The electrolyte for lead acid batteries and additive in the electrolyte

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the field of electrical engineering, in particular for lead-acid batteries. Developed a new electrolyte containing in wt. % cadmium sulfate - 13-18, sulfuric acid, and 0.1 - 50, acid, nitrilotriacetate-0,001-0,1, acid 1-oksietilidendifosfonovaya - 0,001-0,1 distilled water - and the rest additive containing wt. % cadmium sulfate - 13-28, sulphuric acid is 0.1 to 0.3, acid, nitrilotriacetate - 0,001-0,1, acid 1-oksietilidendifosfonovaya - 0,001-0,1, distilled water - the rest. Using the electrolyte according to the invention, prevents sulfation of the lead plates of the battery, and improves the electrical and operational characteristics and increases battery life. 2 S. and 3. C.p. f-crystals.

The invention relates to the field of electrical engineering and can be used in lead batteries in the manufacture of chemical current sources, in particular in the preparation of electrolytes.

Known electrolyte for chemical current sources, containing a hydroxide of an alkali metal and water [1].

The disadvantage of this electrolyte is that its application is limited is th result to the present invention is an electrolyte for lead-acid batteries containing cadmium sulfate, sulfuric acid and water [2].

The specified electrolyte is widely used in modern lead-acid batteries.

The disadvantage of this electrolyte is associated with a low hydrogen evolution overpotential on the lead electrode of the battery, which leads to excessive gassing during charge and wasteful expenditure of energy on the emission, which generally leads to a low efficiency of charge.

The closest entity and the result achieved by the proposed insertion tool into the electrolyte for lead acid batteries is additive containing cadmium sulfate, sulfuric acid and water [3].

The disadvantage of this additive is its small part in achieving the increase of the overvoltage of hydrogen on the electrode lead battery and a small battery life to a great extent due to lead sulfate crystallization plates.

The technical result of the invention is to improve the electrical and operational characteristics of the lead battery and increase its service life by preventing sulfate crystallization of the battery plates.

The sulfation of the lead plastidic to complete worthlessness of batteries.

The technical result is achieved in that the electrolyte for lead-acid batteries contain sulphuric acid and distilled water, according to the invention, further comprises phosphonic and 1 - oksietilidendifosfonovaya acid in the following ratio of ingredients, wt.%:

Cadmium sulfate - 13 - 28

Sulfuric acid - 0,10 - 50

Nitrilotriacetate acid - 0,001 - 0,1

1-oksietilidendifosfonovaya acid - 0,001 - 0,1

Distilled water - the rest

The technical result is best achieved when the content of nitrilotriethanol and 1-oksietilidendifosfonovaya acid 1 : (1,1 -1,9), as well as the density of the electrolyte is achieved by varying the concentrations of the ingredients, equal to 1.27 to 1.31 g/cm3.

The technical result is also achieved by the fact that the additive in the electrolyte for lead acid batteries containing cadmium sulfate, sulfuric acid and distilled water, according to the invention, further comprises nitrilotriethanol and oksietilidendifosfonovaya acid, in the following ratio of ingredients, wt.%:

Cadmium sulfate - 13 - 28

Nitrilotriacetate acid - 0,001 - 0,1

1-oksietilidendifosfonovaya acid is best achieved when the pH of the solution of the additive is not more than 2.0.

The invention consists in the following.

Additive battery is prepared by mixing a solution of cadmium sulfate in dilute sulfuric acid with aqueous solutions of nitrilotriethanol (NTF) and 1 - oksietilidendifosfonovaya (HEDP) acids.

The technological process consists of the following stages.

The main stages of the preparation of a solution of cadmium sulfate in dilute sulfuric acid: preparation NTF-acid solution preparation eddc-acid, mixing solutions of the starting components, packaging, and packing of the finished product.

The main stages of preparation.

Preparation of a solution of cadmium sulfate is carried out in dilute sulfuric acid.

Preparation of the solution is carried out in the reactor. From the measuring device in the reactor is poured by gravity 37 l of distilled water. Out of the bottle with concentrated sulfuric acid using a vacuum take in a collection of not more than 2 liters of concentrated sulfuric acid.

Include the stirrer in the reactor and by gravity from the collection serves in the reactor 0,45 - 0,55 l sulfuric acid. The solution is stirred for 20 - 30 minutes. Then turn off the mixer and take samples through the sampler for Prov Prov. 're asked 10,0 - 11,2 kg of cadmium sulfate and small amounts through the sunroof loaded manually into the reactor. The mixture is stirred until the salt is completely dissolved within one hour. Then take a sample for determination of cadmium sulfate, which should be 184 - 191 g per 1 kg of the solution. In case of discrepancy between the content of cadmium sulfate data values are adjusting solution, is added to the reactor, distilled water or cadmium sulfate.

Preparation of the solution NTF-acid is carried out in the reactor.

In the reactor by gravity from the collection pour-28 l of distilled water. On the scales weigh 280 - 290 g NTF-acid. Include the stirrer of the reactor and through the hole in the lid of the load manually weighed quantity NTF-acid in the reactor. Mixing lead to the complete dissolution of crystals within 30 minutes. The prepared acid solution using vacuum pick in the collection.

Preparation of the solution eddc-acid is carried out in a reactor similar to the preparation of the solution NTF-acid.

The mixing of components is carried out in a reactor with a working mixer. To a solution of cadmium sulfate added solutions NTF and HEDP acid, prior to their ratio of 1:(1,1-1,9), stirred for 30 minutes.

An example of realia voltage 80 V, the nominal capacity of 250 A. h, the maximum charge current of 50 A.

Fill in each socket of the battery electrolyte, according to the similar. Under load the battery discharge took place within 1 hour.

Fill in each slot battery electrolyte according to the invention containing, in wt.%:

Cadmium sulfate - 15

Sulfuric acid - 0,2

Nitrilotriacetate acid - 0,05

1-oksietilidendifosfonovaya acid - 0,06

Distilled water - the rest

Under load the battery discharge took place after 4 hours. Spent re-charging for 3 hours. Under load the battery discharge occurs through 9 hours. Further, the battery displayed at rated voltage, rated capacity and operating time under load.

Testing lead acid batteries spent in operational testing. Was held control training cycle with the definition of capacity, srednerazmernogo voltage and efficiency of the intake charge.

After 6, 12, 18 and 24 months of trial operation was determined control parameters to measure the level of the electrolyte. It is established that the average battery life increased approximately 2.5 times, sredneseriynoe voltage 3 times.

1. The electrolyte for lead-acid batteries contain sulphuric acid, cadmium sulfate, and distilled water, characterized in that it further comprises nitrilotriethanol acid and 1-oksietilidendifosfonovaya acid in the following ratio of ingredients, wt.%:

Cadmium sulfate - 13 - 28

Sulfuric acid - 0,10 - 50,0

Nitrilotriacetate acid - 0,001 - 0,1

1-Oksietilidendifosfonovaya acid - 0,001 - 0,1

Distilled water - the Rest

2. The electrolyte under item 1, characterized in that the ratio of nitrilotriethanol and 1-oksietilidendifosfonovaya acids is 1 : (1,1 - 1,9).

3. The electrolyte under item 1, characterized in that the density of the electrolyte is of 1.27 to 1.31 g/cm3.

4. Additive in the electrolyte for lead acid batteries containing cadmium sulfate, sulfuric acid and distilled water, characterized in that it further comprises nitrilotriethanol and 1-oksietilidendifosfonovaya acid in the following ratio of ingredients, wt.%:

Cadmium sulfate - 13 - 28

Sulfuric acid is about 0.1 - 0.3

Nitrilotriacetate acid - 0,001 - 0,1

1-Oksietilidendifosfonovaya acid - 0,001 - 0,1

Distilled

 

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