The method of biological wastewater treatment and device for its implementation
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the treatment of wastewater through biological activation, in which wastewater is treated biologically in the activation process, during which nitrification occurs. Activating the mixture is introduced into the circulation loop having a reciprocating motion, while the purified water is drained from the above-mentioned circuit and activating the mixture re-mesiwala with the waste water after the discharge of treated water, this is called lack of oxygen on the surface of particles of activated sludge calling denitrification processes. The resulting mixture is subjected to aeration, which holds the activated sludge in suspension, and during the reciprocating movement of the thread there is a gradual oxygenation. The device always has two separation cavity 4 adjacent to each other with their longitudinal sides, in which are formed passages for communication with the cavity activation, and longitudinal distribution channel 5 formed between the above-mentioned walls, fully enclosed end wall with one hand, while on the opposite side there is a passage through which raspredelitel the capacity utilization of the existing equipment. 2 S. and 26 C.p. f-crystals, 13 ill. 3 table. The invention relates to a method for biological purification of waste water, whereby the water treatment is carried out during the activation process associated with nitrification. Specifically, the present invention relates to a device for implementing the above method, which has in General the tank cavity activation and longitudinal extending up the separation cavity, of which overlook the taps for purified water, each of the separation cavity is limited by walls and ends and communicates with the cavity of activation from one longitudinal side.Effective protection of surface water, including sea from eutrophication requires complete removal microbienne elements such as nitrogen and phosphorus present in the wastewater is the main cause of symptoms of eutrophication. That is why all systems of sewage treatment, consider this a call for the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus.Known and used today system for wastewater treatment with simultaneous reduction of nitrogen focused on the use of biological processes, which are the most economical. All of the above from nitrification, then the amount of nitrate reduced due to the formation of gaseous nitrogen during denitrification.Nitrification requires the presence of nitrifying bacteria in activated sludge sufficiently Mature age, and full nitrification is achieved when the sludge thirty days of age, which corresponds to the load of silt, 0.12 kg of biological demand of oxygen for 5 days on 1 kg of volatile dispersed sludge activated sludge, multiplied by the number of days in the future, denoted as kg BOD/kg LDO (where LDA - volatile dispersed sludge). In addition, nitrification requires a sufficiently high concentration of dissolved oxygen, usually more than 2 mg of oxygen per 1 liter of fluid, hereinafter referred to as 2 mg O2/L. followed by the process of denitrification, because there is a shortage of dissolved oxygen in the liquid. These are microorganisms and receive the necessary oxygen through the restoration of nitrates.State of the art there are three main alternative approaches to the task of creating a system for integrated biological treatment of water using both nitrification and denitri the Cesky replace each other after every intermediate cycle aeration.The first alternative is the use of the periodic process of denitrification.The disadvantages of this solution include low efficiency of the interrupted process in comparison with the continuous process, challenging regulation process, and the yield of activated sludge (suspended state during aeration.Another alternative is preceding denitrification. In this case, the denitrification is carried out separately in the tank with intense mixing, before activation with aeration. During the preceding denitrification of waste water together with the activating mixture discharged from activation with aeration. The disadvantages of the preceding denitrification is the need to create a separate cavity for the activation of denitrification with an independent source to move the activating mixture in order to maintain the activated sludge in suspension.The volume required for the activation of denitrification depends on the condition of wastewater and process parameters, and therefore it changes depending on time and place. To provide high performance cleaning, the maximum fixed amount should be selected, taking into account krinw cavity denitrification is not used for the separation of activated sludge, moreover, in the municipal treatment plant wastewater she is up to 25% of the surface of the reactor.An example of such a solution with separation cavity for denitrification are, for example, descriptions of inventions to patents CA-A 1 155976 and EP-A 0 367756.In the description of the first mentioned patent discloses the implementation of the invention, which provides a one anoxic zone which is located in the center, and two aerobic zone, located at the face sides of the reaction tank, and each aerobic zone is divided by a solid wall partitions into a downward unsaturated zone and the ascending area of the layer of fluidized material. This solution encompasses the disadvantages that are inherent in most fixed functional volumes mentioned above.In the description of the second patent discloses an internal cavity denitrification and external cavity nitrification and the solution is aimed at regulation of the circulating flow by changing the cross-section of the passage between the cavities. The disadvantages of fixed maximum functional volumes, are also present.The third known alternative denitrification in the biological time of carousel systems. In this case, the functions of aeration and mixing of wastewater with an activating mixture connected with the giving motion an activating environment in cleansing the system into one system in the form of a mechanical aerator. With the passage of the flow of the activating mixture in the circuit there is a saturation of the activating mixture of dissolved oxygen, resulting in the nitrification process, and resulting in a gradual oxygen consumption, oxidative biodegradation and nitrification oxygen content in the activating mixture is reduced so that in the final part of the circulation loop process denitrification occurs when the lack of oxygen.The above technical solution denitrification has many flaws. For mechanical aeration is required is a flat shallow tanks, which require a large area for construction. The surface of the tank is not used for the separation of activated sludge, resulting in a requirement to equip the activating device offline separation, which further increases the size requirements of the construction site and, consequently, are associated with high costs. Insulated separation from besday low concentrations at the site of activation. The need for low-load activated sludge 30 days of age leads to large volumes of activation space.A serious disadvantage of the circulation paths is also a high index of sludge in activated sludge as a result of insufficient release of bubbles of nitrogen gas, stick to the particles of activated sludge during denitrification, resulting in significant performance degradation of the device.Another disadvantage of combining the three functions, i.e., aeration, movement of the activating mixture and mixing the wastewater with an activating mixture lies in the fact that the above-mentioned combination lowers the efficiency of denitrification in wastewater with a higher content of nitrogen pollution that is caused by the lack of inflow of carbon for the denitrification at the site of denitrification. Therefore, in order to provide sufficiently effective during the processes of nitrification and denitrification, it is necessary to combine the above-mentioned device with periodic aeration of the activating mixture, given all the negative things on the part of the periodic process.All the above are known to solve denitrification is e.g. existing traditional cleaning devices, which does not meet the increased requirements to the quality of treated water, based on the elements of eutrification. There are many municipal plants for wastewater treatment, constructed in the industrialized countries, which already require intensifying or reconstruction.Existing to date solutions denitrification unsuitable for this purpose as they provide for, or construction of a new facility for wastewater treatment or, at least, significant alterations in conventional municipal treatment plant. That is why there is an urgent need to develop a solution that would allow use of existing municipal facility for wastewater treatment to meet modern environmental standards.The purpose of the present invention is to eliminate as much as possible the disadvantages of the known solutions and to create a new method and apparatus that implement the possibility of intensification of wastewater treatment by biological activated, provided the possible use of already existing facilities for wastewater treatment.The method according to izobreteniya least part of the circulation circuit, designed for denitrification and nitrification has a piston driving mode, and is generated by a serial connection of a longitudinal discharge channels, subject to aeration under pressure by means of the aerating elements. In the end part of the circulation of the reciprocating mode of motion of the treated water is removed after filtration through a layer of fluidized material and the sludge separated by filtration through a layer of fluidized material is mixed with the activating mixture and is given a forced flow in the form of a concentrated activating mixture to the beginning of the first discharge channel which is supplied with contaminated water.When considering the efficiency of wastewater treatment it is important to note the fact that for the same period of time, the amount of purified water that is diverted from the circulation loop by filtering through a layer of fluidized material is less than the amount of the activating mixture circulating in the circulation circuit.The advantage is that the activating mixture, mixed with the raw sewage is oxidized by aeration is gradually while maintaining active oxygen per 1 liter of the active mixture.When considering process control of wastewater treatment is essential that the aeration is carried out under pressure with change in the intensity as a function of time and/or place in the circuit.To achieve the necessary activation effect, it is important that the intensity of the circulation activating mixture exceeded the intensity of the purified water at least twice.Moving the activating mixture in the stream with the piston mode of movement is the achievement lies in the fact that the activating mixture is introduced into the circulation loop, when the flow of untreated wastewater drainage of treated water and by force feeding an activating mixture, thickened at the separation in the circulation path after the separation process.To improve the efficiency of denitrification is important that purified water was given from oxidative activating a portion of the circulating mixture during each cycle of circulation by filtering through a layer of fluidized material.The essence of the device according to the invention is that two separation cavity are always located next to each other, coprecal distribution channel, formed between these walls, completely closed end wall at one end, while on the other side provides a passage for communication with the system pressure channels, the channels are arranged in the direction from the separation cavity, the system pressure channels and at least one distribution channel are part of the circulation circuit, another part of the circulation loop is collecting device connected to the outlet of the separation cavity to exit the activating mixture, and the above-mentioned collecting device is connected to at least one pump unit, the outlet of which is the beginning of the circulation circuit, while the supply of raw water is made to the reception area of the pump unit, or area of release, the recirculation circuit has at least one bump.To maintain the sludge in the required age and to maintain the intensity of the circulation in the circuit it is important that the collecting device was located near the bottom of the separation cavity to filter through the layer of fluidized material, and a message cavity activation obamalot. The top hole is connected with the expansion part of the separation cavity, and the bottom hole is located near the bottom. The diameter of the upper hole smaller than the diameter of the lower hole, which creates resistance to the flow of the activating mixture.When considering the hydraulic connections in the reactor and simplicity of construction of the separation cavity is essential that the separation cavity is connected with the cavity activation through the slotted passage in the partition separating the cavity from the bottom of the tank, while collecting line with inlet openings for thickened activating mixture is near the bottom of the tank in the separation cavity, and the collecting line is connected to the pump, the outlet of which is connected to the cavity activation.For construction and reconstruction of wastewater treatment it is essential that the circulation loop is created at least one base module, in which the distribution channel is formed by two internal partitions and external walls are always formed together with the inner wall of the separation cavity and together with the surrounding wall of the tank or the outer wall of the next module outlet pressure kananana separation cavity.When considering the effectiveness of biological treatment it is essential that a collection sump with a pump that is located in the circuit and the outlets of the collecting device, bearing the activating mixture, are connected to the aforementioned pallet and the outlet from the pump is supplied for the bump at the beginning of the discharge channel, while the raw water flows into a collection sump.To create a unified internal structure of the reactor preferably, additional modules are identical applications were added to the base module, placed in a perpendicular direction thereto. In some circumstances the axis of the main unit passes through the center of the tank, and additional modules are arranged symmetrically and perpendicular to the base module. An advantageous implementation of the invention is also such a case where one additional module is installed next to and parallel with the base module, and a system of parallel modules created in this way is symmetric about an axis passing through the center of the tank.To maintain close links between the individual processes in wastewater treatment is essential to aerating elements Ulanova circuit, moreover, the cross-sectional area of flow of the inlet filter of the fluidized material is more than 10% of the surface area in the separating cavity.The improved process of denitrification is achieved by the use in collecting the equipment at least one pump, preferably a centrifugal pump, which is installed in the receiving tray.Achievement when designing large municipal plants for wastewater treatment is that the separation cavity to filter through the layer of fluidized material is placed along the entire length of the distribution channels of the circulation circuit, while the input of the activating mixture in the separating cavity to filter through the layer of fluidized material and collecting equipment for removing thickened activating mixture from the separation cavity located along its entire length.To effectively remove surfaced sludge is proposed to use a trap that is installed in the upper part of the separation chamber, and above the trap is formed a sloping roof, the lower edge of which is supplied with compressed air. The upper edge of the roof has all the roof is below the surface of the tank.In order to eliminate the influence of the flow in the distribution channel on the nature of the flow in the separating cavity is important that the section of the passage to the partition wall-side cavity activation was set at least one reflector of the stream.When considering the intensity of nitrification preferably, the mixing device was placed at the beginning of the oral activation and discharge of the pump was connected to a mixing device, which receives raw sewage, and the release of the mixing device is connected with the next part of the oral activation.In connection with the necessity of cleaning the collecting tubes it is important that the pump unit had the pump, equipped with underwater reversible electric motor.To provide removal of the motor and the impeller of the pump is preferably a reversible electric motor and the impeller of the pump is housed freely on the guides, upright towards the bottom of the tank.For maintaining the optimum length of the collecting tubes it is important that the pump was connected to two branches of the collecting line.To provide intermittent or regulated air supply is important, CTAN or controller.For the best use of oxygen is important to the aeration hoses were installed in two branches, which have the same location on opposite sides of the cross-section of the bypass channel.The method and the device according to the invention provide an effective means for the prevention of eutrophication of water resources of nature. The main advantage is the high efficiency of purification as for removing organic substances from wastewater, and reducing the content of elements eutrification, i.e., nitrogen and phosphorus. Integrated wastewater treatment, especially the purification of municipal wastewater is provided in this case by a simple method of biological activation without the need to use other methods for denitrification and dehistoricize. This greatly simplifies the technical solution reactors for integrated biological wastewater treatment.Modular reactor according to the invention allows a modular design of the reactor in a wide range of performance up to the largest reactors suitable for large cities with millions of inhabitants. When using channels formed barb activation system link aggregation in a single circulation loop allows you to simplify and at the same time to shorten links between related treatment processes, activation, including the separation of activated sludge with a minimum hydraulic resistance in the system. Circulation system activating mixture can also point the intake of raw water into the reactor, which reduces the cost of distribution of untreated wastewater.Another advantage of the method and device according to the invention is a high performance by leveraging the surface of the reactor for separation, allowing you to use reactor activated sludge high concentration, which provides enhanced qualitative and quantitative parameters of the device.The method and the device according to the invention also allow to reconstruct the existing traditional systems for wastewater treatment, which entails a significant cost reduction in comparison with the construction of new installations for wastewater treatment or extension of the old WWTP.In Fig. 1 shows a bottom view of the databases is Fig. 3 is a vertical cross-section b-b In Fig. 1; Fig. 4 is a vertical cross-section C-C in Fig. 1; Fig. 5 - axonometric projection of the base module of the circulation circuit of Fig. 1-4, Fig.6 is a front view of the trap surfaced Il of Fig. 7 - section d-D in Fig. 6; Fig. 8 is a top view of the reactor, located in the form of a rectangle as a result of accession to the basic module of the circulation loop of the other modules circulation circuit of Fig. 9 is a vertical section of the reactor a-a in Fig. 8; Fig. 10 is a vertical section b-b of Fig. 8; Fig. 11 is a vertical cross-section C-C in Fig. 8; Fig. 12 - inclined section of another variant of implementation of the reactor with partial cutouts of Fig.13 is a schematic view of embodiment of the reactor shown in Fig. 9.The device according to the invention includes at least one circulation loop. Each circulation loop has at least one basic module. If the device has more modules or even one base module and a number of other optional modules, the design of the base module and additional modules are preferably identical.The design of the base module circulating con and 1, for example, walls of reinforced concrete, and the bottom 8 divided by plug-in 2 partitions on the functional cavity, i.e. the cavity as processes for wastewater treatment by biological activation and separation of flocculent suspensions by filtration through a layer of fluidized material.In the preferred fabrication of the base module adjacent the inner walls 2 razmazyvayut separation cavity 4, in which is placed a filter of the fluidized material. Each of the cavities has a bypass pressure channel 7 along one side, and the distribution channel 5 along the other side, which ends with the end wall 6, which completely closes the separation cavity 4 to filter through the fluidized material and the distribution channel 5. In the basic module has two separation cavity 4 adjacent to each other with their longitudinal side walls. Distribution channel 5 is located between the cavities. The separation cavity 4 extends almost the entire length of the base module and the entire length they communicate with the distribution channel 5. By-pass discharge channels 7 are located between the outer walls 2 and the peripheral is floating sludge and collecting chute 15 for collecting the purified water is placed in the upper parts of the separation of the cavities 4 to filter through the layer of fluidized material.The separation cavity 4 to filter through the layer of fluidized material is completely closed on the opposite side of end wall 6, while the distribution channel 5 communicates with a circular discharge channel 7 through the passage 26. The passage 26 has a rectangular shape, with the longer side is vertical (Fig. 3). This implementation of the invention is easy to play and in functional terms, it is quite satisfying, but the passage 26 may also have another shape, for example a shape corresponding to the profile of the distribution channel 5, in order to achieve the minimum hydraulic resistance.Can be picked up also other modules, with only one separation cavity 4. In this case, the bypass pressure channel 7 is created along one long and one shorter sides of the separation cavity 4, while the distribution channel 5 is formed along the other longer side. When the application of two such modules the sides to each other is obtained the above-mentioned basic module 4.Trap 29 (Fig.6 and 7) emerged sludge submerged in water. It has a sloping roof with a head 40 (Fig. 7). The main part of the roof is Gorizia cross-section is thus constantly changing.The head 40 is located at a relatively small angle to the horizontal plane. In the lower part of the trap 29 is connected through inlet 38 to the source of air supply under pressure (not shown), corresponding to the shallow dive. This means that the trap 29 is subjected to aeration. On the opposite the more elevated parts of the trap 29 is an exhaust device for a pop-up of sludge, the main part of which is airlifting pump 39, preferably connected with the same source of air supply under pressure, and inlet 38. Airlifting the pump 39 may also be connected to another independent air supply system (not shown). Terminal airlifting pump 39 is displayed at any place in channels 7 and 9. Remove sludge, i.e. the supply of air under pressure, may be performed continuously or periodically. In some circumstances, the supply of air under pressure, constant or periodic, depends essentially on the rate of flotation. The present invention can also be implemented without traps 29, for example, in the case when the parameter of the flotation separation process is low.Partition 2 in the upper part of the separation poIice partition 2 in the lower part 12 it is desirable to arrange in a straight line and parallel to each other. At the top of each of the separation chamber 4 has a top opening 10, and the lower part 12 - the bottom of the hole 11. Both openings 10 and 11 provide communication between the distribution channel 5 and the separation cavity 4 and they are both located on one side of the separation cavity 4. The upper hole 10 is connected with the expanding part of the separation cavity 4 and provides at the same time the input of the activating mixture in the separating cavity 4.Above the upper hole 10 typically has a lower input cross-section than the bottom hole 11, with the upper hole 10 creates an additional resistance to the passage of the activating mixture from the distribution channel 5 in the separating cavity 4 (Fig. 2 and 3). It is desirable that the upper hole 10 was in the form of a slit extending along the entire length of the separation cavity 4, and in some circumstances recurring cracks or separate evenly spaced slotted holes. It is desirable that the axis of the lower parts 12 of the separation cavity 4 was located vertically, but it can also be inclined so that the lower part 12 of the separation cavity 4 has been pushed from the distribution channel 5. A of part 12 of the separation cavity 4 and the total cross section is larger than the total cross-section of the upper hole 10 until the expansion. The bottom hole 11 is designed primarily for flow activating mixture in the lower part 12 of the separation cavity 4 for the purpose of leveling the mixture in the separating cavity 4 and the cavity activation, as well as for sludge removal at the break.The size of the inlet 14 to the filter of the fluidized material in large municipal plants for treatment of wastewater with a low rate of hydraulic roughness of 1.5 is at least 10% of the separation surface.The issue for thickened activating mixture after separation is connected with at least one collecting device equipped with at least one pumping unit. According to a preferred variant of the invention, the collecting line 13 collecting devices are located near the bottom of the lower parts 12 partitions, and collecting line connected to the receiving tray 35, which is located at least one pump, preferably a centrifugal pump 36, and the pump is also a source of local turbulence. The outlet 27 of the pump 36 is connected to Obvodny n the ptx2">The bump 28 closes the head part of the bypass pressure channel 7 at least partially or completely, which is preferred. It is essential that the outlet 27 with the inlet 22 of the raw sludge was introduced into the circulation loop in the direction of flow after separation of the cavities 4. Thus a supply 22 of raw water can be or plot intake pumping stations, or at the output section of the pump after installation of the baffle 28. Preferably, a supply 22 of raw water was carried out in the receiving tray 35 (Fig. 1 is not shown).Distribution channel 5 reported through the upper hole 10 with a separator cavities 4 and through the bottom hole 11 with collecting highway 13 (Fig. 1 and 8), which includes at least one pump as the pump unit, such as airlifting pump (not shown) or multiple airlifting pumps (not shown), in some circumstances, the above-mentioned centrifugal pump 36 is installed in the receiving tray 35 (Fig. 1, 8, 11), as mentioned above. If the work includes a centrifugal pump 36 mounted in the receiving tray 35, there is no need to use airlifting pump, under certain circumstances, in order to increase the effect of mixing in thickened activating mixture, coming out of the outlet 27 and enters the activating mixture in the tank, in some cases, the receiving tray 35. The outlet 27 airlift-type pump or a centrifugal pump 36, if the system has a collection sump is supplied to the Obvodny pressure channel 7 after the bump stop 28 (Fig. 1). Centrifugal pump 36 may also be replaced by airlifting pump. Pumps both types can be placed in the receiving tray 35, and out of it in all cases, when the pump is part of the discharge from the output tray 35, being so close to the receiving tray 35.Circulation, activating mixture, in which the flow of the activating mixture has a reciprocating motion mode is created on the basis of mutual coupling between circular discharge channel 7, the distribution channel 5, separating the cavities 4 and using collecting highway 13 collecting device and the receiving tray 35 through feedback through the outlet 27 with a circular discharge channel 7. Obvodny pressure channel 7 along its entire length completely separated from the separation cavity 4 by means of a partition 2.Aerating elements 3 are mounted near the bottom in the bypass discharge channel 7 and in the distribution channel 5, Preah parts of the circulation loop. In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention at the site of feeding raw sludge aerating elements 3 are mounted at a greater distance from each other than in the subsequent parts of the circulation loop.Aerating elements 3 can be set at the same distance from each other, but with different intensity at different points in the circulation circuit. Thus the presented device can be adapted to different conditions. You can also use the aerating elements with intensity, time-dependent data.Above the bump 28 is placed in the bypass pressure channel 7 on the side of the end wall 6 of the passage 26 in the distribution channel 5. Provides a supply 22 of raw water to the area after the bump stop 28 with the outlet 27 airlifting pump or airlift-type pumps (not shown), in some circumstances, centrifugal pump 36. The bypass pressure channel 7, located along the separation cavity 4, is shaped in the form of a narrow corridor, and his profile depends on the shape of the separation cavity 4. Typically, the bypass pressure channel 7 primarily extends downward (Fig. 2) and in the lower part of his article is the water discharge channel 7 can be placed at an angle and in parallel, in some circumstances, angle and tilt in different directions.The work of the proposed base module circulation circuit and method of biological treatment of wastewater using dynamic nitrification and denitrification are the following.Activating the mixture circulates in the circulation path when the piston movement mode and it is continuously oxidized by aeration, which at the same time supports the activated sludge in suspension. All individual particles activating mixture moving forward in the circuit with at least one vector component of velocity in the direction of flow of the activating mixture in the circuit as a whole. Thus it is preferable that due to the work of aerating elements 3 separate particles moved in a horizontal plane perpendicular to the direction of motion in the circuit and carried out the so-called helical movement.To achieve a high concentration of activated sludge in the circuit activating the mixture is filtered through a layer of fluidized material during each cycle Zirconia cavities 4 on almost the entire surface of the tank and the surrounding walls 1. The treated water obtained after filtration through a layer of fluidized material is given to the collecting chute 15, and its quantity is always less than the amount of the activating mixture circulating in the circulation circuit in the same period. Preferably, the purified water was removed by filtration through a layer of fluidized material only from activating a portion of the circulating mixture, which can provide a high intensity of circulation, and with such intensity possible high level of denitrifikatsii. This is achieved according to experimental variant implementation of the invention by moving the activating mixture from the distribution channel 5 through the bottom hole 11 on the collecting area of the unit near the bottom of the separation cavity 4.Circulation is carried out by supplying the wastewater by pumping thickened activating a mixture of a filter with the fluidized material back into the circulation loop for the bump 28 and through the release of treated water through the collecting chute 15. So by activating the mixture is introduced into the circulation loop, using a piston flow. Raw wastewater is introduced into the circulation loop predpochtenija sludge and begins the process of denitrification. Then under the influence of the aerating elements 3 activating the mixture is gradually oxidized by aeration with simultaneous dispersion of activated sludge during circulation in the pressure channel 7 until you have achieved the conditions necessary for nitrification, and then activating the mixture is filtered through a layer fluidizing material in the separating cavity 4. Raw wastewater is added to the thickened activating mixture of nitrate, obtained by oxidation of nitrogen pollution, for example, in the receiving tray 35, and through it during one cycle of circulation are all processes on complex wastewater with the removal of organic and nitrogen compounds. Typically, the activating mixture gradually oxidized during aeration until the concentration of oxygen dissolved in the activating mixture reaches or exceeds a level equal to at least 2 mg of oxygen per 1 liter of the activating mixture. In this way is an optimum biological wastewater treatment, as it will be described in more detail below.Through the upper hole 10 activates the mixture enters the separation cavity 4 for the filter h is the hole 14, it is sent from the lower part 12 in the expanding space of the separation cavity 4, where is the filter through the layer of fluidized material. The efficiency of separation by filtering through a layer of fluidized material among other things depends on the size of the inlet 14. The optimum size of the inlet 14 is equal to at least 10% of the separation surface at a large municipal plants with low hydraulic roughness of 1.5. Separation of treated water from the activated sludge is carried out in the filter with the fluid material in the separating cavity 4 by filtering through a layer of fluidized material in which water is released from the suspension of activated sludge, you are collecting chute 15 of the cleaning system. Surfaced Il, caught by the hook 29 is directed into the cavity activation, as a rule, in any point of one of the discharge channels 7 and 9. After filtering the thickened activated sludge is lowered by backflow through the inlet 14 into the lower part 12 to collect highway 13, located near the bottom of the lower part 12. The outlet 27 of the collecting device, and in some circumstances, in the absence of the pump itself and gathering line 13 is connected to the receiving tray 35, where the activating mixture tx2">Local turbulence caused by the centrifugal pump 36, makes necessary the release of gaseous nitrogen bubbles that stick to the particles of activated sludge during denitrification. The flow of the activating mixture into a collection sump occurs by gravity through different levels of the mixture in the tank and in the receiving tray 35. If local conditions require, the collecting device may include a pump, such as airlifting pump.In case of suspension of aeration in the reactor through the bottom hole 11 can be implemented with the flow of activated sludge from the separation cavity 4 in the distribution channel 5, which prevents silting in the lower part 12. The bottom hole 11 also provides a level of equilibrium with separation and activation during the filling of the reactor and during blowing of the sludge and thus protects the internal structure of the reactor from the effects of pressure.Untreated waste water is mixed in the bypass pressure channel 7 circulation circuit with energizing mixture that thickens after filtration through a layer of fluidized material, and the above-mentioned waste water cause a sharp drop in the concentration of dissolved colors dynamic denitrification. However, denitrification processes do not require anoxic conditions in the entire volume of the activating mixture, sufficient is the creation of anoxic conditions on the surface, and in some cases on the surface of particles of activated sludge. The shape of the bypass pressure channel in the form of a narrow corridor maintains the activated sludge in suspension at a sufficiently high flow rate and low aeration. The process of denitrification occurring at low concentrations of oxygen in the activating mixture, not getting worse from this.The implementation of aeration during the reciprocating movement of the flow leads to the biodegradation of pollutants in the activating mixture due to oxidation and the gradual saturation of the activating mixture of oxygen until conditions nitrification of nitrogenous substances, which typically occurs at a concentration of 2 mg O2/HP High content of dissolved oxygen also has a positive effect on the efficiency of the subsequent separation of activated sludge by filtering through a layer of fluidized material, because the higher the oxygen content in activating environment hinders the process of denitrification during the filtration of the release of phosphorus in the treated water.Circulating the mixture activation delivers the nitrates formed in the zone of nitrification with sufficient oxygen content in the zone of circulation circuit with low dissolved oxygen.Then the nitrate is reduced to gaseous nitrogen in the above-mentioned area with low oxygen content and begins denitrification. Bubbles of nitrogen gas, which adhere to the particles of activated sludge during denitrification, are removed in the process of activating circulation of the mixture in the circuit by imparting motion due to high local intensity of turbulence, for example, a centrifugal pump 36. Energy flow can be successfully used to create intense local turbulence required for mixing activating circulating the mixture with purified water drains where the raw water effluent perenesena in circulation activating mixture, causes not only a decrease in dissolved oxygen, but also provides a supply of carbon for the denitrification.The effectiveness of the described dynamic denitrification of wastewater in the cycle of circulation of the activating mixture at chere the public expression
r [%] = 1/(n + 1)100,
r - denitrification efficiency, expressed as a percentage;
n is the ratio of the amount of water passing through a cross section in the circuit per unit time, the amount of raw water supplied for the same unit of time.This proportion represents the intensity of the circulation in the circuit. For example, in order to get 75% efficiency of recovery of nitrate according to the above expression, it is necessary to provide a threefold increase in the intensity of the circulation compared to the amount of purified water. Describes the process of biological wastewater treatment is usually effective when the intensity of the circulation activating mixture within the double - a sixfold increase from the quantity of purified water. The intensity of the circulation can be significantly higher for very concentrated wastewater and therefore the quantity of water passing through the circulating circuit may be many times greater than the number of input raw sewage. Next, you need to ensure that the rate of absorption of the activating mixture through the bottom hole to fuckno the resistance, i.e. the size of the top of the hole 10.The overall intensity of the biological treatment processes depends on the concentration of activated sludge in the purification system, which directly depends on the intensity of separation. Certain circulation activating mixture in the circuit to achieve the desired intensity of denitrification increases the requirements for separation ability.The introduction of a single filtration through a layer of fluidized material in the circuit activating mixture, with full use of all of activating the surface for separation ensures a high concentration of activated sludge, which in turn leads to low loading of sludge required for nitrification as the main purpose for removing nitrogen from wastewater. Important as this process dynamic nitrification and denitrification is also its high efficiency of removal from wastewater phosphorus, and recovery of phosphorus reaches 80%.According to the above method, all the complex processes of biological treatment associated with the removal of organic and nitrogen compounds, as well as high removal efficiency of the Proposed method according to the invention is carried out on a communal installation of wastewater treatment in the centre for recreation and entertainment in the mountains and as long as all documentation on results of applying this method is still being studied. To download the install water purification characteristic that the peak operation occurs in winter and summer. Higher hydraulic load per hour is 200 m3and in the offseason it is equal to 100 m3. For installation are also characterized by a significant deviation of the peak load for containing substances in winter and summer. The average concentration of pollution in the season and in the off-season are presented in table. 1.Example 2. The use of the proposed method for biological cleaning of pig slurry is under study. Swine manure is an example of extremely contaminated wastewater containing concentrations of organic substances, nitrogen and phosphorus, which exceeds the concentration in municipal sewage. Documentation on the results of the application of the method according to the invention is also in order.Input drain wastewater after mechanical separation of coarse components are presented in table. 2.Used adjustable aeration system, namely the intensity of the circulation process was changed gradually depending on time of the controlled aeration process according to the invention.Received vyhodnocovanie on the base module of the circulation loop. Adding to the basic module, the other modules of the circulation loop was achieved by increasing the productivity of the reactor.The number of added modules may be different, which allows us to produce a reactor with a capacity that meets the needs by choosing the modules.In Fig. 9 and 10 is shown (in cross section) is the preferred solution for the manufacture of a multiple installation, collected from several adjacent modules without any partitions between them.In this example, the experimental implementation of the invention, the tank having a rectangular shape, with the surrounding wall 1 is divided by the system plug-in 2 partitions on the functional cavity for the processes of biological activation of wastewater treatment and separation floculant suspension through a filter with the fluidized material in the same way as in the base module of the circulation loop. The difference between the designs is that the separation cavity 4 divide the cavity activation in the distribution channel 5 and there are new inlet outlet ports 9, the distribution channels 5 are the same as in the single base unit, while in a single base module SPM is a new module. Distribution channels 5 inlet and outlet ports 9 are closed at one end by end pieces 6, which completely cover the separation cavity 4 and the distribution channels 5. However, at the end of the inlet pressure channel 9 end part 6 have openings, which form the passages 25 through which the inlet pressure channels 9 are connected with the bypass pressure channel 7 (Fig. 8). The passages 25 have the same shape as that of the passageways of the base module. Pressure channels, such as the bypass pressure channel 7 and the inlet pressure channel 9, in any implementation of the invention are arranged along their longitudinal sides and is separated from adjacent cavities, especially from the separation of the cavities 4.Pressure channels, such as inlet pressure channel 9 and the bypass pressure channel 7, is designed to facilitate a constructive solution, because the bypass channel 7 is located along the surrounding wall 1 of the tank, and activating the mixture comes first in the intake channel 9 and then into the distribution channel 5. But their purpose is to make the pressure is more significant for both channels, since both channels are designed to create a reciprocating motion izmeneniya flow in these channels, connected in a specific order.The separation cavity 4 inlet and outlet ports 9 at the other end is completely closed by end walls 61. In these end walls 61there are also holes in their education are the passages 26 in the same manner as in the above-mentioned base module, in which the distribution channel 5 is communicated through the passages 26 with a circular discharge channel 7. The separation cavity 4 to filter through the layer of fluidized material is connected to a distribution channel 5 in the same way as in the base module. Between adjacent modules circulation circuit no surrounding walls 3, this variant of implementation of the reactor has three modules, so by adding two modules to each of them appears pressure channel 9, as mentioned above.The module is presented on the example of the invention in Fig. 8 - 11 in the perpendicular position to the adjacent modules, modified. Unlike individual base module according to Fig. 1 - 5 this modified base module does not have a passage 26 formed in the end wall 61therefore, the distribution channels 5 are closed on both sides. So u is ω 7 modified base module. In addition, the separation cavity 4 is divided into two parts, and between them is a collection sump 35. For these purposes has two bumpers (Fig. 8).Modified basic module is separated from the adjacent modular system partition-wall 34, which is formed by the passages 41, indicated by arrows (Fig. 8). The passage 41 is always connects the bypass channel 7 of the modified base module with the entrance to the inlet pressure channels 9 of the adjacent modules. The bypass pressure channel 7 adjacent modules are connected through the interconnect 30, for example, by means of pipes to the distribution channels 5 of the modified base module (Fig. 8). Taps 27 collecting line 13 is directed into the receiving tray 35. In the scope of the present invention includes the establishment of other modifications of the connections between adjacent modules and located perpendicular modified base module.The function of the reactor according to Fig. 8 - 11 is essentially identical functions of the base module in the circuit described above. Raw water effluent is delivered to the receiving tray 35, where the water is mixed with thickened activating mixture is directed to the area between the receiving tray 35 and Perigord is. the donkey then it goes on both sides of the by-pass pressure channel 7 to the partition-wall 34 and through the passages 41 in the above-mentioned partition-wall in the inlet pressure channels 9 of the adjacent modules (Fig. 8), where it enters the bypass pressure channel 7 (Fig. 8, top). Activating the mixture then flows through a bypass discharge channels 7 on both sides of the tank. It moves further pressure on Obvodny channel 7 along the modified base module and enters the distribution channels 5 adjacent modules through the passages 26 and also in the distribution channel 5 base module via the interconnect 30 is provided, for example, pipes. From the distribution channels 5 activating the mixture enters the separation cavity 4, as mentioned above. Thickened activating the mixture from the separation of the cavities 4 is given to a collecting device, primarily collecting highway 13, and through the outlets 27 in the receiving tray 35.Another alternative device according to the invention (not shown) is a round tank, in which the discharge channels 9 and 7, the distribution channels 5 and the separation cavity 4 is placed as shown in the example embodiment of the invention in Fig. 8. The difference suomisaundi an implementation option is particularly suitable for the reconstruction of the common circular clarifiers, for example, in the already existing and widely used in municipal treatment facilities wastewater traditional type to improve quantitative and qualitative indicators. By reconstructing the round pond in the existing municipal facilities for the treatment of wastewater can save musorosortirovki axle (not shown) and use it to access some areas of the tank of the reactor when the operating control.The function of the reactor at the same time is essentially identical with the function of the preceding reactor, illustrated above, especially with the function of the reactor according to Fig. 8 - 11.Another variant of the device according to the invention is shown in Fig. 12 and 13.In a rectangular tank due to the surrounding walls 1, false walls 2 and end walls 6 and 61created two longitudinal separation of the cavity 4, the protruding upward. It is desirable that the lower part of the walls 2 was connected to the bottom of the tank, and the upper part of the supporting structure (not shown). The separation cavity 4 is formed in the tank between the walls 2 and end walls 6 and 61distribution channel 5, which is part of the oral activation. End wall 6 is like the previous alternative separates the bypass pressure channel 7. The other end wall 61not only closes the separation cavity 4, but also separates the distribution channel 5 from the bypass discharge channel 7. The bypass pressure channel 7 is a cross-cutting discharge channel, it is not reported from any other cavity in addition to the distribution channel 5, which is connected with it.In the opposite end wall 6 has a passage 24 in the distribution channel 5. The separation cavity 4 is connected along its entire length with the distribution channel 5 and because of this also with a cavity activation through only one passage 19, which is located at least one hole of the partition 2 at the bottom of the tank (Fig. 13). The passage 19 can be executed along its entire length or it can be executed as a series of small holes in the partition 2 separating cavity 4.Preferably, partition 2 had cross-sectional arc shape (Fig. 2). At the top of the partitions 2 are moving away from each other upward and thereby form a separation cavity 4 prismatic-type filter of the fluidized material. At the same time at the bottom of the tank walls 2 differ from each other and between them is placed the perforated collecting highway 13, which is polished material. It is desirable that profiling was performed down to the bottom, which leads to the formation of small ribs on the surface of the partition walls 2.On the section of the passage 19 to the partition walls 2 is attached to the at least one bump 20 from the cavity activation, i.e., by distribution channel 5. It is designed to separate the flow of the activating mixture in the distribution channel 5 from the stream in the separating cavity 4. Preferably, the bump 20 has been secured to the wall 2, is oriented in a vertical plane and located along the entire length of the partition 2. On the wall 2 along its length can accommodate a number of rumble strips connected with each other. The bumper 20 is installed in the lower part of the partition 2, and its lower edge is located over the lower edge of the partition 2, but as he reaches the edge of the partition 2. However, the bump 20 can be omitted. In those cases, when the bumper 20 is used, it restricts the transition to turbulence of the cavity activation in the separating cavity. Its efficacy may be higher when using the shaped baffles 2 or even smooth separation walls where the profiling is done only on the part which t tightly to the separation wall on the entire area of the mount. In this way a small part of the activating mixture between the bumper 20 and the partition wall 2 is coming to the section of the passage 19, impeding the transition to turbulence from the distribution channel 5 cavity activation.The pump unit 41 consists of a pump housing, which is fed to the collecting line 13 and which is mounted on the bottom of the tank, and from the impeller, which is connected via a shaft to a submerged electric motor, preferably a reversible type. When mounting the rotating parts of the pump unit 41 takes into account the possibility of their elevation above the level of the reactor during its operation.To the pump unit 41 is fed to the collecting pipe of the other of the separation cavity 4, so that the pump unit 41 is shared. When the length of the separation cavity 4 preferably, the pump unit was located in the middle of the distribution channel 5. In this case, the pump unit summarizes four collecting pipe 13 with the two adjacent separation of the cavities 4, two times, and two on each side. When the length of the reactor can accommodate multiple pump installations each other to reduce the length of the collecting pipe 13 to 12 m, which Avitan the electric motor 42. Not shown on the supporting structure has a lifting mechanism (not shown). Reversible electric motor 42 and the rotating wheel pump unit 41 are a sliding fit on the rails, which are installed perpendicular to the bottom of the tank. Due to the existence of such a lifting mechanism underwater reversible electric motor 42 and the rotating wheel pump unit 41 to the rails (not shown) can be lifted from the tank even without it emptying. The pump unit 41 and the power supply is modified to allow the flow of the activating mixture in the collecting line 13 in the opposite direction.At the beginning of the distribution channel 5 and thus at the beginning of the oral activation there is a mixing device 46 for mixing the activating mixture with raw sewage. The exhaust manifold 43 pump unit 41 is supplied for wall-the wall 28 at the beginning of the bypass channel 7, and is connected to a mixing device 46, which is connected also supply 22 of untreated wastewater.When combined into a single system bypass channel 7, the distribution channel 5, the separation cavity 4, and a collecting system, including the entered data is known, that gathering line 13 could also be used as a recirculation line, because it activates the mixture back into the circulation loop.Bypass channel 7 and the distribution channel 5 is equipped with an aeration system comprising a series of perforated elastic aeration hose 47 is connected to a common distribution system 44 of compressed air. Preferably, holes (not shown) in perforated elastic aeration hoses 47 were small for the formation of smooth bubbles during the aeration. Each aeration hose 47 is equipped with an independent valve 45 or regulator (not shown) for controlling the intensity of aeration. On the intensity of aeration in accordance with the needs of the purification process can be affected by placing different amounts of aeration hoses in different places of the bypass channel 7 and the distribution channel 5. Control over the intensity of aeration in the time dependency can be provided also by installing a blower (not shown) with adjustable rotation speed, or by placing a series of blowers and run them as needed. When the preferred placement of aera the matrix can have several aeration hose 47. These branches are located at mutually opposite sides of the cross-section of the bypass channel 7, usually around the bottom of the tank.In the upper part of the separation cavity 4 is provided by the bypass channel 15 for removal of the purified water after filtration through a layer of fluidized material.The alternative according to Fig. 12 and 13 operates in the same way as previous versions.The subject of the invention is integrated reactor for biological purification of water, in which the separation cavity 4 for the separation of suspensions of activated sludge by filtering through a layer of fluidized material is embedded in the cavity activation.In the process of embedding the separation of the cavities 4 is a system of channels, and the above-mentioned channels are interconnected in the same manner as described above.Untreated waste water are fed through the inlet pipe to the mixing device 46 at the beginning of the bypass channel 7 in the direction of flow over a wall-the wall 28, where the pump unit 41 also carries the recirculating activating the mixture from the separation of the cavities 4. In the mixing device 46 raw hundred the face in the raw wastewater, in activating the mixture causes a temporary reduction of dissolved oxygen, resulting in the beginning of the bypass channel 7 creates an anoxic zone for denitrification.The presence of activated sludge in suspension in this anoxic part of the activation is supported by aeration at a very low intensity which is sufficient to keep the slurry in suspension, but that does not change anoxic conditions for denitrification, as a consequence, the amount of aeration slag 47 in this part of the bypass channel 7 is reduced. For the improvement of working conditions it is possible to equip this part of the bypass channel 7 mechanical source mixing (not shown), which will allow you to completely abandon aeration in this part of the activation.The process of denitrification is controlled by measuring the parameters of the activating mixture with sensors (not shown), which transmit impulses to the power blowers. This is carried out by changing their speed and the amount of air. By reducing aeration zone denitrification in the Obvodny channel 7 extends, in result increases the intensity deerease mixture through the bypass channel 7 amount of dissolved oxygen is gradually increased, this process is a consequence of the increased intensity of aeration and reduce biodestruction substances. In this way creates an oxidizing environment for aerobic processes activation of biodegradation of organic matter and nitrification of ammonium and organic nitrogen. If aeration hoses 47 are located in two branches located at opposite sides of the cross-section of the bypass channel 7, you can alternate the flow of air in these branches through valve 45 or controllers (not shown), to supply the air alternately first in one branch, and then in another. For example, during the air flow in the left branch begins circulating movement of the activating mixture in the transverse direction. At the termination of the air flow in the left branch and the beginning of the air flow in the right branch starts the movement of the air flow and activates the environment in the opposite direction. Activating the mixture into force of inertia continues still with a circular motion in the transverse direction up to a point, until its progress is stopped by the air flow. After a stop it starts to move in the opposite direction.In the distribution channel 5 before entering the separation cavity 4, the intensity of aeration can be adjusted so that the amount of dissolved oxygen, suitable for a fluidized layer of filter material in the separating cavity 4, provides fully oxidizing conditions throughout the separation process.Short stay activating mixture in the separating cavity during filtration through a layer of fluidized material, which is a consequence of the small volume in which there is separation, also helps to create optimal oxidation conditions during separation by filtering through a layer of fluidized material. This is the result of prismatic shape of the separation cavity 4 and the high speed filtration through a layer of fluidized material.Describes the process of wastewater treatment by biological activated when creating cerebus the active sludge. During the subsequent separation of the activated sludge in the separation cavity strict conditions of the oxidation preventing reverse the release of accumulated phosphorus in the treated water. This way could be obtained with a high efficiency of the biological treatment process, even where the question relates to the removal of phosphorus from wastewater. After filtration through a layer of fluidized material clean water is displayed in the channels 15.As described, the separation cavity 4 is connected with the distribution channel 5 only through one passage 19, which is mounted one or more baffles 20 thread. Such a simple solution inlet activating mixture in the separating cavity 4 is made possible thanks to intensive recycling activating mixture in the circuit with its removal near the bottom of the separation chamber 4 through the collecting line 13. The intensity of the activating circulation of the mixture in the circuit is affected at the same time on the efficiency of denitrification processes according to the formula referred to when considering the first alternative.Activated sludge separated in the separating cavity 4 during the filtration process through yuusha mixture is removed from the distribution channel 5 activation i.e. the activation process. Flow in the lower part of the separation cavity 4 by activating recirculation of the mixture prevents the transmission of disturbances from the distribution channel 5, is subjected to aeration in the separating cavity 4. It provides stability by filtration through a layer of fluidized material in the separating cavity 4 and high separation efficiency. There is only one passage 19 between the cavity activation and separation cavity, located at the bottom of the tank, greatly simplifies the construction of the separation cavity 4. This allows the use of a self-supporting shell structure for the construction of the separation cavity 4, which consists only of two elements, namely the two dividing walls 3. These walls are attached directly to the bottom of the tank, and up - to supporting structure (not shown).System connecting multiple gathering pipes 13 to one pump unit 41, the use in some cases, multiple pumping systems also allow to maintain the optimum length of the collecting pipe 13 for large capacity installations for wastewater treatment, the length of separation cavities which Moreta washing collecting pipe reverse flow of water.The method and the device according to the invention is suitable both for construction of new facilities for wastewater treatment, and for renovation of existing up to the present time the traditional water treatment plants with separate tanks for activation and deposition, especially for large structures with large power.Therefore the present invention can be used for relatively simple reconstruction of the above-mentioned existing installations for wastewater treatment in order to enhance their intensification, namely to increase their capacity and effectiveness of the cleanup, including the removal of phosphorus and nitrogen. 1. The method of wastewater treatment by biological activation, in which the wastewater is biologically in the process of aktivacii, during which nitrification and denitrification, characterized in that the activating mixture is introduced into the circulation of the circulation circuit, and at least part of the circulation circuit, designed for denitrification and nitrification, has a reciprocating motion and is provided with alternately srabatyvanie longitudinal discharge channels in the conditions of aeration using aerating ELEH what exploits filtration through a layer of fluidized material and silt separated by filtering through a layer of fluidized material and mixed with the activating mixture in the form of a concentrated activating mixture, is sent by means of forced movement in the beginning of the first discharge channel at the same place in the beginning of the first discharge channel, which summarizes the raw wastewater.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that for the same period of time, the amount of purified water, withdrawn from circulation circuit by filtering through a layer of fluidized material, less the amount of activating mixture circulating in the circulation circuit.3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the activating mixture, mixed with raw sewage, gradually oxidized by aeration while maintaining the activated sludge in dispergirovannom state until the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the activating mixture is maintained at a level at least 2 mg of oxygen per 1 liter of the activating mixture.4. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the aeration is carried out by aeration under pressure with changing intensity as a function of time and/or place in the circuit.6. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the activated mixture is introduced into the circulation path through the flow of untreated wastewater drainage purified water and forced through the filing of an activating mixture thickened as a result of separation, in the circulation path after the completion of the separation process.7. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the treated water is diverted during each cycle of circulation by filtering through a layer of fluidized material from activating a portion of the circulating mixture.8. Device for biological wastewater treatment, which has a single tank cavity activation and longitudinal separation cavity extending up from which selection is made of purified water, and each of the separation cavity is limited by walls and end parts, and each cavity communicates with the cavity activation at one longitudinal side, around which are formed separate longitudinal channels between the partitions and separating the cavities and between the partitions and the walls of the tank, where the aerating elements, characterized in that there are always two separate the Yu activation and longitudinal distribution channel formed between the said longitudinal walls, fully enclosed end wall with one hand, while on the other side there is a channel through which he connects to the system pressure channels with the channels diverge from the separation cavity to the side; the system pressure channels and at least one distribution channel are part of the circulation loop, while another part of the circulation loop is collecting device connected to the release of the activating mixture from the separation cavity, and the said device is connected to at least one pump unit, outlet which is the beginning of the circulation loop, while the supply of raw water is made or at the receiving site the pump, or exhaust area and the circulation circuit is equipped with at least one bump.9. The device under item 8, characterized in that the collecting device is located near a bottom of the separation cavity to filter through the layer of fluidized material, and reporting communication with the cavity activation are provided top and the hole is connected to the extension part of the separation cavity and the bottom hole is near the bottom, the upper hole is less than the lower holes, which dramatically reduces the resistance in the flow of the activating mixture.10. The device under item 8, characterized in that the separation cavity is connected with the cavity activation through the channel formed by the slit in the septum separating the cavity near the bottom of the tank, while collecting line to the inlet side for thickened activating mixture is located in the separating cavity near the bottom of the tank, while collecting line is connected to the pump, the outlet of which is fed into the cavity activation.11. The device under item 8, wherein the circulation path is created at least one basic module, in which the distribution channel is created two internal partitions and external walls are always formed together with the inner walls of the separation cavity and together with the enclosing wall of the tank or with the outer wall of the next module bypass pressure channel, while the bypass pressure channel is connected to the front part of the distribution channel, and the separation cavity is connected to its side.12. The device according to p. 11, characterized in that the receiving ponessa activating mixture, supplied to said pallet, and the outlet from the pump is connected with the bump at the beginning of the discharge channel.13. The device according to p. 12, characterized in that the supply of raw water is connected to the receiving tray.14. The device according to p. 11, characterized in that the additional modules is identical to the embodiment of the invention attached to the basic module in the perpendicular direction.15. The device according to p. 11, wherein the main module is mounted so that its axis passes through the center of the tank and additional modules were located symmetrically and perpendicularly to the main module.16. The device according to p. 15, characterized in that at least one additional module is installed in parallel with the main module, the system of parallel modules, arranged symmetric about an axis passing through the center of the tank.17. The device under item 8, characterized in that the placement of the aerating elements on the plot receiving untreated wastewater is produced at a greater distance from each other than in the subsequent parts of the circulation loop.18. Device according to any one of paragraphs. 8 to 17, characterized in that h is a more than 10% of the surface area in the separating cavity.19. The device under item 8, characterized in that the collecting device is provided with at least one pump, preferably a centrifugal pump, which is installed in the receiving tray.20. Device according to any one of paragraphs.8 to 19, characterized in that the separation cavity to filter through the layer of fluidized material is placed along the length of the channels of the circulation loop, while along its entire length installed the intake device for the intake activating mixture in the separating cavity to filter through the layer of fluidized material, and a collecting device for removal of thickened mixture in the separation cavity.21. The device under item 8, characterized in that the upper part of the separation cavity posted by trap surfaced sludge, and said hook is formed from a sloping roof to the underside of which is attached a supply of air under pressure, while the upper part is fitted with a venting device for a pop-up sludge in the form of airlift-type pump, and a discharge sludge into the cavity activation, while the entire roof is below the surface of the tank.22. The device according to p. 10, characterized in that at the area of the passage to the wall by aldeasa fact, at the beginning of the oral activation posted by agitating device and the inlet of the pump is connected to a mixing device, which is supplied with raw water, and the outlet stream from the mixing device goes into the next part of the oral activation.24. The device according to p. 10, characterized in that the pump unit consists of a pump, equipped with underwater reversible electric motor.25. The device according to p. 24, characterized in that the reversible electric motor and the impeller of the pump are a sliding fit on the rails, are arranged vertically relative to the bottom of the tank.26. The device according to p. 24, characterized in that the pump is connected to at least two outlets of the collecting line.27. The device according to p. 10, wherein the aerating the hoses are placed in the cavity aeration and connected to supply air under pressure through the valve or by the regulator.28. The device according to p. 27, wherein the aerating the hoses are placed in two branches, which are located on mutually opposite sides of the transverse profile of the Obvodny canal.Priority points:
FIELD: aeration systems in sewage purification; technologies of sewage purification.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to technologies of sewage purification and may be used for biological purification of sewage at sewage treatment plants of municipal economy. The aeration system in the aerotank includes at least two zones located over the corresponding sections of the aerotank bottom, one of the zones is a zone of nitrification, and the other is a zone of denitrification. In the zone of nitrification are located pneumatic aerators gathered in the corresponding modules and placed in a benthic part of the corresponding section of the bottom of the aeration tank. At least in each zone there is a group of aerators formed from the pneumatic aerators. The group of aerators located in the zone of nitrification is formed from the porous tubular aerators, and the group of aerators located in the zone of denitrification is formed from the perforated tubular aerators. At that within the limits of each of the mentioned groups the aerators gathered in the aerating modules and are located in the corresponding benthic parts of the aeration tank with a capability of formation in it of a broad strip of aeration. The technical result is an increase of intensity of the sewage purification with an increase of the speed of the biological purification process.
EFFECT: the invention ensures an increased intensity of the sewage purification and increased speed of the biological purification process.
3 tbl, 5 dwg
FIELD: treatment of sewage; biological cleaning of waste water in purification works.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes forming of at least two zones above respective sections of aerotank bottom: one zone is used for nitrification and other zone is used for de-nitrification. Aerobic conditions are created in nitrification zone and anoxide conditions are created in de-nitrification zone. Fine-bubble aeration is performed in nitrification zone with the aid of pneumatic aerators which are preliminarily located in near-bottom part of respective section of aerotank bottom. Wide band of aeration is formed in two zones of aerotank. Medium-bubble and/or coarse-bubble aeration is performed in de-nitrification zone by means of other pneumatic aerators which are preliminarily located in near-bottom part of respective section of aerotank.
EFFECT: enhanced intensity of cleaning sewage due to increased rate of biological purification.
14 cl, 5 dwg, 3 tbl
FIELD: preservation of the environment; methods of biological purification of waste waters.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of environmental control and may be used in a municipal services and different branches of industry at construction of new and renovation of the existing Waste waters disposal plants. Waste waters together with a mixture of the suspended active sludge and free-floating nozzles are fed into a bioreactor containing an anaerobic area and an aerobic area. In an aerobic area the mixture is divided into two streams. One stream is returned for mixing with the initial waste waters, and the other stream is guided into a desilter for a preclarification with production of the dense active sludge being returned in the aerobic area, and a mixture of excessive sludge and the biologically purified waste waters. Conduct a controlled feeding of the air into the bioreactor. In the anaerobic area the waste waters are forced in a circulating motion in the closed channel formed at least by one septum by mechanical or pneumatic action. The reservoir of the device is supplied with the water-feeding and water-withdrawing chutes. The desilter is supplied with a septum not reaching to the bottom the reservoir with opening and stream-guiding deflectors. The technical result of the invention is an increased degree of the waste waters purification from suspended substances, and also from organic compounds, ammonium compounds and phosphor; exclusion of conditions for increasing concentration of metabolism products.
EFFECT: the invention ensures an increased degree of the waste waters purification from suspended substances, organic compounds, ammonium compounds and phosphor, exclusion of conditions for increasing concentration of metabolism products.
13 cl, 1 tbl, 4 dwg
FIELD: purification of the urban sewage and industrial waste waters.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of purification of the urban sewage and also the waste waters of the food-processing industry and cattle-breeding complexes and is intended for removal from the urban sewage liquor and the industrial waste waters of phosphor in the form of ions PO4 3-. The method of removal of phosphor from the sewage liquor includes the mechanical, biological, physicochemical purification with return of the phosphor depleted compacted active sludge from the sludge concentration tank into the aerotank, with feeding into the sludge concentration tank of the sludge water enriched with the volatile fatty acids produced in the acidoficator working with the crude sediment from the primary settlers in the mode of the first stage of the anaerobic fermentation. At that the redundant active sludge released from the ions PO4 3- in the sludge concentration tank is added into the acidoficator. Due to injection into the acidoficator of the redundant active sludge the shortage of the organic substances is compensated at the low values of the biochemical oxygen demand of the initial sewage liquor and it ensures the necessary amount of the volatile fatty acids fed into the sludge concentration tank for realization of the dephosphatization process. The method is characterized by reduction of the operational costs of purification of the sewage and industrial waste waters from phosphor.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the necessary amount of the volatile fatty acids fed into the sludge concentration tank for realization of the dephosphatization process.
FIELD: biological purification of waste water.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes mechanical purification of waste water in first settler followed by delivery of waste water to bioactivator containing micro-flora where zones at heterogeneous content of oxygen in medium are maintained by controllable introduction of oxygen; then mixture of waste water with activated sludge is directed to secondary settler for separating the mixture into purified waste water and activated sludge which is continuously returned to the beginning of bioactivator. Sediment after first settler is recirculated to primary settler inlet for creating the hydrolysis process and heteroacetogenic process directly in primary settler. Zones of medium at heterogeneous content of oxygen are formed in secondary settler by regulating the rate of recirculation of activated sludge from secondary settler to bioactivator inlet. Zones of medium at heterogeneous content of oxygen in bioactivator are distributed horizontally.
EFFECT: reduction of volume of sediment and excessive activated sludge; low cost of maintenance of purification works; enhanced operational efficiency of purification works.
17 cl, 6 dwg, 3 tbl
FIELD: food processing industry; microbiological industry; methods of production of the biogas during fermentation of the organic substances.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method to increase output of the biogas during fermentation of the organic substances due to initiating participation of the micro-organisms may be used in the microbiological industry and the food-processing industry. The method is realized in the methane-tank (2) with the system of the electrodes (1), the stirrer (3) and its lower part made in the form of the parabola (4). The system of the electrodes (1) has the different in height inter-electrode spacing intervals, that allows to realize the discharges in the form of the traveling wave due to the fact that at first one pair of the electrodes with the smaller spacing interval is actuated and then the other pair of the electrodes with the greater spacing interval is actuated. The water solution of the organic substrate is subjected to the action of the high-voltage discharge pulses by the system of the electrodes (1) ensuring the periodical step-by-step electrohydraulic treatment in the process of preparation for the anaerobic thermophilic or mesophilic fermentation. The lower part of the methane-tank made in the form of the parabola (4) ensures the directed formation of the impulse energy. The technical result of the invention is acceleration of the anaerobic process of the fermentation of the organic substances, the increased quantity of the methanogennic bacteria, the more complete splitting of the organics and the increased output of the biogas.
EFFECT: the invention ensures acceleration of the anaerobic process of the fermentation of the organic substances, the increased quantity of the methanogennic bacteria, the more complete splitting of the organics and the increased output of the biogas.
2 cl, 2 ex, 1 dwg
FIELD: treatment of domestic and industrial sewage water for aerobic biological purification process for removal of organic and mineral contaminants, may be utilized in large-scale and average-scale purification stations.
SUBSTANCE: method involves providing processes of sieving, flotation, averaging consumption and contaminant concentration before feeding of sewage water for aerobic biological purification process, with basic sewage water being preliminarily subjected to flotation separation process; directing clarified sewage water into consumption and contaminant concentration averaging device; directing flotation concentrate into anaerobic reactor for fermentation at acid fermentation stage; separating fermented flotation concentrate into liquid and solid phases using screw-type thickeners and strainers; accumulating liquid phase in specialized accumulators for mixing with sewage water fed from consumption and contamination concentration averaging device for aerobic biological purification process; discharging solid phase in container for further disposal onto landfill for solid domestic wastes.
EFFECT: simplified sewage water purification process, reduced capital and operating expenses, and decreased consumption of power.
4 cl, 1 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: waste water treatment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to processes of biologically treating domestic and compositionally equivalent industrial waste waters. Process comprises consecutive holding of a consortium of microorganisms removing organic and mineral impurities from waste waters under anaerobic, anoxide, and aerobic conditions in container constructions with intensive mass exchange provided by stirrers, pumps, and air bubbling. Recycled active sludge from secondary settlers is mixed with fresh waste water stream having passed grates and sand-catchers. Resulting mixture is subjected to flotation treatment, after which flotation concentrate is held for at least half-hour in anaerobic bioreactors at continuous stirring and clarified fluid with sludge water is loaded to denitrificator along with circulating stream of sludge mix from denitrificator outlet and anaerobically treated flotation concentrate. Further, sludge mix from denitrificator is routed to nitrificator, wherein it is subjected to air bubbling. Biomass of excess active sludge augmented under aerobic conditions of nitrificator is dewatered to cake state and subjected to biocomposting under aerobic conditions in mixture with sawdust without loss of phosphorus so that phosphorus-rich biohumus is obtained.
EFFECT: reduced volume of container constructions and power consumption on removal of phosphorus from waste water and increase of phosphorus in biohumus obtained from active sludge grown on treatment plant.
FIELD: mechanics; chemistry.
SUBSTANCE: completely-block modular clearing station includes tanks of multistage biological sewage treatment by communities attached on a filamentary brush mounting attachment and free-floating microorganisms of active silt, desilting devices and sludge thickeners, the devices dehydrating deposits of sewage and communications for a supply and a tap of sewage, feedings of air, a tap of collecting deposits. The clearing station is executed in the form of, at least, four-storeyed building of tower type with the isolated arrangement of bioreactors. The station is supplied with air ejectors, placed on a ground floor and communicated through air intake channels with the ventilating chamber passing from top to bottom through all floors of clearing station and arranged floor-by-floor with ventilation ducts. The station also is arranged by the ventilators assigning damp air, completed in bioreactors for limits of a building of clearing station through clearing and disinfecting devices, supplied by biopunchers for processing of the dehydrated deposits of sewage, ripening and drying at the expense of warm air heated in the air ejectors.
EFFECT: lowering of specific expenditures of the electric power on unit of cleared sewage, improvement of hygienic working conditions of serving staff and abbreviation of the area of the earth assigned under clearing station.
FIELD: sewage treatment facilities.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of biological purification of sewage from organic compounds, nitrogen and phosphorus. To realise the method, the following hydraulically communicated stages - anaerobic, anoxic, aerobic - are performed for treatment with activated sludge with membrane separation, stage of deaeration that precedes stage of anaerobic treatment, stage of powdered activated carbon (PAC) treatment with membrane separation. Method also includes recirculation of sludge mixture from the aerobic treatment stage to stage of deaeration and recirculation of sludge mixture from anoxic stage to anaerobic stage. Purified water after serial anaerobic stage at load on activated sludge by "БПК" of 2.0-4.0 mg/g·hr and anoxic stage at load on activated sludge by nitrogen of 3.5-4.5 mg/g·hr, "БПК" of 8-13 mg/g·hr is supplied directly to the stage of aerobic treatment with membrane separation. At that load on activated sludge by nitrogen makes 0.8-1.2 mg/g-hr, by oil products - 0.5-0.7 mg/g·hr, according to synthetic surfactants - 0.16-0.22 mg/g·hr and by phenols - 0.18-0.25 mg/g·hr. At the stage of anoxic treatment 80-90% of recirculated sludge mixture is supplied from deaeration stage. Water purification with PAC is carried out at concentration of dissolved oxygen to 4.0 mg/l due to supply of compressed air and PAC concentration of 20-30 g/l at its single charging. At that load on PAC by oil products makes 0.35-0.45 mg/g·hr, by synthetic surfactants - 0.06-0.07 mg/g·hr and by phenols - 0.02-0.024 mg/g·hr.
EFFECT: method provides for increased degree of purification from nitrogen and phosphorus, wider range of removed organic compounds, process simplification and reduction of its duration.
2 tbl, 3 ex