Mill for cross-wedge rolling

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the processing of metals by pressure, and is intended for receiving the shaft and the axes of the stepped profile using the method of cross-wedge rolling. Mill for cross-wedge rolling comprises a frame and set it rolling mill. On two opposite inner surfaces of the cage mounted on the guides tooling plate with the supporting surfaces, which are V-tools. At least one of the plates mounted for movement, and its reference surface is made in the form of an inkjet apparatus. Rolling mill provided with a means for creating a pre-stressed state. 9 C.p. f-crystals, 1 table. 12 Il.

The invention relates to metal forming, and more particularly to mills for cross-wedge rolling.

The invention with the greatest success can be used in the manufacture of products such as stepped shafts and axles.

Known Stan for cross-wedge rolling with one movable tool [1]. The specified mill for cross-wedge rolling contains installed on the frame of the rolling mill, located in tile-and-forth movements. In the camp there is a unit to adjust the gap between instrumental plates.

The rolling mill is a team structure assembled from cast housing and cover. The body is made of transverse grooves, and the cover is transverse ribs, which are slots on the chassis, which allows the rotation axis 180oto release the cover, which raises the value of the flats and performs rasklinivanie. Thus, to spend rasklinivanie need to rotate the axis, which are on different sides of the rolling stands, which makes access to them.

Rolling crate covers tooling plate across. So formed in the rolling process the dross enters the space between the tool plate and the guide stands for descaling requires special devices.

Rolling mill mill has an internal surface that requires grinding. In this regard, the design of the rolling stands is very difficult to process. The use of molded construction housing and cover reduces the rigidity of the rolling stands due to heterogeneity of the casting.

The lower tooling plate mounted on it fixed in the new plate rests on the movable wedge plate, with the actuator moving. To prevent movement during the rolling process the wedge plate located in the rectangular groove, fixed with screws. To change the gap between instrumental plates it is necessary to stop the mill, to release klinovuyu plate placed in the groove rolling stands, then, including the drive movement of the movable wedge plate, move it by the amount necessary to achieve the required clearance. Then pin klinovuyu plate placed in the groove rolling stands. Gap adjustment is carried out repeatedly during the shift.

The disadvantages of the known mill is the complexity of the design due to, firstly, the presence of bulky system wedging containing four separate axis, secondly, the necessity to use special devices for cleaning waste and dross, thirdly, the necessity of machining the internal surfaces of the housing and cover.

In addition, the well-known mill is characterized by low performance due to the need to stop the mill to control the gap between the tools using the V-plates.

Known technical solutions closest to the volume of inovas rolling products [2]. It contains rolling mill, on the opposite inner sides of which are mounted on the guides tooling plate with the drive of the reciprocating movement of the bearing wedge tool and having a support surface and placed in the cage site adjustment of the working gap between the tool plates; steel cage, made in the form of spatial, i.e., each side of which is formed of separate longitudinal plates, and the plates of the two opposite sides of the cage are assembled into packages and plates of other parties to form three sequentially arranged pairs of levers, connected with longitudinal fins of the package and between the horizontally spaced axes, and site clearance adjustment contains eccentrics, inside levers, connected by a horizontal axis with plates, assembled in the package.

Due to the fact that rolling cage assembled from packets plates, greatly simplified the design of the mill and facilitated its production, as the set of plates provides a higher mechanical properties compared to cast construction, since less pronounced anisotropic properties.

Not the ins spacer rolling load near the maximum reduces the quality of rolled products due to deterioration of dimensional accuracy for length and diameter.

In addition, during operation of the mill there is a significant deviation of the sizes of linearity in the sliding guides instrumental plates, which leads to the deviation from roundness laminated products.

The basis of the invention is to create a mill for cross-wedge rolling, in which a constructive solution of rolling stands and guides instrumental plates would improve the performance of the mill and improving the quality of products.

This object is achieved in that in the camp for cross - wedge rolling, containing mounted on the frame of the rolling mill in the form of spatial articulated, i.e. on the opposite inner sides of which the guides are mounted tooling plate, at least one of which is made movable with the supporting surface in contact with the respective guide rails and bearing the V-tool. According to the invention a rolling mill provided with a means to create a pre-stressed state rolling stands and the reference surface of the movable tooling plate made in the form of an inkjet apparatus.

Use jet mill apparatus with air and/or gas carrier of energy, is placed in the coupling zone: the base surface of the tooling plate - guide on the inner side of link spatial, i.e. allows to implement in the design of the rolling stands, the effect of aerostatic bearings translational movement.

Use in the camp means to create a pre-stressed state rolling stands, located on outer surfaces of opposite sides, i.e. carrying the tool plate, and execute it in the form of plates with a curved surface, the end sections of which are connected to the corresponding side, i.e. by means of screw jacks, enables to adjust the influence of the magnitude of the distance of the rolling forces on the quality of the products.

It is advisable that mill tool for creating pre-stressed state rolling stands of the rolling letrados, collected from plates and having a surface in contact with the base of the tool and with the corresponding surface of the tool plate, and also performed on the corresponding curve in mirror image to the line of elastic deflection from the distance of the rolling forces. Such mounting structure of V-tools can improve the accuracy of the rolling mill products due to error compensation of the dimensional accuracy from the effects of elastic deflection directly V-tools.

Preferably, the inkjet device was made in the form of spaced square-cluster method nozzles.

Due to the fact that in the camp of the nozzle of the jet apparatus were arranged in a checkerboard pattern on the supporting surfaces instrumental plates effectively separates the friction surfaces in the guide under the influence of gas lubrication.

It is possible to mill jet apparatus was made in the form of regular relief with alternating protrusions and depressions in the geometric center of symmetry of the projections made nozzle, which has a positive effect on the reduction of field size tolerance linearity of the contact surfaces of Tupou on the supporting surface of tool plates, made in the form of cylinders or/and in the form of a truncated hemispheres, improves the manufacturability of the jet apparatus in the guide rolling stands and allows you to adjust the magnitude of the lifting force on the area of the friction surfaces.

Enough in the design of the mill ledges and hollows had a profile cross-sectional rectangular shape or a hemispherical shape. Such embodiment of the profile of the depressions and protrusions allows better use effect ejection of wear products from the zone of contact of the friction surfaces.

In Fig. 1 shows a mill for cross-wedge rolling, in which the rolling mill is made in the form of an articulated spatial, i.e., General view; Fig. 2 is a view along arrow a in Fig. 1; Fig. 3 - the plot lines of the trough opposite sides packets rolling mill stand of Fig. 4 - the design of the pads for V-tools; Fig. 5 is a variant of the design for the V-tools (same as in Fig. 4), and Fig. 6 - the design of the mill, in which the inkjet device is made in the form of spaced square-cluster method nozzles, a top view (plan) of Fig. 7 - the design of the mill with the arrangement of nozzles in a checkerboard pattern (same as the alternating projections and depressions, in the center of symmetry of the projections made nozzle, the section I-I in accordance with Fig. 7; Fig. 9 - the design of the mill with the form of execution of projections and depressions in the form of a cylinder and/or truncated hemispheres, pulling on the form in the plan in accordance with Fig. 7; Fig. 10 - the design of the mill form of the protrusions in the form of a truncated hemispheres, pulling on the form in the plan in accordance with Fig. 7; Fig. 11 - the design of the mill cross-sectional profile of the hemispherical depressions form, section II-II in accordance with Fig. 10 of Fig. 12 - the design of the mill with the bumps and hollows, the cross-sectional profile which is made rectangular and hemispherical shape, the section III-III in accordance with Fig. 9.

The proposed mill for cross-wedge rolling is shown in Fig. 1, comprises a frame 1, mounted on her cage 2 in the form of spatial, i.e. (Fig. 2), on two opposite inner sides of the packages 3 and 4 on the guides 5 are mounted movable, spaced parallel to each other in a horizontal plane in the rolling stands 2 instrumental plates 6 and 7 having a support surface 8, the bearing cone tools 9 and 10 respectively to the plates 6 and 7, mounted on the frame 1, the actuator 11 of the reciprocating policy 6, and the node 12 to adjust the gap between instrumental plates 6 and 7. The actuator 11 reciprocating movement contains a hydraulic cylinder 13, the piston rod 14 which is attached to the upper tool plate 6.

Each side of the rolling stands 2 are formed from separate longitudinal plates 15 and 16 (Fig. 1, 2).

When this plate 15 rolling stands 2 its two opposite sides are collected in packages 3 and 4 (Fig. 1, 2). Longitudinal plate 16 other parties rolling stands 2 form three consecutive pair of levers 17, 18 and 19 (Fig. 1, 2) connected with the longitudinal plates 15 packets between a horizontally arranged axis 20 (Fig. 1, 2).

The node 12 to regulate the gap between instrumental plates 6 and 7 is made in the form of a Cam disc 21 (Fig. 1, 2) located inside of the arms 17, through which are passed the horizontal axis 20, which connects the levers 17 and the longitudinal plate 15.

Rolling stand 2 is provided with means 22 for creating a pre-stressed state stands by elastic unidirectional conversion values spacer efforts F (Fig. 1) rolling, which is located on the outer surfaces of two opposite sides of the packages 3 volyanyk plates 23, conjugate convex surfaces 24 with the sides 3 and 4 respectively (i.e.) rolling stands 2. The end sections 25 and 26 of the plates 23 are attached to the sides 3 and 4 by means of screw jacks 27, respectively, protonirovannykh on the nomogram: thrust force F rolling depending on the size of the products and technology of rolling. The tool 22 may be placed between instrumental plates 6 and 7 and the tools 9 and 10, respectively, and made in the form of strips 28 - plate offsets stiffness (Fig. 4), in which the surface of the M adjacent to the instrumental plates 6 and 7 are executed on a curve (Fig. 3) in a mirrored reflection of the elastic line of the trough sides 3 and 4, i.e. respectively, of the spacer effort F rolling.

The supporting surface 8 instrumental plates 6 and 7 can be provided with a spray device 29 (Fig. 6), which is made in the form of a system located square-cluster method nozzles 30, the slice 31 which lies in the plane of the supporting surface 8 of the tool plate 6 and 7.

Nozzle 30 inkjet apparatus 29 are interconnected total 32 channels and main channel 33 (Fig. 6) for supplying carrier gas to the GAS lubrication LUBRICATION lubrication, at which time the I instrumental plates 6 and 7 can give the bearing surfaces 8 instrumental plates 6 and 7 and the guide rails 5 on the inner sides 3 and 4 of the frame 2, the property of combining inkjet apparatus with a gas-static bearing slides - gas-static bearing - HYDROSTATIC GAS BEARING slide bearing is designed to work in the mode of gas-static lubrication GOST 18282-88.

Gas lubrication is supplied to the nozzles 30 of the main channel 33 acquires this property of gas-static lubrication - AEROSTATIC gas LUBRICATION lubrication, in which a complete separation of the friction surfaces of the parts in relative motion or rest, is the result of the inflow of gas into the gap between the friction surfaces under external pressure.

In the mill for cross-wedge rolling of the nozzle 30 inkjet apparatus 29 on the supporting surfaces 8 instrumental plates 6 and 7 can be arranged in a checkerboard pattern (Fig.7) to improve grinding (LAPPING) supporting surfaces 8.

In the mill for cross-wedge rolling bearing surface 8 instrumental plates 6 and 7 (Fig. 8) is in the form of regular relief with alternating depressions 34 and the notches 35 in the geometric center of symmetry 36 which are located nozzle 30 to reduce the size of the field of tolerance straightness (STRAIGHTNESS TOLERANCE) instrumental plates 6 and 7, which improves the accuracy of laminated products.

In the mill for cross-Klenovaya 37 and/or in the form of a truncated hemispheres 38 (Fig. 8, 9) for regulating the lifting force aerostatic bearing translational movement, which is created between the support surface 8 instrumental plates 6 and 7 and the guide 5 on the inner sides 3 and 4, i.e. rolling stands 2.

In the mill for cross-wedge rolling on the supporting surface 8 instrumental plates 3 and 4, the tabs 35 and depressions 34 in the vertical cross-section defined by the curve 39 and 40 (Fig. 9), which has a rectangular shape 39 (Fig. 8 and 12) and/or curvilinear form 40 (Fig. 11 and 12).

The tabs 35 and depressions 34 on the supporting surface 8 instrumental plates 6 and 7 in plan (Fig. 9 and 10) form a system of inter-connected channels 41 and 42, the narrowing and widening, respectively (different orifice) through which the gas lubrication flows according to the Bernoulli law for the flow of gas

P + pV2/2 + pgh = const,

where

The P - energy of the gas under pressure;

pV2/2 is the kinetic energy of the current gas;

pgh is the potential energy of the current of gas.

For tapering channels V1P1= V2P2(Fig. 9, 10).

In narrow channels 41 velocity V1gas will be higher than the speed of V2gas in the broad design of the support surface 8 instrumental plates 6 and 7 gives an inkjet apparatus 29 in addition to the properties of aerostatic bearings and a new property - ejector. The gas flows through the channels 41 and 42, ejection gas flows from adjacent channels 43 and 44. For the gas jets jet apparatus 29 shown by arrows (Fig. 9, 10).

The ejection of the products of gas-static lubrication enables the effective removal of products of wear and pitting of the contact zone of a friction pair: bearing surface 8 of the tool plate 6 - guide 5.

Before work produce mill to the technological cycle, given that during the rolling process spacer efforts F reach significant values, resulting in deflection of the packages 3, 4 and, as a consequence, a reduction in the dimensional accuracy of products.

To compensate for deflection of the packages 3 and 4 depending on the product shape and size of the workpiece on the nomogram to determine the magnitude of the spacer efforts F (Fig. 1) Yves tool 22 to create a pre-stressed state rolling stands with screw jacks 27, having a Vernier scale on the drawing conventionally not shown), produces a force on the end sections 25 and 26 of the curved plate 23 made of hard-elastic material.

This force contributes to in distorting the hildren 2 prestressed condition. Simultaneously selects all the backlash in the joints spatial, i.e. rolling stands 2, which allows to reduce the error value of the total gap to zero in dimensional chain hinge joints mill.

To compensate for the deflection V of the tools 6 and 7 from the spacer efforts F rolling tool 22 is used strips 28 - corrector plate stiffness (Fig. 4 and 5).

Surface K (Fig. 4) gaskets 28, adjacent to the tools 9 and 10, in longitudinal section, perform shape as the mirror image to the elastic line deflections (Fig. 4) of the respective packages 3 and 4. To improve the accuracy of the products of the surface M of the strips 28 (Fig. 4) attached directly to the instrumental plates 6, 7, perform in longitudinal cross-section shape as the mirror image to the elastic line of the trough (Fig. 3) packages 3 and 4 from the spacer effort F arising in the process of rolling.

Commissioning of the mill is as follows. First carry out the rolling parts without gaskets 28 and through sensors built elastic line deflections from the spacer effort F rolling depending on the size and material products. Accordingly produce complete surface K of the strips 28 can be performed in longitudinal section in the form of a broken line with the inflection point and the magnitude of the cantilever deflection (Fig. 5) corresponding elastic lines deflections packages 3 and 4.

Broken line may be inscribed or circumscribed around the elastic line of the trough, depending on its steepness.

If there are sets of pads 28 for the products they are placed between the wedge tools 9 and 10 on the respective instrumental plates 6 and 7. V-tools 9 and 10 draw through the strip 28 to the instrumental plates 6 and 7. As a result of this wedge Assembly tools 9 and 10 acquire a preliminary deflection, which in the rolling process compensates for the deflection of packages 3 and 4. In the rolling process increases the dimensional accuracy of the products by reducing field tolerance to set the size of the product. When used in certain cases of V-tools 9 and 10 of the high-strength alloys, as a result of this design of the gaskets 28 V tools 9 and 10 do not cave in, and get additional prestress, the value of which compensates for the deflection of packages 3 and 4.

Mill for cross-wedge rolling is shown in Fig. 1, operates as follows.

The source of the workpiece 45 is served between wedge tools 9 and 10, then from the Pref is antalinos plate 6 (and possibly counter-movement of both instrumental plates 6 and 7). Tooling plate 6 is moved along the upper package 3 plates 16, and the tool 9 closer to the workpiece 44 and implement it. Due to friction forces arising between the wedge tools 9 and 10 and the workpiece 44, the latter is put into rotation, during which its deformation. Deformation of the workpiece 44 is carried out on the land movement of the upper wedge tool 9 until it completely passes over the lower wedge tool 10. This grip tools 9 and 10 with the workpiece 45 stop and she falls out of the tools 9 and 10, then the tooling plate 6 returns to its original position. If you find that the diametrical dimensions of the plate 45 does not match the given value, the gap between instrumental plates 9 and 10 is changed to the deviation of the actual dimensions of the plate 45 from the set. For this purpose, the node 12 to adjust clearance turn the Cam 21, located in the lever 17 of the lower package 14 plate 15, for a pre-defined angle, thereby changing the gap between the top and bottom respectively wedge tools 9 and 10. At the same time the eccentrics 21 in the lever 17 is rotated on the axis 20 of the pair of levers 18 and 19 installed par">

Simultaneously with the movement of the tool plate 6 (Fig. 1) include jet apparatus 29. Through the main channel 33 (Fig. 6) and common channel 32 of the nozzle 30 serves under pressure gas lubrication, such as air or malovostochnaja suspension or an air mixture with anti-friction additives, etc. depending on the rolling technology. In the feed gas lubrication on the slice 31 of the nozzle 30 occurs lifting force, which is between the support surface 8 of the tool plate 6 and the guide 5 of the upper package 3 forms an aerostatic bearing move with very little friction.

Gas lubrication, filling the air space of regular relief (Fig. 9, 10) inkjet apparatus 29 on the supporting surface 8 of the tool plate 6 is experiencing aerodynamic braking leakage of gas from the aerostatic bearing.

To regulate the aerodynamic drag of the gas lubrication structure of an inkjet apparatus 29 used regular relief forms (Fig. 11, 12), which has a rectangular or curvilinear profile. Depending on the distribution of the load acting in the process of rolling on the supporting surface of the tool plate 6, is used based on the practices of the apparatus 29.

In addition, the implementation of relief inkjet apparatus of the bearing 29 in the form of cylinders or hemispheres allows you to adjust the temperature gradient tool plate 6, which varies in the temperature range inlet 150 up to 450oC.

Example. Spent the rolling speed of steel products 45 GOST 1050 74. Rolling was conducted on a known base camp and camp, respectively, the characteristics of the claims. The tolerance on the diameter of the drawing was + 0,2 mm Data comparative tests are summarized in table.

The deviation from roundness when rolling on the well-known mill was + (0,09. ..0,1) mm, when rolling on the proposed mill deviation from roundness had a value of + 0,07 0,06...) mm

Mill for cross-wedge rolling mill can be widely used in various industries for manufacturing of hot or cold rolling products such as stepped shafts of ferrous and non-ferrous metals and alloys.

1. Mill for cross-wedge rolling, containing a mounted on the frame of the rolling mill, made in the form of spatial, i.e. on the opposite inner sides of which the guides are mounted instrumental or dtweedie guides and supporting the V-tool, characterized in that the rolling mill provided with a means to create a pre-stressed state rolling stands and the reference surface of the movable tooling plate made in the form of an inkjet apparatus.

2. The mill under item 1, characterized in that the means for creating a pre-stressed state rolling stands are located on outer surfaces of opposite sides, i.e. carrying the tool plate, and is made in the form of plates with a curved surface, the end sections of which are connected to the corresponding side, i.e. by means of screw jacks.

3. The mill under item 1, characterized in that the means for creating a pre-stressed state rolling stands are located between instrumental plates and their corresponding tools in the form of strips collected from plates and having a surface in contact with the base of the tool and the corresponding surface of the tool plate, and also performed on the corresponding curve in mirror image to the line of elastic deflection from the spacer efforts rolling.

4. The mill on any Opel.

5. The mill according to any one of paragraphs.1 to 3, characterized in that the inkjet device is made in the form of staggered nozzles.

6. The mill according to any one of paragraphs.1 to 3, characterized in that the inkjet device is made in the form of relief with alternating protrusions and depressions in the center of symmetry of the projections made nozzle.

7. The mill on p. 6, characterized in that the projections made in the form of cylinders.

8. The mill on p. 6, characterized in that the projections made in the form of truncated hemispheres.

9. The mill on the PP.7 to 9, characterized in that the cross-sectional profile of the depressions is made rectangular in shape.

10. The mill on p. 6, characterized in that the cross-sectional profile of the depressions made hemispherical shape.

 

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