A method of manufacturing friction products with lining made of metal copper-based
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the field of engineering and applies friction products used as brake and gear components for powertrain vehicles, other machinery and mechanisms. When implementing the method is carried out cold pressing a powder mixture of the mixed components of the cermet in the matrix of the given shape of the pads with the simultaneous formation of the relief grooves by use of a punch with the contact surface, made according to form of relief. The resulting billet pads are placed on at least one side covered with a copper-containing material steel base with formation of the workpiece friction products and is carried out in a reducing atmosphere sintering at a given pace - the temperature below the melting point of the main component of the cermet for carrying out the process of diffusion connection pads to the substrate. During sintering under pressure to condense the material of the ridges separating the grooves. Simplifies the process of manufacturing products, reduced labor intensity of production. Get products with high reliability by maintaining frictional qualities, oviets method of manufacturing friction products drive type, rings, sectors, blocks, etc. that is used as a friction gear or brake elements in the power node transmissions of vehicles, machinery and working in conditions of dry friction or friction with lubrication.A known method of manufacturing friction products with lining made of metal copper based, namely, that carry cold pressing a powder mixture of the mixed components of the cermet in the matrix-shaped pads, the resulting billet pads are placed on at least one side covered with a copper-containing material steel base with formation of the workpiece friction products, is carried out in a non-oxidizing atmosphere sintering at a predetermined temperature below the melting point of the main component of the cermet for carrying out the process of diffusion connection pads with a basis of simultaneous extrusion grooves on the surface of the lining.However, this process of forming the grooves during sintering has significant drawbacks. During sintering dissolved links (bridges), formed due to plastic deformation during compaction. The formation of the ridge (ridge) promi disk in the area of the depressions of the disc bulges friction lining, who will continue to be a working surface friction. Part of the area of friction products under the tabs on the disk under pressure and highly compacted, decreasing in size, and another part of the surface, which in the future will become the ridges, on the contrary, does not feel pressure increases with decreasing density and growth will end when filled volume of the depressions of the sealing disk. In further shrinkage is up until the combs will not rest against the steel framework and the shrinkage stops.In any case, the density of the friction layer is inhomogeneous: the crests it decreases from the surface of the steel base to the friction surface, and in the hollows density surpasses the density of the ridges (projections).The destruction of connections required for erection, which significantly increases the duration of the sintering process. Porosity formed in the pressing process in the initial stage of sintering is filled with lead, and during extrusion grooves is undergoing great changes, and the lead is pushed to the periphery (inner or outer diameter of the product), which leads to a reduction in its percentage with respect to a given chemical composition. As snogo products.In places overstocking occurs more intensively diffusion process primechanie friction layer to the steel substrate, as is provided by the greatest pressure contact, and under ridges (projections) formed of the product there is no pressure to complete filling of cavities sealing disc friction material, and only at the stage of compulsory shrinkage on the tabs travels pressure. Therefore, primequest friction layer under the crests worse than under the troughs.A known method of manufacturing friction products with lining made of metal copper based, namely, that carry cold pressing a powder mixture of the mixed components of the cermet in the matrix of the given shape of the pads, the resulting billet pads are placed on at least one side covered with a copper-containing material steel base with formation of the workpiece friction products, is carried out in a non-oxidizing atmosphere sintering at a predetermined temperature below the melting point of the main component of the cermet for the implementation of the diffusion process connection (primechanie) pads with a basis, and also perform the grooves on powerantenna troops, M 1963, c. 147, 148).A feature of this method of manufacturing friction products with lining made of metal-based copper is the fulfillment of the workpiece friction linings in the form of an annular parts with flat surfaces, on which, after the process of attaching them to the base mechanically by cutting perform grooves predetermined shape, followed by sanding the working surface of the pad to a specified size and thickness of the product as a whole.This method is adopted as a prototype.The disadvantage of this method of manufacturing friction products with lining made of metal copper-based is that the resulting friction product has high operational reliability and durability due to the following circumstances. During cold pressing well mixed powder charge in the matrix is the process of seal and ordering patterns of the pads, the composition of which has, for example, the following chemical composition, wt. % (MK-5):
Tin - 9-11
Lead - 6-10
Graphite - 6-8
Iron - 3-5
Copper - Base
By a known method in the cold pressing get the eyes, and another will be made diffusive contact with a steel base. After receiving friction products performed by mechanical cutting of grooves in the working surface of the lining, resulting in the cut with a rupture of the structural relations in the previous heat treatment of the composition. Violation structural relations leads to a weakening of the surface layer of the working surface, chipping of the material particles at the work of friction products and weakening friction properties due to the reduced contact area. When cutting grooves often happens chipped extreme turns. In this regard, the operation of cutting grooves is time consuming and requires constant monitoring.In addition, when mechanical cutting grooves in the material formed microcracks, aggravating the chipping particles pads due to the fact that when the friction in the dry state and in an oil bath, is the development of microcracks due to the fact that during the slipping of the friction discs is heating and the heating of the environment. In this regard, in the microcracks particles into the environment during its expansion begin to exert pressure on the walls migratr is 2">One of the disadvantages of this method is its large consumption, due to the fact that pre-made billet pads with dimensions larger than the specified, in order to ensure the machining of workpieces pads (adjustment of the thickness of the pads and run it by cutting grooves). With this method of manufacturing the coefficient of discharge of the material is approximately equal to 1.8-2.In accordance with the above we can formulate the following areas, which are basic in the manufacture of friction products. These include the following: to avoid violation of the structure of the material should be excluded machined billet pads after forming by cold pressing, the need for grooves until the heat diffusion process, the need to streamline material density and distribution of the ingredients of the material.The present invention is directed to solving the following technical tasks: execution of the grooves during cold pressing the pads and during sintering to provide the highest density of protrusions, as their surfaces are working friction surfaces and not allow the spent products with lining made of metal copper-based, namely, that carry cold pressing a powder mixture of the mixed components of the cermet in the matrix of the given shape of the pads, the resulting billet pads are placed on at least one side covered with a copper-containing material steel base with formation of the workpiece friction products, is carried out in a reducing atmosphere sintering at a predetermined temperature below the melting point of the main component of the cermet for carrying out the process of diffusion connection pads with a basis (primechanie), and also perform the grooves on the surface of the plates and adjust the thickness of the plates, while the grooves perform during cold pressing a powder mixture by use of a punch with the contact surface, made in the shape of the grooves of the plates, and adjusting the thickness of the pads is performed by pressing by reducing the height of the projections and the sealing material ridges separating the grooves during sintering in the implementation process of diffusion connection, which is held at a temperature of 735-750oC.These characteristics are essential and interrelated with the formation of stable formation of grooves in the working surface of the workpiece friction lining during the cold pressing of the latter in the matrix allows on the one hand, to get the finished shape of the workpiece, and, on the other hand, in the workpiece in the region of the grooves and protrusions preserved the structural integrity of the material, eliminating the appearance of microcracks. And during sintering under pressure of the workpiece friction products with heating to ensure the diffusion of the compounds (primechanie) basis with an overlay occurs seal material protrusions with a simultaneous decrease in their height to the specified size. These new operations allow you to completely eliminate machining. This created the conditions under which the seal material can be produced at low temperatures (735-750oC) excluding the extrusion of the fusible ingredients and their leakage to the surface. When the seal is in the set temperature mode is forced shrinkage only projections (ridges), redistribution of lead in volume is due to the filling of the pores. Transmitted through the protrusions pressure contributes the most to the close contact of the pads with a basis that provides the best primechanie under projections (ridges).This method allows the manufacture of friction products large size in comparison with the known sposobnost to remove it from the mold, not destroying.The advantage of the new method are:
the uniformity of the friction layer by chemical composition;
uniform distribution of lead in the whole volume, no extrusion of lead;
the density of the projections is higher than the density of the friction layer in the grooves;
primequest friction layer under the ridge (ridge) better than in the cavity, which ensures a reliable connection of the friction pad with a steel base and prevents peeling it from the foundations;
friction product has no cracks and microcracks;
the method allows the manufacture of friction products completely without any machining after sintering (or in some cases, quenching and tempering);
mode sintering in this way short-term and, therefore, consumes less power;
offers a high performance.The present invention is illustrated by a specific example, which, however, is not only possible, but clearly demonstrates the possibility of achieving the desired result.In Fig. 1 shows the filling of the matrix powder mixture; Fig. 2 - cold pressing the mixture of Fig. 3 - stormwarning pads with steel base; in Fig. 6 is a cross-section of the protrusion after compaction and diffusion sintering process.According to the present invention a method of manufacturing friction products with lining made of metal copper-based is based on the following operations. This method is implemented for use porcelain fused to metal MK-5 with the following chemical composition, wt.%:
Tin - 9-11
Lead - 6-10
Graphite - 6-8
Iron - 3-5
Copper - Base
However, it can be used cermet copper-based the following chemical composition, wt.%: Cu 68-73; Pb13-15; Sn 6-8;Ccount8-10 or 68 Cu; Sn 8; Pb 7; SiO24; Fe 6; Ccount6. (S. Borisov, and other clutch tractors, M: . Engineering, 1972, S. 138, 140) or Cu 60-70, Fe 5-10, Zn 5-10, Pb 5-15, Sn 5-7, Si - 2 and Ccount5-8 ('tal K. A. Design and calculation of tanks, S. 147).1. Prepared and well mixed until a homogeneous composition powder charge 2 pour out in a special device (a gate) through which the fill matrix 2 of the mold (Fig. 1), where it is spread by the same gate on the surface of the matrix, the form of which corresponds to the shape of the future friction billet (ring, sector, block, disc). The contact surface of the p the e saying, the punch is executed with grooves and separating their projections in the form in which figure you want to get in the finished product. Grooves can be made spiral, radial direction, combined, net (see p. P. Gorbunov and other hydro-mechanical transmission tractors, M.: engineering, 1966, S. 394, 395) or in the form of concentric rings.2. After filling in the matrix of the charge producing cold pressing (Fig. 2) under a pressure of 1.5-3 t/cm2. In the cold pressing is giving the powder mixture is shaped blank 4 friction lining with the running simultaneously on one surface of the figure of a certain type in the form of grooves 5 and projections (ridges) 6, the separating grooves.During the cold pressing is the process of sealing material and a uniform density distribution along the height of the overlay.The combination of the process of shaping the friction with the simultaneous execution of grooves on its surface provides a holistic structure, communications which is not broken.After that, the punch 3 is given, and the workpiece 4 friction lining is removed from the matrix 2 molds.3. Ready Frikz the th least one side attached to the friction pad.As the material of the steel base friction products can be applied steel grades S, 65G, 50G. Steel base friction products can be made completely before sintering, i.e., without subsequent mechanical processing in the sintered state (cutting tooth, the groove diameters, etc., or can be made in advance with subsequent machining of sintered condition. Steel base 7 before sintering is subjected to electroplating magnesiu (cyanide) with a layer thickness of 10-20 μm. Just before sintering medlennye steel billet checked for darkening, discoloration, presence of divorces. In case of detection of any of these variations, the blanks are subjected to etching in concentrated hydrochloric acid, rinsed in running hot water and subsequent drying or replacement-diffusion annealing. Color Madmannah steel billets should match the natural color of the metal copper.To effect the connection of the friction of metal plates with a steel base is carried out in a special container 8 (retort) Assembly friction products (Fig. 5). For example, in Fig. 5 shows that p is to see the second workpiece friction lining, in order to get as a result of the friction ring with double-sided placement of the friction lining.On the workpiece friction products placed on push plate 9, through which you will be transferring pressure to the compression. In the subsequent sintering process is carried out in a reducing (non-oxidizing) atmosphere, for example in the environment of hydrogen. As a protective environment can be used in the environment of dissociated ammonia.The process of diffusion of the connection metal pads with steel base (sintering) passes under pressure on a pressure plate, and at a temperature below the melting point of the main component of the cermet. In this case, the temperature is selected from a range 735-750oC necessary for sintering (formation strength properties of the sintered material and the exclusion of the output of the liquid phase of lead on the surface of the lining.During sintering, the pressure transmitted to the pads through the gland plate 9, performs the sealing material protrusion (Fig. 6) with a simultaneous decrease of the height of the protrusion by a specified amount , which is equal to-go plate 9 and is selected from at while adjusting their height allows full preservation of intact structural relations, which make the life of the frictional product and its reliability.Further friction obtained product may be subjected to additional processing on the part of the quenching and the tempering or other process required by the special conditions friction products.The present method of manufacturing a lining made of metal copper-based allows for simplifying the process and reducing the time to obtain a product with high reliability by maintaining frictional qualities and, consequently, long life.This method is industrially applicable, because its implementation does not require special technology and special equipment, except those used today for the manufacture of friction units. A method of manufacturing friction products with lining made of metal copper based, namely, that carry cold pressing a powder mixture of the mixed components of the cermet in the matrix of the given shape of the pads, the resulting billet pads are placed on at least one side covered with a reducing atmosphere under pressure sintering at a predetermined temperature below the melting point of the main component of the cermet for carrying out the process of diffusion connection pads with a basis and also perform the grooves on the surface of the plates and adjust the thickness of the plates, characterized in that the grooves do during cold pressing a powder mixture by use of a punch with the contact surface, is made in the form of grooves lining, and adjusting the thickness of the lining is carried out by reducing the height of the projections and the sealing material ridges separating the grooves during sintering under pressure during the process of diffusion connection, which is made 735 - 750oC.
FIELD: machine engineering, namely manufacture of three-dimensional cermet articles, possibly in stomatology for making dentures.
SUBSTANCE: process comprises steps of applying ceramic mass with thickness more than 50 micrometers onto surface of stainless steel or alloy; performing sintering in air in quasi-homogenous electromagnetic field at presence of electric and magnetic components of SHF electromagnetic irradiation. Frequency range 1 -30 GHz; amplitude of electric field E0 is in range 400 -1600 V/cm. Amplitude of magnetic field H0 is in range 0.8 - 3.5 A/cm. Maximum temperature of sintering is in range 800 - 1100° C.
EFFECT: enhanced adhesion of materials, possibility for joining materials in atmosphere at standard pressure.
5 cl, 2 dwg, 3 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: plastic working of metals, possibly manufacture of laminate articles such as sleeves, namely for fuel elements of nuclear reactors.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of assembling blank of core and blank of envelope; applying lubricant onto surface of built-up blank; sizing built-up blank by deforming its pipe branches at necking walls; beading; welding beaded end of built-up blank and subjecting it to thermal diffusion treatment; after beading drying built-up blank while selecting minimum temperature of drying no less than ignition temperature of the most viscous oil in composition of lubricant used at sizing blank and selecting maximum temperature of drying no more than recrystallization temperature of material of envelope of laminate article.
EFFECT: lowered degree of gas saturation of articles, reduced number of articles rejected by swollen zones due to providing evaporation of lubricant penetrated in built-up blank and separation of gaseous evaporation products to outside.
FIELD: production of anti-friction self-lubricating materials, possibly used in machine engineering, aircraft making, instrument making, chemical and other industry branches for making dry friction assemblies.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of preliminarily bronzing plate of low carbon steel; scorching bronze-brass gauze in sealed container; filing pores of scorched gauze with fluoroplastic composition and sintering it. Bronze powder for bronzing plates are prepared by heating copper and tin mixture under coal charge in sealed container. Low carbon steel plates are preliminarily bronzed due to scorching and fusing prepared bronze powder. Gauze pores are filled (by pressing-in) with powder charge containing fluoroplast-4 and lead. Then plate surface non-protected by means of fluoroplast composition is aluminized due to applying layer of dust aluminum through layer of phosphoric acid. Sintering is performed in air under pressure created due to expansion of fluoroplast-4.
EFFECT: simplified manufacturing process, improved properties of material.