materials is isomorphicto their properties in the longitudinal and transverse directions (for example, if a system of reinforcing fibers cross at right angles).

More preferred is Ana in them in order, the appropriate one of the following models, and layers with longitudinal orientation (0oin the transverse orientation (90o) fibers are at right angles, and the relative thickness of the layers is determined by the repetition of this orientation. This alternation must preferably be as follows:

0o/90o90o/0o.

0o/90o90o/0o0o/90o90o/0o.

Usually for the manufacture of circuit boards printed circuit layers, reinforced fibers arranged in parallel, in duplicate multilayer materials made in accordance with the present invention should have a thickness within 6-800 MK, preferably 15-400 MK.

Alternatively, it is possible, in accordance with the invention, to apply several layers one on another in the same process. You can, for example, to skip a few pre-formed non-leaking composite materials reinforced with fibers arranged in parallel, and/or multi-layered compositions with cross arrangement of the reinforcing fibers through the zone overlaps with fibers arranged in parallel with another unripe fruit matrix substances. In for example, a layer of parallel fibers coated with a matrix substances, which are in solid state at the temperature of the food (usually at room temperature), but moving in a fluid state in the conditions of the process. In this case, it is preferable to skip the pre-impregnated system of fibers through the zone of overlap between the pre-formed non-leaking compositions or pre-formed non-leaking materials with transverse reinforcing structure.

It should be noted that the present invention also allows the manufacture of an endless belt composite materials with fibers arranged in parallel or cross-spaced fiber systems. Typically, these tapes can be wound on the coil directly after manufacturing. In addition, it should be noted that the invention allows to produce asymmetric multilayer structure, reinforced by systems of intersecting fibers. A few of these basic materials can be processed in any desired order so as to form a balanced and symmetrical material with transverse structure of reinforcing fibers.

lockname, can be entered one or more layers containing non-woven material or fabric in the area of the plane of symmetry, and conducted through the zone of overlap. In this case, in accordance with the present invention, layers containing non-woven material or fabric, alternate with layers of reinforced fibers arranged in parallel, preferably so that the outer layers were always formed in parallel spaced fibers. This allows to increase the dielectric properties of the material to the desired level, while maintaining a good surface quality, and further reduce the voltage between the layers.

Particularly favorable results can be achieved if the process is carried out in accordance with the invention, is performed using the area of overlap of the pressing device consisting of two conveyors. Thus, a method of manufacturing a multilayer composite material consisting of layers of parallel fibers, preferably overlapping, implying (first stage) in the formation of stagnant composition by applying a matrix substance in parallel spaced fibers, the omission of these is olnine in the form of two conveyors, and perevoda matrix substances in non-leaking condition, and (second stage) at the input of the measuring elements pre-formed non-leaking composite material reinforced with fibers arranged in parallel, in the pressing device consisting of two conveyors, and the connection of this composite material with a matrix substance containing parallel spaced fibers in a specified way. Practically it may be useful to perform both steps in a single device, but, of course, it is not necessarily.

More preferred, the production of almost continuous reinforced composite material during the first phase and tapping it on the dimensional elements, the length of which is equal to the width of the material coming out of the pressing device consisting of two conveyors. This eliminates loss of material, which ensures high economic efficiency of the proposed method. In accordance with the invention, the most preferable method of manufacturing a multilayer composite materials, reinforced in the transverse direction, is a symmetric process, which is pre-manufactured is of exporting, one more time so that the two outer surfaces of pre-formed composite material reinforced with fibers arranged in parallel, joined by parallel spaced fibers coated with a matrix substance, the orientation of which is perpendicular to the orientation of the fibers pre-formed reinforced material. Fibers which are not yet applied the matrix substance, retracted in the longitudinal direction of the pressing device consisting of two conveyors, as in the manufacture of pre-formed composite reinforced fibers arranged in parallel materials, and during the final process of duplication. Usually at the stage of duplication of pre-formed reinforced composite material thus introduced into the pressing device consisting of two conveyors so that the reinforcing fibers is perpendicular to the longitudinal direction of the device.

Alternatively, in accordance with the invention, the first stage of the duplication matrix substance containing parallel spaced fibers, can be connected with the pre-sformirovana oriented in the same direction (the longitudinal direction of the device, where is the connection process), and in the next step, duplication thus obtained a thicker reinforced composition may be introduced into a multilayer structure with cross-orientation of reinforcing fibers. Therefore, it may be made of a multilayer material having the following structure:

90o/90o/0o/0o0o/0o/90o/90o.

It should be noted that the pressing device consisting of two transporters, known to experts in this field, therefore further explanation is not required. The method in accordance with the invention can be implemented and on the other duplicating equipment, but the use of the device, consisting of two conveyors, preferably (not necessarily create pressure on the device).

Also in the case of the embodiment of the proposed method, which is manufacturing symmetric materials and use equipment such as the above-mentioned device, consisting of two conveyors, the present invention enables to produce asymmetric base materials with a structure of type 0o/90o. For this purpose, if required, usually podatnych (with the possibility of separation of the individual patterns, preferable one structure full thickness. Thus, in the first stage, the two systems are arranged in parallel fibres, covered by another unripe fruit of the matrix substance is passed through the device duplication and subjected to heat-setting, but with the possibility of separation of the foil does not stick to the material in the process of duplication. This package of two separate non-leaking compositions reinforced fibers arranged in parallel, may be filed in the transverse direction in the device again for the connection (in accordance with the method according to this invention) with parallel-arranged fibers, provided with another unripe fruit of the matrix substance, and heat-setting. Thus receive two separate sealed basic structure, reinforced arranged in parallel with the fibers oriented in one of them in the longitudinal direction (0o). and the other in the transverse (90o). Similarly, the individual layers of foil can serve in an area of duplication at any desired stage of manufacture of material in accordance with the invention, which provides a wide range of opportunities for the production of multilayer structures containing any desired number of layers is ary structures. Detachable foil, for example PTFE (PTFE), known to specialists in this field.

For implementing the method in accordance with the invention, it is preferable to use the pressure device containing two conveyor, in which there is a zone of constant pressure. The advantage of this pressing device in comparison with the pressure controlled by the gap, is that the amount of material filed in the press, more important than the gap between the branches of the conveyor, and that the quantity of material has a decisive influence on the thickness of the produced material. Such media allow the manufacture of thin multilayer structure having a high uniformity in thickness (variations in thickness are within a few percent of the total thickness in the case of the press zone of constant pressure; in the case of media with a controlled gap fluctuations in thickness almost none).

Alternatively, non-leaking multilayer material with a cross-section structure of reinforcing fibers, passed through the area of overlap can be made different from the one proposed in the present invention method. Tagbleware, except when they coincide with copper foil. In this case, the use zone of constant pressure by two conveyors, preferably, even if not all favorable factors previously described method thus implemented.

To further reduce the amount of waste in the form of edges, preferably in the proposed method when using a pressing device with a zone of constant pressure, comprising two conveyors, apply viscous thermoplastic resin (e.g., by extrusion), which are also deformed under conditions of constant pressure, supported along the edges of the material passing through the pressing device consisting of two conveyors. The positive effect of this process is that any protruding from the zone of the conveyor paintings items that may appear on their edges and form a thinned plots, which then must be cut, will be bonded into the polymer regional material, thus substantially reducing the amount of material protruding from the press area formed by the pair of conveyors.

Another advantage of this method of ustroystva, consisting of two conveyors, without the formation of large amounts of waste in the form of edges, unlike presses, designed for the manufacture of material of only one width. In addition, in embodiments, implementation of the proposed method, which uses copper foil, it is not necessary that the foil was made by a few inches on each side, as required in the known methods. Thus is achieved a substantial saving of material.

In addition, a disadvantage of known methods is that the resulting matrix substance on the edges can grab between the copper foil and conveyors. The adhesion of the matrix substance to the copper foil and/or to conveyor paintings occurring under such conditions, detrimental effect on the quality of the material produced in the contaminated zone. For this reason, preferably, in accordance with the invention, to use polymers with low adhesion, for example polyolefins, along the edges. More specifically, it is preferable to use polyethylene or polypropylene.

As noted above, the method according to this invention is useful for the manufacture of a PPP basis. On the basis applied Tishkov, or coating. When using the first method on at least one surface of the base PPS apply a continuous layer of metal foil. Then, using known technology, remove a piece of foil by etching, leaving the track the desired path. The materials from which may be formed such coatings are usually copper, Nickel or gold. When using the second method, the basis of PPP is immersed in the electrolysis bath. The purpose of this process is the deposition of copper in the required locations of the electroplating solution by electrolysis. In practice, all multi-layered panel is subjected to catalysis, at least the surface on which should be applied to the printed circuit. The surface, which should not be deposited copper, covered with a photosensitive resin.

The conductive material or the catalytic layer can be applied on multi-layered panel made in accordance with the invention, any known method, for example by application of a bonding agent and the bonding of the copper foil. In this case, the invention is assumed to use a multilayer composite material manufactured by one of the variants of the method described is used as the basis PPP, the proposed method allows. Thus, the invention enables the manufacture of panels for the implementation of both methods metallization: either by applying copper foil in the duplication process, or the introduction of a matrix substance additives that serve as a catalyst in the electroformed process. In addition, application of substances active in the electroplating process may be carried out in the manufacturing process of the multilayer material or besides him. Such coatings typically include a modified rubber, known to specialists in this field and are called "adhesive additives", although here no matter what adhesive is used, and the strength of the film formed by them. In the method according to the present invention can be applied application of adhesive outside the production line, but it can be successfully applied to such substances in the line during the final duplication. In embodiments that use a pressing device containing two conveyor, of a cloth which can be made of steel. Can be electroformed to put on a steel blade conveyors copper coating, which in the duplication process can be transferred to the multilayer material.

If you intend to produce composite materials with an adhesive layer on each outer surface, the preferred variant of the method corresponding to the present invention, can be performed using a pressing device consisting of two conveyors, and system of fibers and matrix substance is directed in the horizontal plane during the execution of the processes prior to duplication, in order to prevent the influence of its own weight on the two sides of the material.

Another advantage of the method lies in the fact that it is possible in this setup, save the longitudinal direction in such position that the said arbitrary coating material when the output from the zone of overlap is produced in the vertical direction and the longitudinal direction of the device corresponds to the direction of action of gravity.

As an alternative, a material made in accordance with the invention (composition, reinforced located parallel to the surface treatment to improve adhesion. Such treatments include, for example, the impact of crown discharge or plasma of low pressure, which are known. It is preferable their conduct after areas of duplication and before applying any substances or materials.

It may be effective to pre-processing paintings transporters in the area of duplication anti-adhesive substances. Anti-adhesive substances known, and they can be divided into two groups. Some migrated to the materials passing through the zone of overlap, while others are not migrated. The latter is preferable, although they can be used first, if the processing surfaces, similar to those described above, as any passing anti-adhesive substance may be removed during such processing.

Alternatively, to prevent sticking to the paintings of the conveyor in the area of overlap may be easily detachable foil.

The invention also relates to the manufacture of a PPP basis, which can be obtained using the process described above. In other words, the output is a multilayered structure having at least one surface, podhodyashiy the positioning elements, immersed in it, and these parallel spaced elements are in the form of several overlapping layers, which are symmetrically positioned with respect to a plane of symmetry passing through the middle of the multilayer structure and parallel to its outer surfaces. Structure of the faculty, in accordance with the present invention, are characterized in that the thickness of its layers, which are further removed from the plane of symmetry, felt less heat than layers closer to her. For greater clarity, it can be argued that until the final heat-setting the conversion layers in PPPs is to flip on the said mid-plane, resulting in the decrease in the degree of curing from the middle to the surfaces (inner layers otverzhdajutsja to a greater extent than the outer).

Materials produced by the method corresponding to the present invention, have the advantage that the initial tension in them lower and more evenly distributed than in similar materials known from the patents EP N 478051 and USA N 4943334. Known materials are manufactured according to methods which require at least mine be kept under tension during the entire process. This leads to increased level of stress exceeds the stress in the material made in accordance with the present invention, in which each time the voltage in one direction are fixed in the cured matrix substances at such a level that the voltage is not transferred to the further process. It is important to have a low internal stresses in the material. Needless to say that the absolute requirement is that all of these voltages must not exceed the limit of stability of Euler bending. However, great importance is also the fact that the internal voltage should not be too close to this limit, because the extra voltage, presumably created during the further process of forming the material, leads to instability of the material, i.e., increase the likelihood of warpage. Another advantage of the materials obtained by the proposed method is the fact that they adequately homogeneous distributed internal stresses and uniformly induces relaxation. The latter is particularly important because the inner layers had a chance to relax to connect with the outside.

Source materials used is about to use the original substances and materials, below.

As a matrix substances can be used a thermoplastic or thermosetting polymers, but preferably a thermosetting resin. It is preferable to use epoxy resin as the matrix substance, but other resins, in principle, can be applied. For example, ester cyanate, unsaturated polyester resins, vinyl esters, acrylic resin, BT-epoxy, bismaleimide resin (BMI), polyamide, phenolic resin, triazine, polyurethane, silicone resin, beltranena resin. In alternative embodiments may use different combinations of resins, and mixtures of the above resins with some specific thermoplastic polymers, such as PPO, PES, PSU and PEI among others. Preferably in a matrix substances such compounds, which turn them into fire, as, for example, phosphoric or halogenated (especially brain connection. Specific matrix substance, which is preferred for its favorable properties of fluidity and heat-setting, contains about 100 weight. including Epikote 828EL, about 73 weight. including Epikote 5050 and about 30 weight. hours of isophorondiamine.

From the point of view of introducing soedineniya on the environment, they should be used in minimal quantities. The method proposed by the invention has the advantage that it allows the different layers in the structure to be positioned in such a way that only the outer layers would have a significant resistance, and it is very important to prevent ignition of such materials. This process can also be reproduced in the case of manufacturing PPP.

In the matrix substance can be injected fillers usual method, for example, quartz or glass powder, such as borosilicate steklovata. In addition, matrix substances can be reported catalytic properties for the galvanic deposition of copper, for example, the introduction of noble metals or compounds of precious metals, especially palladium.

Although the preferred reinforcing elements are composite yarns (untwisted), staple fibers may also be used. In accordance with the invention, the reinforcing filaments are preferably selected from the following materials: glass, for example, marks E, A, C, D, AR, R, S1,S2, and various ceramic materials, such as carbide and aluminum carbide silicone. For reinforcement is also suitable polymer fibers, osobenno (PBT) and polybenzimidazole (PBI), fiber-based polyethylenterephtalate (PEN), polyethylene terephthalate (PETP), polyster (PPS), polybenzimidazole (PBO).

In General, the content of fibers in a matrix material may be 10-90% (by volume), preferably in the range of about 40-70%. The most satisfactory is the volumetric fiber content of about 50%.

Furthermore, the method in accordance with the invention enables to produce a relatively inexpensive PPPs with a thin middle layer. Cost-effectively produce multilayer structures, reinforced thin fabrics. For example, a thin middle layer, whose thickness is 100 μm, usually made of resin reinforced with two layers of fiberglass "Style 108", surface density which 48,2 g/m2. Such a thin fabric made of glass yarns with a linear density of 5.5 dtex, the cost of which is approximately 10 times higher than the cost of the roving with a linear density of 136 Tex. In accordance with the present invention it is possible to use this relatively inexpensive roving with a linear density of 136 Tex for the manufacture of multilayer thin material.

It should be noted in this connection that the material reinforced with fibres, for the manufacture of material thickness (μm) to the average linear density of yarn (Tex). The invention allows the manufacture of multilayer materials, the coefficient of T which may be less than 5,5.

The advantage of this method, described above, is the use of pre-formed non-leaking compositions reinforced fibers arranged in parallel that can capture the high degree of expansion, for example, be achieved by using a curved surface in the zone diet, by at least partial curing.

The invention also relates to multi-layered, complex PPP. The layered structure made in accordance with the present invention, particularly well suited for use in the process described in the previously unpublished application for international patent application PCT/EP 92/01133 (publication number WO 92/22192). In accordance with this process the hard base structure coated with printed circuits on both sides is duplicated with the intermediate structure so that this intermediate structure consisting of a rigid Central layer is still plastically deformable adhesive layer at least on the side facing the conductive circuit on the base structure, and a multilayer structure is pressure, cestiny contact with the printed circuit base structure and fills the voids between the slopes of the scheme with an adhesive substance, which are glued to the base structure and the intermediate structure. Composite materials made in accordance with the invention, suitable for use as base structures, as well as intermediate structures. Thus, the invention relates also to the use of composite multilayer materials for the production of coated adhesive panel insulators. The method of manufacture described below.

Of course, filling voids, fluid adhesive layer can be deposited on the multilayer structure described earlier. However, the manner previously described, whereby the adhesive layer can be deposited on the composite multilayer material primarily intended for use in the manufacture of intermediate structures, provided with a filling voids adhesive layer. Preference is given to the underlying structures coated with printed circuits, representing the faculty, which are also manufactured by the method corresponding to the present invention. A large number of polymers suitable for use as an adhesive composition for bonding conductors printed circuits. Particularly suitable thermosetting resins is reconised (BCl) ester cyanate, trainability and mixtures thereof.

A number of additives can be introduced into the adhesive prior to its application, for example, catalysts, inhibitors, surfactants, etiotropnye reagents and especially fillers. These fillers are preferably selected from the following groups of materials: quartz powder, glass powder, ceramic powder, for example a carbide of aluminum. Preferably, the fillers to be used, have a low coefficient of thermal expansion and low dielectric constants. Satisfactory results can be achieved by using as a filler of hollow spheres. These spheres may be made of polymers or ceramic materials or glass. Expanding polymer powders are especially applicable as fillers.

In contrast to multilayer structures, reinforced fabrics, complex, multi-layered structure made in accordance with the present invention are also applicable for use in flexible panels or structures and rigid-flexible structures. When using fabrics in flexible panels of the latest cracks the SJ thread, arranged in the direction perpendicular to the direction of bending. This adverse effect is increasing due to the large concentration of filaments and, therefore, places overlap them, leads to cracking at relatively small radii. Such cracks lead to large stress concentration in the conductive elements with a flexible multilayer structures and, consequently, to the high probability of the formation of large cracks and rupture of conductors. In the flexible multilayer structures (or in the flexible parts of the rigid-flexible structures) orientation parallel fibers in the layers should preferably be directed parallel to the plane in which the bending. The method, implemented in accordance with the present invention, to a large extent allows to make such a flexible structure due to the fact that even unripe fruit of the matrix substance containing fibers, can easily be arranged in the form of the outer layers of the multilayer structure, and the orientation of the fibers may be made in the desired direction (in other words, it is preferable that when forming the outer layers of the material direction is made to coincide with the plane in which one expects Asim invention, primarily intended for the manufacture of boards in various integrated circuits, printed on them (multicomponent modules). This is thanks to the low coefficient of thermal expansion, owing mainly large proportion of the fibers in the material volume that can be achieved in the manufacture of laminated materials with cross structure of reinforcing fibers. And this factor can be almost equal to the coefficient of thermal expansion of electronic components (chips) used in conjunction with faculty, particularly those with complex PPP. Such components can be placed on the surface of the complex PPP (chip on wafer) or pressed into the base Board, such as an intermediate multilayer structure made in accordance with the patent WO 92/01133 (chip cards).

Furthermore, the method carried out in accordance with the invention, as well as composite materials made in accordance with the present method, can be used to produce so-called mass multilayer materials. This method in General is that the layer of material is applied on both sides of the electric circuit and pokryvayuschaya (in continuous lines or in discontinuous processes) mass multilayer materials in which layer coated on both surfaces of the conductive elements is passed through a zone of overlap instead of or in combination with pre-formed non-leaking compositions and equipped on each side with a layer of matrix substances containing parallel spaced fibers, especially when using a device containing two conveyor. At a later stage duplication PPPs with layers of reinforced fibers arranged in parallel, made of the above can be re-covered with layers of parallel fibers, this time oriented transverse with respect to the previous direction, in accordance with the above description.

The drawing shows a diagram of a preferred variant of the device, which uses a single pressure node, consisting of two conveyors, as for the manufacture of pre-formed compositions, reinforced fibers arranged in parallel, and for the final duplication. The drawings are presented only for illustrative purposes and should not be construed as limiting in any way the crust is et to execute the present invention. Description of the action represented by the device and its components is shown below.

The formation of stagnant compositions reinforced longitudinally arranged fibers.

Package 2 is installed on spolarich 1. Preferably used roving. Formed the flooring parallel spaced complexes monofilaments 3, which is converted into a homogeneous layer of parallel spaced monofilaments 5 using Shiites 4. Using the dosing node 6 is applied to the matrix film 7 on the conveyor canvas 8 or tape 9, served with rolls installed on rolled racks 10. Then the matrix film 7 is put into contact with a homogeneous layer of parallel spaced monofilaments 5.

In the heating zone 11 is impregnated and remove air. Two layers 12 arranged in parallel monofilaments, impregnated with a matrix substance, join together and passed through a heated zone of duplication 13, where they compress and thermofixing, forming a single layer.

After the material passes through the cooling zone 14 where it comes in the form of a continuous web 15. This fabric is cut cutting device 16 on the panel 18, which are collected, e.g. the Oh.

Performs the same operation as described above, prior to the introduction of impregnated parallel fibers in the area of duplication 13. From truck 19 panel 20 stagnant compositions reinforced located parallel to the fibers, rotated 90owith respect to the longitudinal direction of the device, serves in the area of duplication 13 so that on each side of the panels serves a system impregnated parallel fibers 12. The orientation of the fibers in the panels 18 thus perpendicular orientation impregnated parallel fibers 12. The pressed material is then processed as described above to form the final material with a cross-section structure of a reinforcing fiber systems (not shown specifically in the drawing). This process can be repeated to obtain a material containing the desired number of layer, or to achieve a desired thickness of material.

Depending on the destination of the material it can be applied adhesive layers with the help of the device 21, shown in the form of additional rectangle 22. Such an adhesive layer can perform the role described previously added adhesives" for NLA the manufacture of complex, multi-layered material. In an alternative embodiment, can be applied photosensitive layers (permanent) substances in the same way.

Multilayer materials with cross-layer structure of reinforcing fibres produced are described relatively inexpensive way of providing a small amount of waste, have the required favorable properties such as good flatness, good surface quality, low coefficient of thermal expansion.

1. A method of manufacturing a multilayer composite material, in which parallel spaced fibers are further unripe fruit of the matrix substance and after application of the matrix substance in parallel spaced fibers these fibers are passed through a zone of overlap in layers in at least two different directions, and the matrix substance utverjdayut, wherein the parallel spaced fiber, which caused another unripe fruit of the matrix substance is passed through a zone of overlap with the pre-formed non-leaking compositions reinforced fibers arranged in parallel.

2. A method of manufacturing a multilayer composite mater of the application of matrix substances in parallel spaced fibers these fibers are passed through a zone of overlap in layers in at least two different directions, and the matrix substance utverjdayut, wherein the parallel spaced fiber, which caused another unripe fruit of the matrix substance is passed through a zone of overlap with the pre-formed non-leaking compositions reinforced by systems of intersecting parallel fibers.

3. The method according to p. 1 or 2, characterized in that the duplication process is carried out, using the pressing device containing two conveyor.

4. The method according to p. 3, characterized in that in the first stage, form a non-leaking composite material reinforced with fibers arranged in parallel, by passing parallel fibers, bearing still unripe fruit of the matrix substance, through the pressing device containing two conveyor, and the transformation matrix substances in non-leaking condition, and the second stage dimensional plots of the pre-formed non-leaking composite material reinforced with fibers arranged in parallel, is introduced into the pressing device containing two conveyor, and this composite material is duplicated with another unripe fruit matrix substance containing parallel R is as conveyor, along the two outer surfaces of stagnant composite material reinforced with fibers arranged in parallel, miss still unripe fruit of the matrix substance, wired in parallel spaced fibers oriented predominantly perpendicular to the direction of orientation of the fibers in the composite material.

6. The method according to p. 4 or 5, characterized in that the dimensional plots of composite materials reinforced fibers arranged in parallel, is formed by cutting using a cutting device of a continuous material, reinforced fibers arranged in parallel, is formed in the first stage, the plots, the length of which is approximately equal to its width.

7. The method according to any of paragraphs.3 to 6, characterized in that the use of the pressing device containing two conveyor and including an area of overlap, which creates a constant pressure.

8. The method according to p. 7, characterized in that the edges of the material passing between the conveyors of the pressing device, serves thermoplastic polymer in the direction of passage of the material.

9. The method according to any of paragraphs.1 to 8, characterized in that at least one is of extraprovincial in the manufacture of printed circuits boards.

10. The method according to p. 9, characterized in that on the outer surface of the matrix material, fiber reinforced, when it passes through the zone of overlap, paste a metal foil suitable for the formation of printed circuits by the method of subtraction.

11. The method according to p. 9, characterized in that after passing through the zone of overlap of the composite multilayer material cover base layer for bonding galvanized deposited runs of printed circuits.

12. the method according to any of paragraphs.1 to 8, characterized in that the composite multilayer material covering adhesives for the manufacture of these multi-layered foundations of printed circuits boards and adhesives must be converted to a fluid state.

13. The method according to any of paragraphs. 1 - 12, characterized in that several pre-formed non-leaking composite materials simultaneously passed through an area of duplication in the form of compositions, reinforced arranged in parallel with the fibers oriented in one direction or in intersecting directions.

14. The method according to p. 13, characterized in that the use of pre-impregnated parallel is the project include at least on each side of the pre-impregnated fibers.

15. The method according to any of paragraphs.1 to 14, characterized in that at least one layer comprising a non-woven material or fabric, is also passed through an area of duplication.

16. The method according to p. 15, characterized in that the layers containing non-woven material or fabric, is passed through a zone of overlap so that they alternate with layers of reinforced fibers arranged in parallel, symmetric order, the latter always form the outer layers.

17. Composite multilayer material, reinforced perekrashivalki systems of fibers, characterized in that it is manufactured in accordance with the method according to any of paragraphs. 1 - 16, including duplication stagnant composite material reinforced with fibers arranged in parallel, or stagnant composite materials reinforced intersecting systems of fibers and parallel fibers, provided with another unripe fruit of the matrix substance, and contains compounds that report material fire, put in another unripe fruit matrix material layers attached last.

18. Board printed circuit containing composite multilayer material, characterized in that carcinoge material, reinforced fibers arranged in parallel, or stagnant composite materials reinforced intersecting systems of fibers and parallel fibers, provided with another unripe fruit of the matrix substance, and at least one outer surface of the composite multilayer material is subjected to processing for applying the electrically conductive circuit elements.

19. Fee under item 18, characterized in that the composite multilayer material is characterized by the ratio of thickness T = x / y, which is smaller than that of 5.5 μm/Tex., where x is the thickness of the multilayer material, um, y - linear density parallel fibers, Tex.

20. Multilayer base printed circuit Board containing at least three layers of conductive material and at least two layers of insulating material, characterized in that used as an insulating composite material made in accordance with the method according to one of paragraphs. 9 - 11, the manufacturing process, which includes the duplication stagnant composite material reinforced with fibers arranged in parallel, or stagnant composite materials reinforced perecles what idestam, moreover, at least one of the outer surfaces of the composite multilayer material was processed. contributing to the application of the electrically conductive circuit elements.

21. A method of manufacturing a multilayer basics printed circuit Board having a conductive circuit on both sides, where it is covered by a dielectric layer, reinforced with fibers, and a layer of copper foil, characterized in that a multilayer structure having a conductive circuit on both sides, pass through a pressing device containing two conveyor, together with parallel-arranged fibers, impregnated still unripe fruit matrix substance for the formation of a printed circuit Board, covered with parallel arranged fibers, and a charge circuit with such coating is passed through the pressing device containing two conveyor, together with parallel-arranged fibers, impregnated unripe fruit of the matrix substance and a layer of copper foil, and the orientation of the parallel fibers, covering the cost of the printed circuit perpendicular to the longitudinal direction of the pressing device.

22. The basis for printed circuits containing composition is Esenia circuit conductive elements, containing a matrix substance, reinforced fibers arranged in parallel so that these fibers form the various layers with overlapping orientation, these layers are arranged symmetrically relative to the Central plane of symmetry parallel to the outer surfaces of the multilayer material, wherein the different layers are arranged in parallel reinforcing fibers are subjected to different heat treatment depending on the position of the layer relative to the plane of symmetry, and the further layer is separated from this plane, the less heat on it compared to the layers located closer to the plane of symmetry.

 

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