Device for video compression (options), the device for receiving the compressed video signal and a device for processing video signal

 

(57) Abstract:

The inventive device video compression includes memory (12, 14} to store two fields of image data and issuance of fields, separated by an interval of one frame. Image data from the relevant fields of successive frames are subtracted (16) with the formation of mirolevich difference. Meiolania difference accumulate (18) for the respective intervals of the fields, and the sum is compared (20) with a predetermined value. If the amount mirolevich differences less than this value, then the last field is redundant and can be eliminated. After the appropriate fields excluded (21), the remaining fields are arranged (25) frames of video. Are determined by (11) types of fields (odd and even) in memory, and retrieving data stored in the memory fields is carried out in such a way that the data from the odd and even fields are arranged in odd and even rows of linked frames, respectively. With linked frames associated flags ("Reflect the first (DF) and "Reflect twice" (DT")), which contain data that indicates the presence of cut redundant fields and what fields in linked frames Dolgopol video. 4 C. and 7 C.p. f-crystals, 6 ill.

The invention relates to a device for processing a video signal before compression and after decompression. In particular, it relates to a device for exceptions (in the encoder) redundant field video signal and devices for recovery (in the decoder) fields of the video signal, which have been removed by the encoder.

Currently, much effort is spent on designing systems for video compression for transmission of a television signal, and for multimedia systems, i.e., for computer use. A typical example of such efforts is the continuous improvement of the standard of video compression, which is denoted by MPEG. (MPEG stands for "Group of experts on coding of moving images", which is a Committee of the International organization for standardization (ISO)). MPEG is a compression Protocol video format hierarchical multilevel signal by motion compensation, discrete cosine transform, quantization, statistical coding, and so on, the basics of which are described in the document ISO: ISO-IEC/JTC1/SC29/WG11 MPEG 92/160. The MPEG Protocol requires that the encoding (compression) video was done on the OS the group of frames, the frame header, the header tenderloin (fillet is part of the frame that contains, for example, 16 horizontal lines), header macroblock (macroblock may represent, for example, a matrix of 16x16 image elements) and data blocks of picture elements, followed by the title of the new frame and so on

Nominally a compression device for compressing data according to the MPEG receives data based on the fields or frames is grouped into groups of frames and performs the desired compression process for the formation of the MPEG signal. Note, however, that if the source material is the signal originally recorded on film and converted to video by teleconvertor, i.e., a decrease of 3:2, one box of five is excessive. Immediate removal of redundant fields from such material provides improved compression efficiency by 20%. Further, even if the video was obtained by the video camera, then most of the video may represent a still image, in this case, the data frames can be excessive. The exception (at least partially) some redundancy still images will also increase the compression efficiency.

For reaI then exclude these fields to feed the signal into the compression device. Next, after the fields are eliminated, the system identification is excluded fields must inform the receiving decoding device so that it restored the excluded fields.

This invention relates to a device for detecting redundancy in the fields of video, eliminating redundant fields and encode the remaining data so that the decoder can recover the excluded fields.

An embodiment of the present invention includes a memory for storing two fields of image data and issuance of fields, separated by an interval of one frame. Image data from the relevant fields of successive frames are subtracted to obtain mirolevich difference. Meiolania difference accumulate within the respective intervals of the fields, and the sum is compared with a predetermined value. If the amount mirolevich difference is less than a pre-specified value, it is considered that a later field is redundant and can be eliminated from the data stream.

After the appropriate fields excluded from the stream of video data from the remaining fields are arranged frames of the video signal. Define the types of fields (e.g., even and odd, so the data from the odd and even fields are located in odd and even rows of linked frames, respectively. With linked frames associated flags that contain data corresponding to the eliminated redundant data. These flags are included in the arranged video data together with the appropriate personnel.

In the receiver, the incoming system video compression, the compressed signal is investigated and all flags redundancy fields are removed. Then, the compressed data is decoded, and decompressional video is loaded into the memory of the display. Subsequently read from the display memory with the formation of the image in a raster format. Device control memory responds to the appropriate flags redundancy to repeat the display of fields of image data corresponding to the excluded fields.

In Fig. 1 shows a graphical representation of the shape of the signals for the sequence of input frames of video signals and the converted frames; Fig. 2 is a graphic representation of the chart of signals flags for the output sequence of video frames generated decoding device, and a graphical representation of the fields with the modified is skluceni redundant field video signal and formation of flag signals; in Fig. 4 is a block diagram of the device of the transformation sequence, which can be used in the device shown in Fig. 3; Fig. 5 is a block diagram of algorithm of the device converting the sequence shown in Fig. 3 and 4; Fig. 6 is a block diagram of the decoder for the formation of fields of the video signal is inserted in place of the eliminated redundant fields.

In Fig. 1, the input video signal are represented as rectangles. Each column of circles represents a field of the video signal, and each circle in the box is a horizontal line. In the part of a number of rectangles, which is labeled "video", rectangles, covering two such fields, are frames with interlaced scanning, which is formed, for example, a video camera. Part of a series of rectangles specified as "film" contains the signals generated, for example, telekomoperetora, and one out of every four fields in the flow signal is repeated. Repeating fields are included in the rectangles covering three fields. For example, in the rectangle containing the fields L, M and N field N is a repeating field L.

The number of rectangles labeled "output frames is paragrapher the moving image and therefore only footage "film" includes redundant information fields, regardless of whether the sequence labelled "film", moving image or not. In Fig. 1 rearranged the fields are grouped into frames progressive scan for use, for example, in the encoder MPEG. It is seen that for each of the five fields of the input signal, denoted footage "film", output frames include only four fields, resulting in a 20% decrease in the number of data.

The input signal can be obtained using the camcorder still image, in which the consecutive even-numbered fields are identical except for noise, distortion, and in which all successive odd fields will be identical except for noise distortion. If the video signal corresponds to a still image, the redundant fields may be located randomly or be grouped together. If redundant fields scattered randomly, this system will eliminate redundant fields as they appear. If, on the other hand, the "fixed" fields occupy a relatively large area, in the preferred embodiment of the invention will be excluded only m out of n redundant fields, where m and n are integers, with obecnie values for n and m equal to 3 and 1 or 5 and 1, and so on.

The signal "Reflect twice" (DT) indicates rearranged frames that contain the field that corresponds excluded. The signal "Reflect twice" (DT) will be included in the transmitted encoded signal to inform the receiver about the fact that one of the fields in the corresponding frame should be displayed twice. The second signal "Reflect the first (DF) specifies which field in each frame should be displayed first when the display system is interlaced. The signal "Reflect the first (DF) is also included in the transmitted encoded signal. From the comparison of input and output videoplay/video shows that even fields nominally follow the odd fields. I.e., the frame with interlaced scanning includes an odd field followed by an even field. However, when some fields of video data are excluded, the restored output frames may contain an even field ahead of the odd field. Therefore, it is necessary to remember, what field in the reconstructed frame is ahead. In other words, when the receiver field is repeated as a replacement instead of excluded fields, you need to know what of the following fields must be close to a repeated field.

In Fig. 2 the number of rectangles, obosnet the receiver. These frames associated corresponding signal "Reflect twice" (DT) and Reflect the first (DF), presents digit binary words. The left and right bits represent the signals Reflect twice" (DT) and Reflect the first (DF), respectively. If the left bit is equal to one, it means that the corresponding frame includes a redundant field. If the right bits equal to one, it must first be displayed in the even field of the corresponding frame, and a zero in the bit indicates that the first should be displayed in the odd field of the corresponding frame.

The number of rectangles labeled "output fields" is the sequence, which must be displayed fields included in the input frames.

In Fig. 3 presents a diagram of the device for detecting redundant fields, eliminating redundant fields and recovery of video frames of the remaining fields. The video signal from source 10 is supplied to the first buffer memory (Bn) 12 and figure 16 subtraction. The output buffer memory 12 is connected with the second buffer memory (Bn-1) 14. The output of the second buffer memory connected with the second input of the subtraction scheme 16. As in the first and second buffer memory is delayed video signal on dlitelnosti provisions fields of the same type, separated by an interval of one frame. If two fields of the video signal separated by the interval of one frame, the same (not counting noise), the differential signal at the output of the circuit 16 subtraction for the period corresponding to the duration field will be zero (assuming that the video signal is a luminance signal). Differential signals produced by the circuit 16 subtraction, served in the ferrite limiter 17 which, in order to minimize the effect of noise in the difference signal, eliminates differential signals, if they are less than a pre-specified value. Output ferrite limiter magnitude of the difference is served in the drive 18, which are accumulated (summed) the absolute values of the differences for periods equal to the duration of the respective fields. Total values are served in the threshold detector 20, where it is compared with a threshold value and if the sum of the differences for the corresponding field is less than the threshold value, the field that is stored in the buffer memory 12, is considered to be excessive in relation to the last preceding field of the same type, i.e., to the last field read from the buffer memory 14. If the sum exceeds the threshold value, then the field currently stored in the buffer pastrello 21 conversion sequence and video data from a source 10 are received in the detector 11 field type (odd/even). The device 21 conversion sequence reacts in relation to the type of the field data from the detector 11 and the data from the threshold detector 20, and eliminates and reformats the data fields from the source 10. The converted data signal received in block 23 of compression, which may include the encoder with the prediction and the motion compensation associated with the encoder discrete cosine transform, statistical coder and coder according to the method of the lengths of the series. The compressed video signal generated by the block 23 compression, served in the formatter 24 data. The data formatter formats the compressed data together with auxiliary data serving for synchronization and/or for the detection/error correction.

If a compressed video signal must be passed, for example, not through the copper wire, and through any other medium, it is necessary to provide additional protection for video signal from noise. Therefore, the compressed data from the formatter 24 data enter the transport processor 26, which adds redundant signal. This redundancy is determined by the specific types of data-dependent decoding. The transport processor 26 f is La, and flexible headers, including data that identifies the spatial position within the image, which correspond to the payload. For more information about transport processors contained in U.S. patent N 5168356 "Apparatus for Segmenting Encoded Video Signal For Transmission".

Formatter 24 and the block 23 compression running controller 22 compression. The controller 22 compression takes video and data relating to the display ("Reflect the first (DF)), from the device 21 transformation sequence, and the data "Reflect twice" (DT) from the threshold detector 20. The controller 22 is nominally operates as a state machine, causing the compressor unit to output data in a predetermined sequence, and the formatter 24 to place the output in accordance with a predetermined hierarchy, for example, according to the Protocol of MPEG signals. If the controller and the formatter is programmed to generate data that is formatted according to the MPEG Protocol, the above mentioned signal flags Reflect twice" (DT) and Reflect the first (DF) will not be introduced into the stream data formatter 24. The signals Reflect twice" (DT)/"Reflect the first (DF) will be available from the transport processor together with relevant personnel SG corresponding transport packet, carrying the payload, which includes the header information of the frame.

Alternatively, if the encoder 25 is not a MPEG encoder, such as encoder modified MPEG+, it is possible to provide for the introduction of signals Reflect twice" (DT)/"Reflect the first (DF) inside the frame headers of the compressed data in a modified MPEG. In this case, the controller 22 and the formatter 24 is made to enter the signals Reflect twice" (DT)/"Reflect the first (DF) directly into the stream of compressed video data. Specialists in the field of video compression, familiar with the subsequent description, it is clear that can be used many other ways to send the appropriate flag signals associated with the fields/frames carrying redundant data.

In Fig. 4 shows an example of device 21 conversion sequence shown in Fig. 3. The device 21 conversion sequence depicted in Fig. 4, generates frames of fields of video data. I.e., to form a frame consisting of two fields, it rotates the horizontal lines of the even fields with horizontal lines of the odd fields. Interleaving is carried out in pairs of registers 30, 31 and 32, 33. The buffer memory 12 and the buffet is adequate frame. Reading from the buffer memory 12 and the buffer memory 14 is parallel, i.e., line by line. The relevant lines read from the memory 12 is written into the register 30 with serial input and parallel output, and a parallel output connected to the parallel input of the register 31 having parallel input and serial output. After the corresponding row recorded in the register 30 is loaded in the register 31. Then this line is read sequentially from the output of the register 31. Similarly, the relevant lines read from the memory 14 are recorded in the register 32 are transferred to the register 33 and then sequentially read from the output of the register 33. Output signals from the registers 31 and 33 serves to corresponding inputs of a multiplexer 34. The multiplexer 34 under the control of the controller 35 conversion sequence in each frame places the line of the even field in the position of even rows and odd line field - item odd rows.

In this example, the execution of the invention the data from the memory 12 and 14, where the fields are read from the predetermined frequency of the string in one reading. In accordance with this controller 35 is vzaimoisklyuchayut video signal from register 31 (33), followed the line of the video signal from register 33 (31). When submitting the appropriate fields in the buffer memory detector 11 field type determines whether the field is odd or even, and transmits information about the type of the field in the controller 35. Therefore, the controller 35 knows what from the buffer memory 12 or 14, has an odd and an even field, and therefore, accordingly to switch the multiplexer 34. The controller 35 also receives data from the threshold detector, and the controller generates the signal "Reflect twice" (DT)/"Reflect the first" (DF).

In Fig. 5 presents a block diagram of algorithm of the device converting the sequence shown in Fig. 4. Its work is carried out as follows. At the beginning of the system operation in the buffer memory 12 and the buffer memory 14 is loaded [100] two consecutive fields, and the index n is set equal to 2. Then the unit conversion sequence defines [101] the type of the field (odd or even), loaded in the memory 12. The type field is investigated [102] , and if the next field must be even (odd), then the system proceeds to operations 103, 104, 105 (107, 108, 109).

If the field is even, the index n is incremented and is [103] is(Bn-1), are odd and even respectively. The current frame is constructed [104] of the fields that are currently in memory Bn and memory Bn-1, and line of the video signal read from the memory Bn are odd rows and rows of video signal read from the memory, Bn-1 are the even-numbered lines. Odd and even field memory 12 and memory 14 are in reverse order and, therefore, the signal "Reflect the first (DF) is set to [105] is equal to a logical unit.

If the field is odd, the index n is incremented and is [107] download the next field in the memory 12. In this situation, the fields that are currently in memory 12 (Bn) and the memory 14 (Bn-1) are odd and even respectively. The current frame is constructed [108] of the fields that are currently in memory Bn and memory Bn-1, and line of the video signal read from the memory Bn are the even-numbered lines, and the lines of the video signal read from the memory, Bn-1 are odd rows. Odd and even field memory 12 and memory 14 are in normal order and, therefore, the signal "Reflect the first (DF) is set to [109] is equal to a logical zero.

Once installed, the signal level is the value for the current field. If the logic level of the signal Reflect twice" (DT) is low, indicating the absence of redundancy, it is loaded into memory [115] the next field, so that the memory 12 and the memory 14 contains a new data frame. The system then returns to operation [101].

If the signal "Reflect twice" (DT) has a high logic level, indicating redundancy field, is investigated [112] the variable "last discarded" (LD), which tracks the most recently abandoned field. The variable "last discarded" is subtracted from the index n, and the difference is compared with a predetermined value of frequency drop FD. The magnitude of the frequency drop FD specifies the number of fields that can be discarded in the sequence of the fields. The lowest value of the frequency drop is equal to 3, i.e., allowed to discard one field of three. The frequency drop 5 allows to drop no more than one field of five. If the difference (n-LD) is less than or equal to the frequency drop FD, flag Reflect twice" (DT) is set to [113] is equal to zero and the system proceeds to operation 115. In this case, the system prevents a drop of the field, even if it is redundant. If the difference is greater than the frequency ambrosia the following two fields. The result is discarded box placed at the moment in the memory 14. The system then returns to operation [101].

In Fig. 6 shows an example implementation of the receiver can use these flags Reflect twice" (DT)/"Reflect the first (DF) for restoring video data, which eliminated redundant fields. Compressed video data from the transmitting tract, such as tuner, serves to transport the processor 60. The transport processor receives transport packets of compressed video data, synchronization signals, etc., that separates the compressed video signal from the header of the transport packet, and delivers the compressed video data to the corresponding decoder/decompressor. If the data associated with the redundant fields flags Reflect twice" (DT)/"Reflect the first (DF) are contained in the header of the transport packet, the data flags are separated and fed to the system controller 64, together with other ancillary data required for this controller. If the data flags Reflect twice" (DT)/"Reflect the first (DF) are contained in the compressed video signal, the data flags are separated using decoder/decompressor 61 and fed to the system controller 64. System controller eventually neprezentare 61 data is loaded into the memory 62 of the display. Nominally the memory of the display contains a frame decompencirovannah data. Decompensirovanny data from the display memory through the multiplexer 63 is received on the output display device (or to a recording device, and so on). If there is no information about the redundancy fields, the data fed from the memory 62 to the output device directly.

The output of the display memory is connected also with additional memory 65 fields, and the output of the memory 65 of the fields connected to the second input of the multiplexer 63. Managing memory 62 of the display is carried out by the controller 66 memory. The controller 66 of the memory managed by the system controller 64, including signals Reflect twice" (DT)/"Reflect the first (DF), so that it provides a flow of video data from the memory to the display. If the signals Reflect twice" (DT)/"Reflect the first (DF) indicate the absence of redundancy field, decompensirovanny odd and even fields in response to the signal "Reflect the first (DF) are loaded respectively in the memory of the display positions corresponding to odd and even fields. Odd and even fields are then read sequentially from the memory 62 in accordance with the method of interlacing.

If the signals Reflect daydisplay it is simultaneously written in the memory 65 of the field. Then the field of the video signal from the memory 65 of the fields served by the multiplexer 63 is shown in the corresponding position of the field. Depending on the specific decompression system the introduction of additional memory 65 fields and multiplexer 63 may be superfluous to repeat fields of the video signal, which can be done directly from the memory 62 of the display. In the latter case reduces the number of required equipment, but impose additional restrictions on synchronization as display memory and a decompressor 61.

1. A device for compression of a video signal, characterized in that it comprises a video source in the form of fields/frames, the block comparison of successive fields/frames and exclude those fields/frames, which are essentially the same, the block of video compression to compress the remaining fields/frames, means forming data flags indicating the presence of excluded fields/frames and the order of the remaining fields/frames, and means for combining the compressed video and data flags for generating output frames to transmit.

2. The device according to p. 1, wherein the video signal includes odd and even fields, and the Comparer includes media is a recreational fields/frames and if some of the odd or even fields in successive fields/frames are essentially the same, to the exclusion of these is essentially the same fields, and the device further comprises means for the formation of the remaining necklacing fields of the output frame and the compact formed frames.

3. The device under item 1 or 2, characterized in that it further includes means for forming data of a first flag indicating the generated output frames containing the field that should be displayed again field decompression, and means for forming data of the second flag indicating which of the remaining fields in the corresponding output frames should be displayed when playing the first.

4. The device under item 1 or 2, characterized in that it further includes means for forming data of a first flag indicating the generated output frames that contain only field.

5. Device according to any one of paragraphs.2 to 4, characterized in that the even field contains the even lines odd field contains the odd lines, and the device comprises means, responsive to this signal to indicate all essentially the same even strogo number R fields from each P sequentially from a source of video signal fields, where R and P are integers, and P > R.

6. Device for receiving a compressed video signal comprising information "Reflect twice"/"Reflect the first indicating field of the compressed video signal to be displayed after decompression at least twice, and the display order decompencirovannah fields, characterized in that it comprises means for receiving the specified compressed video signal, means responsive to adopted a compressed video signal, for selecting information "Reflect twice"/"Reflect first means, responsive to adopted a compressed video signal for decompression with the formation of the output frames of the video signal, and means reacting to information "Reflect twice"/"Reflect first, to repeat fields of the output frames.

7. The device according to p. 6, characterized in that the means responsive to information "Reflect twice"/"Reflect the first" include means, responsive to this information to create corresponding output frames in a predetermined time sequence.

8. A device for processing a video signal, characterized in that it contains a source of video signal, means for comparing the even rows serial kad is a, indicate all essentially the same even lines in successive frames of image or all essentially the same-numbered lines in successive frames of the image, means responsive to a signal indicating all essentially the same even or odd rows of the image frame, to exclude all even rows or all odd lines of the image frame containing the even or odd essentially the same row, means to restore sequential image frames of the video signal of the remaining video signal, means for forming a signal to Reflect the first" indicating the order of the odd and even rows in the corresponding restored image frames, and means for combining the restored image frame and the specified signal to Reflect the first" for transmission.

9. The device under item 8, characterized in that it further comprises means, responsive to the signal indicating all essentially the same even or odd rows of the image frame, for signal "Reflect twice, indicating which restored their frames contain video data associated with the excluded strings, and tools >10. The device under item 8 or 9, characterized in that it further comprises a compression means, responsive to the recovered frames of the image to compress frame-based transport processor, responsive to the compressed video data from the compression tools and the signal "Reflect the first, to form transport packets having corresponding transport header and payload, and transport headers are formed so that the signal "Reflect the first, and useful data is formed so that contain compressed video data.

11. A device for compression of a video signal, characterized in that it comprises a video source, including odd and even fields, means combining the odd and even fields in the output frames of the video signal, the source code words "Reflect twice"/"Reflect the first" indicating which fields should be repeated, and the time order in which the fields of the corresponding frames must be displayed during playback, compression tools the output frames and means for combining the compressed frames of video signals and code words "Reflect twice"/"Reflect the first corresponding to the compressed frames for transmission.

 

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3 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: technology for broadcast transmissions of digital television, relayed together with multimedia applications.

SUBSTANCE: method includes transmission of digital signal, having additional data flow, appropriate for compressed video images and data flow, appropriate for at least multimedia application, and also service signals, meant for controlling aforementioned data flows, service signals is determined, appropriate for series of synchronization signal, including series, meant for assignment of multimedia signal, meant for recording execution parameters of aforementioned assigned multimedia application, after that multimedia application is loaded and multimedia application is initialized with aforementioned execution parameters.

EFFECT: possible interactive operation of multimedia application with user.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: technology for compressing and uncompressing images.

SUBSTANCE: compression of image data contains stages of determining priority value for each pixel of matrix by setting utilized pixel as supporting pixel P0 and computing value of pixel difference on basis of appropriate value of adjacent pixels of given group of pixels P1-P4; combining pixels P0-P4 utilized for computing value of pixels priority in one pixels group; sorting groups of image matrix pixels on basis of value of bearing pixel P0 priority; and preservation and/or transferring of pixel groups in accordance to their priority, while in accordance to reached compression coefficient only part of pixel groups is stored and/or transferred, starting from groups with highest priority.

EFFECT: assured simple and flexible synchronization with value of memory, different display resolutions and size of display.

2 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: technology for encoding and decoding, used for storing and transferring descriptive elements of document of XML-like structure.

SUBSTANCE: method includes using at least one table, received from XML structure, while table contains identification information for unambiguous identification of each descriptive element on hierarchic tree and structural information, browsing of hierarchic image of sample stored in memory from parent descriptive element to children descriptive elements for reaching encoded descriptive element, and extraction of identification information of each browsed descriptive element, encoding of aforementioned descriptive element in form of fragment, containing aforementioned information content and series of extracted identification information.

EFFECT: provision of efficient sample encoding plan and possible expansion of binary format for further plans, determined within limits of MPEG-7.

7 cl, 6 dwg, 2 tbl

FIELD: video-coding; fine-grain coding method including quality and time scaling.

SUBSTANCE: use is made of hybrid time/signal-to-noise-ratio scaled structure found just useful for fine-grain coding method. Updated time frames in one example of this structure and updated frames of fine-grain scaling are included in single updated layer. In other example use is made of separate updated layers to attain hybrid time-dependent signal-to-noise ratio scaling. These two layers incorporate time scaled layer to attain time updating for basic layer (that is for better motion) while fine-grain scaling layer is used to improve quality of signal-to-noise basic layer and/or time-scaled updated layer.

EFFECT: improved video quality or signal-to-noise ratio of each frame or pattern transferred in basic layer.

10 cl, 21 dwg

FIELD: engineering of systems for recording digital broadcasting material and, in particular, for recording interactive or multimedia software applications.

SUBSTANCE: in accordance to the invention, transmitting system contains transmitter 10 and at least one receiver 14, made with possible receipt of signals 12 transferred from it. Broadcasted data in transferred stream is accompanied by one or more applications, determined in one or more data structures, formed of data files and directory objects, transferred cyclically, while previously determined groups of data file and directory objects are formed as appropriate modules in the transmitter, and each module is transferred as a whole. For each object structure, determining data object hierarchy root, a list of identifiers is transferred in the stream for components of data structures, appropriately determining all or some of the data files and directory objects connected to an application. Receiver 14 is made with possible usage of identifier list for identification and following memorization of received data objects for current application, after identification of the application that should to be recorded.

EFFECT: ensured control over process of recording of multimedia application, in such a way that required memory space is minimal.

4 cl, 6 dwg

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